|You always pass failure on the way to success. - Mickey Rooney|
No. 140, 26 July 1993
RUSSIA PRE-1993 BANKNOTES WITHDRAWN. Statements by the government and the Russian Central Bank on 24-July announced that Soviet and Russian banknotes issued between 1961 and 1992 would be taken out of circulation as of midnight on 25 July, Russian and Western media reported. (But The Financial Times of 26 July maintains that the president and the Ministry of Finance were unaware of the move and may seek to reverse it.) Banknotes issued in 1993 and Soviet and Russian coins issued since 1961 will remain in circulation. Russian citizens and people with residence permits will be allowed to exchange up to 35,000 rubles for 1993 banknotes on presentation of their internal passports at a savings bank until 7 August. Amounts in excess of 35,000 rubles must be put into a six-month term deposit. Enterprises, organizations, institutions, and citizens of other states who are temporarily in Russia may exchange up to 15,000 rubles until midnight of 26 July. No prior warning of the move had been given and secrecy appears to have been maintained. Agencies reported widespread confusion, shock, resentment, and manipulation among the Russian population, bank officials, and shopkeepers. -Keith Bush YELTSIN CURTAILS VACATION AFTER COUP WARNING. President Boris Yeltsin broke off his vacation to return to Moscow on 25 July, Russian and Western agencies reported. A statement issued by the Presidential press service on 23 July linked the move with recent decisions by the Russian parliament, which was criticized for attempting to reinstate the former system of government and accused of initiating a takeover. The statement was particularly critical of the parliament's recommendation to sack Interior Minister Viktor Erin and Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov in connection with the violence at the 1 May demonstrations. Yeltsin also acknowledged a warning from the Democratic Russia Movement on 23 July that a "pre-coup situation" had developed in the country. Meanwhile, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov warned deputies at the parliament's closing session that the executive branch was "preparing a coup." -Wendy Slater DEPUTIES ANNOUNCE RELEASE OF THEIR OWN DRAFT CONSTITUTION. On 25 July, hard-line deputy parliamentary speaker Yurii Voronin told a meeting of representatives of republican and regional soviets that the Russian parliament's Constitutional Commission had prepared yet another draft constitution as an alternative to the document released on 12-July by the Constitutional Assembly. Voronin said that the commission's draft would be submitted for review to leaders of Russia's republics and regions on 27 or 28-July. Ostankino TV quoted parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov as telling the same meeting that at its session in November the Congress of People's Deputies would debate the parliamentary commission's draft rather than the one prepared by the Constitutional Assembly. The release of the parliament's draft constitution is the latest in a series of parliamentary actions aggravating the conflict between President Yeltsin and the legislature. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN ISSUES DECREE ON FINISHING WORK ON CONSTITUTION. President Yeltsin issued a decree instructing a specially appointed working group consisting of delegates to the Constitutional Assembly to finalize the text of a Russian draft constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 July. The decree said the group should incorporate suggestions made by the Soviets of Russia's republics and regions as well as by the Russian parliament in Moscow into the text of a draft Constitution released on 12 July by the Constitutional Assembly . The decree said the working group should also give recommendations on procedures for adopting a new constitution. -Vera Tolz PARLIAMENT APPROVES SHUMEIKO PROBE. On 23 July parliament approved a request by Prosecutor General Valentin Stepankov to look into allegations of corruption against one of Yeltsin's closest allies, First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, Western and Russian news agencies reported. Shumeiko is accused of benefiting from a $14.5 million contract to ship children's food to Russia and of illegally transferring Russian government property to a joint venture in Monaco. Shumeiko has denied the charges, telling reporters that the investigation was politically motivated. Shumeiko and another top Yeltsin adviser, Mikhail Poltoranin, have been frequent targets of hard-liners in the Russian Parliament. -Dominic Gualtieri RUTSKOI: NO TERRITORIAL CONCESSIONS. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi told regional leaders in Vladivostok that handing over the Kuril Islands to Japan was out of the question and that "Russia should not give a single millimeter of her land" to anyone, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 and 24 July. Rutskoi suggested that the indecisiveness of the Russian government had prompted a number of countries including China to consider raising territorial claims against Moscow. Once the Russian flag has been raised, the Vice President reportedly emphasized, it cannot be replaced by another. According to ITAR-TASS on 25-July, Rutskoi's trip to the Far East included meetings not only with political leaders, but with military commanders and representatives of defense enterprises as well. On the final day of his visit he participated in ceremony marking Russian Navy Day as the guest of the commander of the Russian Pacific Fleet. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA DEVELOPMENTS IN TAJIKISTAN. Western correspondents in Tajikistan and Afghanistan reported over 24-26 July that the Russian artillery bombardment across the Tajik-Afghan border was continuing. Afghan officials were quoted by a Reuters correspondent in Afghanistan as saying that hundreds of Afghan villagers have been killed or wounded and thousands have fled their homes. A group of villages in Takhar Province, inhabited largely by Afghan Tajiks, is reported to have been the target of heaviest attack, presumably to discourage the inhabitants from supporting the Tajik Islamic opposition. On 24 July General Anatolii Chechurin, commander of the Russian Border Troops in Tajikistan, assured ITAR-TASS that the first stage in the strengthening of the Tajik-Afghan border is almost complete. An attack by the Tajik opposition and their Afghan supporters on Gorno-Badakhshan is reported to be expected in the next few days. -Bess Brown AZERBAIJAN, KARABAKH AGREE ON THREE-DAY CEASEFIRE. Karabakh forces backed by tanks took the strategic town of Agdam on 23 July after street fighting in which up to 500-Azerbaijani soldiers were killed, Western agencies reported. A Karabakh Armenian spokesman told the Los Angeles Times (25 July) that the occupation of Agdam had been imperative as Azerbaijani artillery had used it as a base to shell the Karabakh capital, Stepanakert. Karabakh forces were also reported to have advanced to within one kilometer of Fizuli, which lies south-east of Nagorno-Karabakh, threatening to sever road links between the town and the rest of Azerbaijan. On 25 July Karabakh and Azerbaijani officials announced a three-day ceasefire beginning at midnight on 24 July (local time) during which "top-level negotiations" would be held on a solution to the conflict, Western agencies reported. -Liz Fuller ALIEV APPEALS TO UN; CSCE, US, TURKEY CONDEMN ARMENIAN AGGRESSION. Following the fall of Agdam, on 24 July Azerbaijan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev called on the UN to "restrain" Armenian aggression, arguing that "any references by the Armenian side to the fact that the armed forces fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh are not subordinate to the Republic of Armenia are without foundation", according to ITAR-TASS. The US State Department and the nine members of the CSCE Minsk group currently meeting in Rome to discuss the Karabakh issue both condemned the Agdam offensive. The Turkish Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 23 July accusing the Armenian government of involvement in the current fighting; on 25 July it issued a further announcement that it will bring pressure to bear on the UN and other international bodies to secure a complete withdrawal of Armenian forces from all occupied Azerbaijani territory, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller SHEVARDNADZE TO SIGN CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT. Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze issued a statement on 25 July in which he declared his intent to sign an agreement providing for a ceasefire in Abkhazia based on the draft agreement reached by Shevardnadze and Russian Special Envoy Boris Pastukhov late on 21 July, ITAR-TASS reported. The plan calls for supervision of a ceasefire by Russia, Georgia, and Abkhazia, deployment of peacekeepers and withdrawal of Georgian troops from the conflict zone. In accordance with Abkhaz demands, Abkhaz officials currently headquartered in Gudauta would be allowed to return to Sukhumi. The Georgian parliament debated the issue on 24 July, but left the final decision to Shevardnadze. The agreement will not go into effect until approved by the Abkhaz. -Catherine Dale CIS REACTION IN THE RUBLE ZONE TO RUSSIAN BANKNOTE WITHDRAWAL. Russian and Western agencies reported widely differing reactions in the former Soviet republics, all of whom appeared to have been taken by surprise. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan were generally supportive, declaring that they would remain in the ruble zone but would not phase out old ruble notes as rapidly as Russia. By one account, the Belarussian zaichik lost nearly half of its value against the Russian ruble on 24 July. Armenia strongly criticized the move, reminding Russia that states in the ruble zone had agreed to give six months' advance warning of any national currency change, but did not spell out its future course of action. Azerbaijan planned to replace the old rubles with its new manat, and gave its national bank two days to work out how. Georgia announced that it would accelerate its abandonment of the ruble by giving its citizens one week to exchange them for Georgian coupons. Moldova also planned to speed up the introduction of the leu, withdrawing ruble notes with a value of 200 rubles or over as of 26 July, but retaining lower denomination ruble notes alongside Moldovan coupons. -Keith Bush MOROZOV SUGGESTS TRANSITIONAL NUCLEAR STATUS FOR UKRAINE. Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov suggested on 23 July that Ukraine may try to join the nuclear non-proliferation treaty with the special status of a "transition country" with nuclear weapons, the New York Times reported on 26 July. "We can join the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and support all the provisions, but as a state that has temporary status of a country with nuclear armaments on its territory that are being destroyed," Morozov said on the eve of a 5-day visit to the US. The suggestion appeared to be an attempt to reconcile the stance of hard-liners in the Ukrainian parliament who oppose signing the treaty with that of the international community, which has put pressure on Ukraine to sign. The Ukrainian parliament has the power to accept or reject the treaty. Rejection could increase tension in Ukrainian-Russian relations and could lead to a failure to implement the START treaties. -Susan Stewart CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE HEAVY SHELLING OF SARAJEVO CONTINUES. UN officials are quoted by international media as saying that a cease-fire slated for Sarajevo on 25 July is being ignored by both Serb and Bosnian forces, although the Serbian side is doing most of the shelling. At least two UN military vehicles were destroyed when Serbs shelled a French UN base, but no one was wounded. The peace talks slated for 25 July have been postponed to at least 27 July. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic said that UN actions to establish safe areas for Muslims have been "slow, inconsistent, and indecisive," and that the UNPROFOR is not making use of all the possibilities foreseen in its mandate. Izetbegovic called on the Security Council to consider new and stronger measures. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic said the Serbs will do all they can to ensure that essential food, water, gas, and electricity supplies reach Sarajevo without interruption. Meanwhile, a Serb offensive against Bosnian forces is under way in Brcko, where heavy shelling is reported. Hina adds Bosnian troops are still attacking Bugojno. -Fabian Schmidt SLOVENIA PUZZLES OVER ARMS SHIPMENT. Hungarian Radio reported on 23 July that Slovenian officials have discovered 150 tons of weapons in a warehouse in Maribor. The arms were reported to have been shipped from Budapest last September in Ukrainian airplanes and labeled as humanitarian aid. A Hungarian customs official interviewed said that the two planes originated in the Sudan and were not inspected at the Budapest airport. The weapons were reported to be made in Czechoslovakia and China and the sales were reported to be organized by Austrian and Slovenian businessmen. -Karoly Okolicsanyi DRASKOVIC RETURNS TO BELGRADE. Radio B92 and international media report on 25-July that Serbian opposition leader Vuk Draskovic and his wife have returned to Belgrade after four days of medical treatment at a clinic in Paris. The couple received treatment for injuries received from beatings by Belgrade police following violent antigovernment protests in early June. Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic pardoned the two on 9 July, but Draskovic still faces trial for allegedly beating a policeman. Draskovic told reporters in Belgrade on 25 July that he will continue efforts to unseat Milosevic and promote democracy but will heed the advice of doctors and not engage in political activities for the next few months. A recent poll in the Belgrade weekly NIN shows that Draskovic's confidence rating among voters has doubled to 10% since early June but analysts are skeptical that his rise in popularity will last into the fall. -Milan Andrejevich SIEGE MENTALITY IN CROATIA? OBSERVERS OF THE SITUATION IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE LONG NOTED THAT THE SERBS OFTEN SHOW A "CIRCLE-THE-WAGONS" ATTITUDE TOWARD THE OUTSIDE WORLD, WHILE SLOVENIA AND CROATIA INSTEAD SEEM PREOCCUPIED WITH BECOMING ACCEPTED MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN FAMILY OF NATIONS. At least since 1991, the Croatian ruling party has stressed its common bonds with Germany, Italy, and the Roman Catholic countries of the former Habsburg monarchy. In recent weeks, however, an increasingly shrill tone has been noticeable in the press, directed at the EC in general and Britain and France in particular. The EC has been accused of already imposing "silent sanctions" on Croatia, while Britain is portrayed in almost diabolical terms, as was the case with an article in Slobodna Dalmacija on 18 July. Danas of 16 July, moreover, suggested that the so-called Islamic fundamentalist fighters responsible for the Croat-Muslim clashes in central Bosnia this spring were really British troops and agents seeking to promote London's supposedly sinister aims in the Balkans. Germany, too, has come in for criticism, although that has eased in the face of German support for Croatia in the EC against British and French calls for sanctions. Slobodna Dalmacija on 17 July, however, suggested that Italy is pursuing Machiavellian goals by allegedly encouraging a conflict between Zagreb and Ljubljana, from which Rome would be the main beneficiary. Finally, interviews with top Croatian politicians from the right or center of the ruling party frequently make often oblique references to dark intentions of various powers, all at Croatia's expense. UN Ambassador Mario Nobilo's interview in the 26-July Vecernji list alludes to such aims. -Patrick Moore UKRAINE RECOGNIZES MACEDONIA. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent a letter formally recognizing the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Reuters reported on 24 July. Ukraine intends to establish diplomatic relations with Macedonia, which has not yet received widespread recognition due to Greek objections to the country's name, which Athens claims implies territorial ambitions toward part of Greece. -Susan Stewart POLAND PREDICTS 4% GROWTH IN 1993-.-.-. Rzeczpospolita reported on 23 July that Poland's economy is expected to grow 4% in 1993, twice the rate initially predicted by the government. Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski said this could give Poland the highest growth rate in Europe. Factoring in the semilegal "gray sphere" brings predicted GDP growth for 1993 to a full 5%. Calculations by the state statistical office (GUS) show that GDP for the first half of 1993 was already 3.9% higher than in the analogous period last year. Annual inflation should remain below 34%, four percentage points under the anticipated figure. Agricultural output is expected to decline in 1993, however, with animal products down 12% in comparison to 1992. GUS attributed Poland's growing trade deficit to increases in grain and feed imports resulting from last year's drought, along with export barriers erected by the EC. GUS's analysts thus recommended only a modest, "corrective" devaluation of the zloty rather than the more drastic devaluation demanded by exporters. -Louisa Vinton .-.-.-AND GOVERNMENT PLANS 5% GROWTH FOR 1994. Meeting in a special cabinet session on 23 July, the Polish government settled on a 5% growth rate for 1994 as the centerpiece of its official economic program for the coming year. The program provides guidelines for the construction of the annual budget. The 5% figure was a compromise between the "bold" version of 7% growth proposed by the central planning office, which was willing to risk higher inflation, and the "cautious" version of 4% backed by the finance ministry, which wanted to continue to limit inflation and keep interest rates down. Some economists criticized the 7% proposal as unreal and oriented to the ongoing election campaign. But, as Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski told Polish TV, "it is a luxury to be able to worry whether to have 4% growth or 5% or 7%." The government set the inflation target for 1994 at a maximum of 26%. Real wages for public sector workers are to rise by 1.5%. The deficit is to remain below its 5%-of-GDP ceiling. Unemployment is to grow marginally, by about 90,000 people. Osiatynski cautioned that increased export and greater foreign investment are necessary to maintain Poland's current high rate of growth. -Louisa Vinton POLAND, ROMANIA SIGN REPATRIATION AGREEMENT. The internal affairs ministers for Poland and Romania signed an agreement on 24 July in Warsaw to regulate the return to Romania of Romanian citizens entering Poland illegally. The agreement also permits Poland to return to Romania would-be asylum-seekers deported from Germany. Poland already has repatriation agreements with the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, and is preparing to sign similar accords with Bulgaria and Belarus. Unlike Poland's agreement with Germany, the pact with Romania does not set a maximum limit on the number of illegal immigrants to be returned in one year. Polish Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski told Polish TV the agreement is significant because Romanians form by far the largest group attempting to cross into Germany illegally. In 1992 some 30,000 Romanians were caught trying to sneak across the Polish-German border. -Louisa Vinton ROMANIAN FINANCIAL POLICE CHIEF "OFFENDS" ILIESCU. The former chief of the Financial Police is being involuntarily retired from the army for having offended President Ion Iliescu, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. Defense Minister Nicolae Spiroiu said on 23-July that he is retiring Maj. Gen. Gheorghe Florica for expressing a lack of confidence in the government and President Iliescu, who is commander in chief of the armed forces, in an interview with RFE/RL on 4 July. In that interview Florica said that he had tried to talk to the president about the government corruption allegations but Iliescu told him he did not want to discuss them. Spiroiu told reporters that Florica's statements were "incompatible with his military status." Presidential spokesman Traian Chebeleu told RFE/RL that "once an officer no longer trusts the head of the army, he should not be part of that army." -Michael Shafir IMF PRAISES ROMANIAN PROGRESS-.-.-. Maxwell Watson, the head of the International Monetary Fund delegation, praised the government's latest economic measures and said that Romania has a good chance to achieve an export-oriented economy, Radio Bucharest reported on 23 July. Watson acknowledged there are still disagreements with the government concerning future measures, but said they involve "technicalities" and not the "final purpose." Another IMF delegation will come to Romania in ten days to discuss measures for slowing down inflation. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu told Reuters on 24 July that Romania is likely to get more money from the IMF in September after the IMF froze a final installment of $75 million. A statement released by the opposition Democratic Party (NSF) and carried by Radio Bucharest on 24 July emphasized that this is the first time that an IMF delegation leaves Romania without reaching an agreement on future loans. -Michael Shafir .-.-. APPROVES MOLDOVAN REFORM PROGRAM-.-.-. John Olding Smith, the head of the IMF mission in Moldova, has approved the government's reform program, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 July. Smith told journalists in Chisinau that, in his view, the program would accelerate privatization and lead to the establishment of market relations. He said the IMF will grant Moldova credit for 4-10 years, and that the credit will be granted without waiting for the introduction of a national currency. -Ann Sheehy .-.-. AND MAKES COMMITMENT TO LITHUANIA. BNS reports that on 22 July Adalbert Knobl, the head of International Monetary Fund's Baltic Division, told Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius that the IMF will grant Lithuania $40 million in loans on very favorable terms in October. A further $60 million will be made available within the next 18 months. Knobl expressed satisfaction with Lithuania's successful efforts to lower inflation and introduce its new currency, the litas. -Saulius Girnius EIB ASSISTANCE FOR BULGARIAN ROAD AND AIR TRANSPORT. The European Investment Bank has released two loans for the improvement of Bulgaria's road and air transport systems, Western agencies reported on 23 July. A 21-million-ecu ($24-million) loan will be used to rebuild the network of main roads to Greece, Romania, Turkey, and the Black Sea, while 30-million ecus ($34.5 million) have been advanced to finance a new air traffic control center. In May the EIB released a 30-million-ecu loan destined for small- and medium-sized Bulgarian enterprises. -Kjell Engelbrekt ITALIAN PRESIDENT VISITS BULGARIA. On 22 July Oscar Luigi Scalfaro arrived in Sofia for the first ever official visit by an Italian head of state. During his one-day stay, Scalfaro held talks with Premier Lyuben Berov and President Zhelyu Zhelev and addressed parliament. BTA reports that Scalfaro pledged that Italy will support the integration of Bulgaria into the structures of the European community and NATO. On 23 July Scalfaro and Zhelev discussed the impact of the UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia is having on Balkan economies. Both leaders expressed support for the idea of building a road and rail corridor from Italy through Albania and Macedonia to Bulgaria. -Stan Markotich PROSPECTS DIM FOR COALITION IN SLOVAKIA. Speaking at a press conference after a meeting of the leadership of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia on 24 July, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar accused Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak of having demanded over 1 million koruny from Finance Minister Julius Toth in exchange for Cernak's party consent to form a coalition government with the MDS. Meciar said there "can be no place for Cernak in his government." Cernak denied the accusation the same day in an interview with Slovak Radio and accused the MDS of disinformation. On 25 July he told the radio that his party is still interested in coalition talks with the MDS but that, in the future, it will be forced to release to the public all relevant information about coalition talks "to defend its honor." He further said that he himself will not seek a government post if another SNP candidate is more acceptable but that he was not willing to sell his party out. The collapse of the MDS-SNS coalition talks would probably result in early parliamentary elections in Slovakia. -Jiri Pehe BELARUS JOINS NONPROLIFERATION TREATY. In Washington on 22 July Belarusian President Stanislau Shushkevich completed the process of acceding to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. The Belarusian ambassador to Russia also deposited an instrument of ratification with the Russian government on 23 July. (The US, UK, and Russia are the "depository governments" for the treaty.) The Belarusian parliament ratified the treaty in February 1993. Shushkevich and Defense Secretary Les Aspin also signed three agreements providing for $59-million in US assistance in the removal of nuclear weapons from Belarus and the cleaning up of former weapons sites. Belarus is home to more than 50 SS-25 ICBMs, which are currently under Russian jurisdiction and are to be withdrawn to Russia by the end of 1994. -John Lepingwell CHERNOMYRDIN ON RUSSIA'S BORDERS WITH ESTONIA, LATVIA. On 24 July Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin unveiled a monument to Prince Aleksandr Nevsky and his soldiers, who stopped the advance of the forces of the German Teutonic Order in 1242 at Lake Peipus. Both Chernomyrdin and Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin said that the territory of Pechora and Pytalovo districts in the Pskov Oblast will remain part of Russia. The statements were clearly intended as a message to Estonia and Latvia, which have been pressing Russia to give up the territory that the RSFSR annexed from the two Baltic states in 1944-46. In a related development, Russian border guards have placed markers through a Latvian farm adjoining the Latvian border with the Pskov Oblast; they did not consult with the Latvian authorities. The farm has been owned by the Latvian family since 1-November 1927, when the area, known as Abrene (Pytalovo in Russian), was recognized by Moscow to be a part of Latvia, Baltic media reported on 23 and 24 July. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIAN LEADERS TALK WITH RUSSIAN REPRESENTATIVES. On 22 July Prime Minister Mart Laar discussed the economic problems of Narva and Sillamae with municipal leaders of the predominantly Russian towns. The city council chairmen described the talks as hopeful. The second session of roundtable talks on minority issues in Estonia started on 23-July in Tallinn. Participating in the talks were members of the Representative Assembly of Estonia's Russian-speaking residents, the Estonian Union of Nationalities, as well as members of parliament and the government. They discussed the situation in northeastern Estonia following referendums in Narva and Sillamae on autonomy within Estonia. The next session of the roundtable is scheduled to take place in two weeks. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN COMPTROLLER FINDS UNLAWFUL SPENDING. On 23 July Vidas Kundrotas told a press conference that he will submit documents to the parliament commission of inquiry into economic crimes on the illegal use of funds by former Energy Minister Leonas Asmantas, Radio Lithuania reports. Asmantas allocated more than $700,000 for purchasing equipment for nonministry institutions and covering the costs of travel abroad by their employees. The ministry had charged customers excessive prices for energy. Kundrotas also urged the government to reject 11.82 million litas ($2.7 million) in expenditures in 1992 approved personally by former prime ministers Gediminas Vagnorius and Aleksandras Abisala, but not officially by the government. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Bess Brown and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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