|The sum of human wisdom is not contained in any one language, and no single language is capable of expressing all forms and degrees of human comprehension. - Ezra Pound|
No. 139, 23 July 1993
RUSSIA GRACHEV ACCUSES UKRAINE OF ACQUIRING NUCLEAR STATUS. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has accused Ukraine of moving to take over control of the nuclear weapons on its territory, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 July. Grachev said the Ukrainian Defense Ministry on 3 July issued an order concerning the status of nuclear weapons installations which provided for canceling all Russian directives concerning them, and transferring the installations and the special units guarding them to the 43rd missile army, administratively controlled by Ukraine. The order also reportedly establishes Ukrainian control over personnel and logistical support for the units. There have been conflicting reports in recent weeks as to the loyalty of the troops guarding nuclear weapons storage sites. The Ukrainian move appears to be an attempt to settle this problem, and suggests that current Russian proposals to subordinate these units to Russia will not be accepted by Ukraine. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV CLAIMS CONTROL OF CIS NUCLEAR WEAPONS. According to a report in Komsomolskaya pravda, as reported by ITAR-TASS on 22 July, Marshal Evgenii Shaposhnikov transferred his set of launch authorization codes to Grachev shortly after resigning from his position as Commander of the CIS Joint Armed Forces. This confirms the fact that Russia has de facto taken over full control of launch authority from the CIS command, and puts an end to any pretense of maintaining a CIS nuclear force. This fact may have prompted recent Ukrainian moves to increase its physical control over nuclear weapons, even though it does not have access to the launch codes. -John Lepingwell 1993 BUDGET APPROVED. On 22 July, parliament overwhelmingly approved a budget for 1993 that provided for greatly increased expenditure and deficit, ITAR-TASS and Reuters reported. The budget called for spending of 44.7 trillion rubles, revenues of 22.3 trillion rubles, and a deficit of 22.4 trillion rubles. The chairman of parliament's budgetary committee said that the deficit amounted to 25% of the GDP. He termed this "terrible," and called for additional revenues. One of the commitments that the Russian government undertook in order to qualify for the second disbursement of some $1.5 billion under the IMF's systemic transformation facility was to reduce the enlarged government deficit (covering the state budget, extrabudgetary funds, and import subsidies) to 10% of GDP by the end of 1993. -Keith Bush PARLIAMENT SEEKS RIGHT TO OVERTURN TREATIES. Parliament has passed a bill that would apparently give it the right to reconsider and overturn any international treaty at any time. Part of a bill on international treaties, which President Boris Yeltsin had returned to the parliament for amendment, the clause enables the parliament to take up the consideration of a treaty at any time, and if it calls for its rejection or renunciation, the president would be bound to sign a resolution to that effect within two weeks. The measure was opposed by Deputy Foreign Minister who noted that it would undermine Russia's reliability as a partner in foreign relations, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 July, Given the conservative cast of the current Russian parliament a number of existing treaties could be threatened. -John Lepingwell RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT REDUCES THRESHOLD FOR QUORUM. Parliament made procedural amendments on 21 July which will require the presence of only fifty percent of its deputies at plenary sessions to constitute a quorum for voting, instead of the three-quarters majority currently required, ITAR-TASS of 21 July and Radio Rossii of 22 July reported. The decision appears simply to have legalized the current state of affairs, for many deputies are known to vote for their absent neighbors on occasion. Reformist deputies were reported to have opposed the move as "infringing upon the rights of parliamentary deputies." -Wendy Slater POLTORANIN QUESTIONED IN CORRUPTION PROBE. Mikhail Poltoranin, head of the Federal Information Center and a key advisor to President Yeltsin, was questioned by prosecutors on 22 July as part of a parliamentary-sponsored probe into corruption, ITAR- TASS reported. Investigators are looking into allegations that Poltoranin benefited from the lease of a Russian government building in Berlin to Western firms. Poltoranin has denied the charges and has called the whole investigation part of a plot by his opponents in the parliament to have him ousted from his job. Both the president and the parliament have established rival commissions to examine the problem of high-level corruption in Russia. -Dominic Gualtieri STATE PURCHASE PRICES FOR GRAIN RAISED. The cabinet agreed on 22 July to raise the basic state purchase price for grain from 45,000 rubles to over 60,000 rubles a ton, Reuters reported. (High-grade hard and durum wheat command higher prices). Farmers' representatives had been pressing for a basic price of between 70,000 and 100,000 rubles a ton, but were turned down. The head of the State Price Committee warned that the increased purchase prices and the phasing out of remaining subsidies meant that the retail prices of grain products are likely to double during the coming weeks. -Keith Bush RUSSIAN ARMS SALES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, en route to Singapore for a meeting of ASEAN foreign ministers, said during a stopover in Kuala Lumpur on 22 July that Russia hoped to use Malaysia's recent order of 18 MiG-29 fighter aircraft as a staging point for penetration into the Southeast Asia arms market, AFP reported. Despite Kozyrev's upbeat remarks, however, it appears that the deal with Malaysia has not yet been finalized; according to ITAR-TASS Kozyrev also said that talks on the sale would be continued in August. Meanwhile, AFP reported on 21 July that Thailand's top military commander had departed for Moscow to conduct talks on the purchase of Russian military equipment, including transport helicopters. As was the case with Malaysia, Russia is apparently offering to accept agricultural products from Thailand as partial payment (up to 50%) for the weaponry. -Stephen Foye MINIMUM SUBSISTENCE LEVEL DISCUSSED. The presidium of the government has approved a draft law on the subsistence minimum, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 July. The final version is expected to be presented to the Russian parliament in one month's time. In preparing the law there has been much discussion on the methodology used to establish those goods and services which are necessary to guarantee a person's minimum subsistence level, with some (including the Minister of Labor, Gennadii Melikyan) demanding a narrower and more restrictive definition than that currently in use. A narrower definition would allow a minimum to be established which could realistically be guaranteed within the constraints of the government budget, but the report does not make clear whether such a definition was approved. Using the current definition the subsistence level for one person in June was 16,000 rubles a month, and in July it will be approximately 19,000 rubles. The minimum wage is now 7,740 rubles, and one in three citizens live in families with a per capita income below the subsistence minimum. It was decided not to include a provision in the new law stipulating that the minimum wage should be higher than the subsistence level, since the government at present does not have the financial means to provide such a guarantee. -Sheila Marnie TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA MORE TROUBLE IN TAJIKISTAN. Western agencies reported on 22 July more clashes along the Tajik-Afghan border, with Russian troops firing on rebel positions on Afghan territory. Unconfirmed reports also state that there has been more fighting in the mountains east of Dushanbe, where Tajik Interior Ministry forces are trying to destroy rebel strongholds. Meanwhile, the Islamic Conference Organization, has offered to mediate in the Tajik-Afghan conflict, and the organization's secretary-general has sent letters to the presidents of Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Russia, Reuters reports. There are also growing fears in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan of a cholera epidemic, allegedly brought into the two countries by Tajik refugees returning from Afghanistan. ITAR-TASS reported on 22 July that 16 cases had been reported in Tajikistan's Pyandzh district, near the Tajik-Afghan border, alone. These reports, while probably true, could also serve as an excuse for slowing or stopping the return of refugees -Keith Martin GEORGIA, RUSSIA REACH DRAFT AGREEMENT FOR ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE. At a second meeting late on 21-July, Russian Special Envoy Boris Pastukhov and Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze approved a draft agreement for a ceasefire in Abkhazia, Mayak Radio reported. Details of the program have not been reported. Earlier in the day, Shevardnadze had rejected a Russian-mediated Abkhaz proposal, which called for an immediate withdrawal of Georgian troops from the conflict zone. Pastukhov was scheduled to travel to the separatist stronghold Gudauta on 22 July to present the new draft proposal. -Catherine Dale KARABAKH UPDATE. On 22 July Reuters and AFP quoted Azerbaijani sources as reporting fierce fighting between Azerbaijani troops and Armenian forces which launched a new attack on Agdam just east of Nagorno-Karabakh; Karabakh authorities denied these allegations, according to Radio Erevan. In a statement issued on 22 July UN Secretary-General Boutros Ghali expressed deep concern at the continued hostilities and called on all parties involved to support the CSCE peace initiative. Meanwhile representatives of the nine CSCE countries involved in the mediation attempt met in Rome to discuss the situation, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller GEORGIAN PARLIAMENTARY OPPOSITION DEMANDS GOVERNMENT'S RESIGNATION. On 22 July six of the nine factions represented within the Georgian parliament tabled a motion calling for the Georgian government's resignation on the grounds of its incompetence above all in economic matters, which has resulted in a 70 per cent budget deficit, ITAR-TASS reported. The motion will be debated on 23 July. The war in Abkhazia is reportedly costing Georgia 50-million rubles per day. -Liz Fuller KYRGYZSTAN'S TOP MILITARY OFFICIAL REMOVED. The office of Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev announced on 22 July that the country's top defense official, Major-General Dzhanibek Umetaliev, chairman of the State Committee on Defense, has been removed, Reuters reported. Umetaliev has been replaced by his own first deputy, Myrzakan Subanov. According to Reuters, the announcement issued by Akaev's office gave no reason for the removal of Umetaliev, nor did it say what job he is being moved to. -Bess Brown FORMER ARMENIAN KGB CHIEF MURDERED. Sixty-nine year old Marius Yuzbashyan, Armenian KGB chief for ten years until October, 1988, was shot three times while walking his dog in a Erevan park during the early morning of 21 July, Reuters reported. quoting the Snark News Agency. Whether the murderer was apprehended was not disclosed. -Liz Fuller CIS REFERENDUM IN SEVASTOPOL. An extraordinary session of the Sevastopol City Council has ruled to hold a referendum on the status of the city concurrently with the 26 September referendum in Ukraine, Radio Ukraine reported on 22 July. However, no agreement has been reached on the wording of the question; neither did the council agree on what position to take with regard to the Russian parliament's 9 July decision declaring the city to be Russian. The city council did affirm the validity of Ukrainian laws in Sevastopol and called upon the Russian and Ukrainian presidents to take such measures with regard to Sevastopol and the Black Sea Fleet that would promote the strengthening and further development of friendship and cooperation between the Russian and Ukrainian peoples. -Roman Solchanyk CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS DELAYED. International media report on 22 and 23 July that after Serbian heavy artillery continued to pound Sarajevo, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic postponed attending the Geneva peace talks slated for 23 July. He promised to join the meeting as soon as minimum conditions for Sarajevo's security are met. At least 10 people were killed and more than 50 seriously wounded in Sarajevo on 22 July. According to Radio Sarajevo, Serbian attacks also intensified around Brcko while Serb and Croat forces were jointly shelling Maglaj. Serbian shelling was also reported at Srebrenica and Gorazde, where for the first time in 10 days a UN convoy arrived after being blocked by Serbs. Elsewhere, Bosnian Croat forces let through another UN convoy to central Bosnia that had been blocked since 16 July. Bosnian troops took Bugojno after heavy fights with the Croats, Radio Sarajevo said. A Croat spokesman reported that Muslims are expelling all Croats living there. -Fabian Schmidt CROAT OPPOSITION LEADER CALLS FOR NEW BOSNIAN POLICY. The president of the Croatian Social Liberal Party, Drazen Budisa, told a Zagreb press conference that Croatia must respect the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Vjesnik of 23 July also quotes him as saying that it is in Croatia's own interest to make common cause with the Bosnian government and to reject Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic's overtures aimed at partition, which could some day lead to the undermining of Croatia's own territorial integrity. Budisa, whose party leads the ruling party in the past few weeks' opinion polls, noted that "it is hard to defend Croatia's position abroad these days." Meanwhile, the Washington Post quotes UN sources as confirming that regular Croatian army forces are gathering around Ljubuski in western Herzegovina to help local Croat forces (HVO) in the Mostar area. On 22 July, however, the Croatian Defense Ministry denied the story, saying once again that its troops do not operate in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Many journalists and other observers nonetheless have long believed that the Croatian military and the HVO are closely interlinked. Finally, peace talks between Croatian authorities and Serb rebels adjourned in Vienna on 22 July to allow both sides time to consult with their superiors. Reuters quoted Croat spokesmen as saying that the Serbs had backed out of an agreement at the last minute. -Patrick Moore END OF CSCE MISSION IN RUMP-YUGOSLAVIA? MONITORS FROM THE CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE ARE TO WITHDRAW FROM KOSOVO, VOJVODINA, AND THE SANDZAK AFTER HAVING BEEN EFFECTIVELY CHASED OUT BY THE RUMP YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT, AFP REPORTED ON 22 JULY. The dispute between Belgrade and the CSCE began when the CSCE mandate to monitor ended this month. The Yugoslav government wants to be readmitted to the CSCE process as a precondition for renewing the monitors' visas, which the CSCE refuses to do. Albania condemned Belgrade's move as early as 8-July, ATA reports. -Fabian Schmidt ROMANIA WILL NOT ALLOW FOREIGN BASES. Armed forces chief of staff Gen. Dumitru Cioflina, told Evenimentul zilei on 22 July that Romania will allow no foreign military bases on its territory nor permit any foreign army to transit the country. Returning from Moscow, where he met with Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, Cioflina said Russian officials are concerned over media reports that Romania is ready to offer bases to NATO forces to check a possible spread of the war in former Yugoslavia. The reports followed recent meetings in Brussels and Bucharest between Romanian and NATO officials. On another matter, Cioflina said in an interview with Radio Bucharest that some of the statements made by general Gheorghe Florica, the former head of the Financial Police, in an interview with RFE/RL's Romanian Service, had "unacceptable" political implications. As a consequence, Cioflina said, Florica will soon be retired from the armed forces. -Michael Shafir HUNGARY CONCERNED ABOUT NEW CROAT- SERB WAR. The Baranya County Commissioner's Office and the Border Guard Directorate of Pecs have expressed concern about a renewal of hostilities in Croatia's Serb-occupied Eastern Slavonia, Budapest Radio reports on 22 July. The Border Guard has informed the Croatian side that Hungary would not tolerate any use of its territory for military purposes, and is ready to do the same in the case of the Serbs who control a 66-km stretch of the Hungarian-Croatian border. It has also equipped its two rapid deployment companies in the area with guided armor-piercing rockets and advised local residents not to go near the border under any circumstances. Hungary's Office for Refugees is expecting another wave of refugees as a result of the armed clashes between Croatians and Bosnians. -Alfred Reisch HAVEL VETOES CUSTOMS LAW'S AMENDMENT. Czech President Vaclav Havel used his right of suspensive veto on 22 July in refusing to sign an amendment to the customs law, which was approved by the Czech parliament at the beginning of July. The amendment stipulated that when bringing goods from abroad, deputies must declare all items subject to customs duties, but that their personal belongings, including suitcases, cannot not be searched by customs officials. The amendment was adopted after the media revealed that several deputies had failed to pay duties on expensive goods from the West. Proponents argued that the amendment was designed to prevent members of the executive branch from harassing lawmakers. In explaining Havel's refusal to sign the amended law, a spokesman told CTK that the amendment "expands the immunity of deputies" beyond the limits set by the constitution. The parliament can override Havel's veto with the approval of a simple majority of all 200-deputies. -Jiri Pehe KLAUS CRITICIZES ANTALL LETTER. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus told CTK on 22-July that, in his letter to Klaus on 15 July, Hungarian Premier Jozsef Antall suggested challenging the validity of the decrees issued in 1945 by Czechoslovak President Edvard Benes. Under the Benes decrees, almost 3 million Sudeten Germans and 32,000 Hungarians were expelled from Czechoslovakia and their property confiscated. Klaus said that challenging the Benes decrees is "totally unacceptable to the Czech Republic." The premier explained that when he received Antall's letter he at first revealed only the contents of its first half because he "did not want even to indicate to the Czech public what Hungarians were suggesting to me." -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK COALITION TALKS STILL IN QUESTION. On 21 July the Slovak National Party officially proclaimed that coalition talks with the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia were "unsuccessful"; however, in a 22 July SNP press conference Honorary Chairman Jozef Prokes claimed the SNP "wishes to continue coalition discussions," and Deputy Chairman Peter Sokol said the coalition "is vital for Slovakia." Meanwhile, in a Slovak Radio interview on 22 July, MDS Chairman and Premier Vladimir Meciar admitted that there exists "some uncertainty in the government" but said that his party "would not be dictated to in coalition talks." It is unlikely that the discussions will be concluded by the 24 July deadline. Neither party has announced when the next meeting will take place. -Sharon Fisher MORE BORDER-CROSSING POINTS BETWEEN HUNGARY AND SLOVAKIA? HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN JANOS HERMAN ANNOUNCED ON 21 JULY THAT A JOINT HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK COMMISSION OF EXPERTS WILL MEET SOON IN BRATISLAVA TO DISCUSS THE CREATION OF NEW BORDER CROSSING POINTS AND THE REOPENING OF PREVIOUSLY EXISTING ONES, UJ MAGYARORSZAG WRITES. The Hungarian and Slovak mayors of two adjoining localities have been on a hunger strike for 12 days because the authorities have delayed the opening of the border crossing point between their towns for nearly two years, forcing the residents to make a 60-km detour to cross the border. The two sides will also seek to set up a joint fund for the reconstruction of a vital bridge over the Danube linking Esztergom, Hungary, with Sturovo, Slovakia, which was destroyed at the end of World War II. -Alfred Reisch POLISH ARCHBISHOP HOSTS COALITION LEADERS. Leading figures from most of the government parties met in Gdansk on 21 July at the invitation of Archbishop Tadeusz Goclowski, Gazeta Wyborcza reports. The meeting took place at the archbishop's residence and lasted five hours. Though invited, former finance minister Andrzej Olechowski, the most prominent politician in President Lech Walesa's Nonparty Reform Bloc (BBWR), did not attend. Goclowski told reporters that the meeting, conducted in conditions of near secrecy, was "a private discussion among private individuals concerned for the fate of the fatherland." Participants indicated afterward that the point of the meeting was to smooth the way for cooperation among "proreform" parties after the elections, prevent negative campaigning among them, and forestall attacks on the Church. Most important, participants reportedly agreed to treat the BBWR as a potential coalition ally rather than a threat. The meeting appeared to reflect the Church's concern that the current ruling parties had failed to forge a "proreform coalition" for the elections. Goclowski may hope to prevent rivalry among coalition parties from working to the benefit of opposition forces and thus jeopardizing the continuation of the reform program after the elections. A similar meeting hosted by Goclowski on 13 July led to the forging of a "Catholic coalition" by the two Christian parties in the coalition. -Louisa Vinton CONSTITUTIONAL HITCH IN WORLD BANK LOANS TO POLAND. The World Bank has confirmed its offer of two new loans for Poland worth a total of $750-million, Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski announced on 22 July. The announcement was made during a visit to Warsaw by Kemal Dervis, head of the World Bank's Central European Department. The loans-$450 million for bank and firm restructuring and $300 million for agricultural infrastructure-were initially approved on 4 May. The absence of the parliament complicates matters, however. The government has requested a ruling from the Constitutional Tribunal to determine whether it can sign the loan agreement without ratification by the Sejm. The World Bank has so far provided Poland with $2.64 billion in loans for 15 different programs. Officials reported that Poland's ability to put the loans to use had improved considerably in recent months, and that new projects, including the construction of a Berlin-Warsaw-Moscow highway, were being considered. -Louisa Vinton POLAND MAKES "DEAL OF THE YEAR." The privatization ministry sold a major stake in two Opole cement factories-Gorazdze and Strzelce Opolskie-to the Belgian firm CBR for $53-million on 22 July, PAP reports. This is the largest Polish privatization transaction so far in 1993. Under the terms of the deal, CBR has pledged to invest an additional $106 million to modernize the two plants and raise environmental standards. In addition, wages will be raised and there will be an 18-month moratorium on employment reductions, with job cuts limited to 10% per year for another three years. The ministry deliberately linked the sale of the two cement firms-one profitable, the other weak-to ensure the survival of both. Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski hailed the deal as marking the beginning of the transformation of Poland's entire cement sector. Solidarity trade unionists at the plants initially rejected the deal on the grounds that it transferred economic power to Brussels, but they were apparently mollified by Lewandowski's offer to give the work force 10% of the shares free of charge. -Louisa Vinton BEROV COMFORTABLY SURVIVES NO CONFIDENCE VOTE. Late on 22 July Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov and his government survived a vote of no confidence by a wide margin, Western agencies report. Whereas 81 parliamentary deputies voted for Berov's dismissal, 147 came out in his support. This was the second no-confidence vote in the past two months. On both occasions the vote was demanded by the Union of Democratic Forces. This time the coalition accused the cabinet of jeopardizing Bulgaria's economic future by suspending interest payments on the $9 billion commercial debt. The UDF argues that canceling payment is likely to alienate both creditors and prospective foreign investors. -Kjell Engelbrekt CASE OF US SPY IN ROMANIA FORMALLY CLOSED. The military prosecutor's office announced on 22 July that the case of former diplomat Mircea Raceanu has been closed. Raceanu, who lives in the USA, was convicted as an American spy under the Ceausescu regime but was released when the dictator was overthrown. Last month the military prosecutor called the release illegal and asked that he be made to serve the remaining 16 years of his sentence. The US State Department expressed concern over the prosecutor's statement, and a Romanian presidential spokesman announced three weeks ago that the case was closed. The prosecutor's office has now officially withdrawn his challenge to Raceanu's release. -Michael Shafir ESTONIAN PM MEETS WITH RUSSIAN REPRESENTATIVES. On 22 July Prime Minister Mart Laar met with leaders of the Representative Assembly, a group that aims to uphold the interests of Russians and the Russophone population of Estonia. The meeting sought solutions to the social and economic problems in northeastern Estonia. The chairmen of the Narva and Sillamae city councils said they will adhere to the Estonian Supreme Court's decision, not yet announced, concerning the recent referendums in their towns on territorial autonomy. Narva authorities say 53% of the town's adult population voted in the referendum and 96% of them supported autonomy, though the Estonian government maintains that because of numerous irregularities less than 50% of the population voted. The Narva City Council wants to start negotiations with the Estonian parliament and government to define the city's status and discuss laws that residents find unacceptable. Vasilii Svirin, the head of the Russian delegation for talks with Estonia, told the press that his country considers the referendums to be purely the internal affair of Estonia, Baltic media report. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIANS RETAIN CONTROL OF ESTONIAN NUCLEAR FACILITY. On 22 July Estonian Interior Minister Lagle Parek and Commander in Chief Aleksander Einseln held talks with Russian army leaders at Paldiski, BNS reports. Parek said that, in compliance with international regulations, Russian troops would continue to guard the two nuclear reactors at the military base and the four-kilometer safety zone around it. The reactors will later be dismantled and returned to Russia. The checkpoints and barbed wire around the formerly closed city will be removed and entry permits to the city will be issued without questions. Parek expressed the hope that Paldiski can become a summer holiday resort. -Saulius Girnius HOT WATER SUPPLY REDUCED IN TALLINN AND RIGA. Baltic media reported on 22 July that the supply of hot water will be greatly reduced to consumers in the Estonian and Latvian capitals. In Tallinn the reductions are to start on 26 July. As of that date, hot water will be supplied only on weekends. The Riga authorities announced suspension of hot water supplies on 23 July. The reason for the cutoffs, in both cases, is the failure of consumers to pay their gas, electricity, and heating bills. -Dzintra Bungs SPLIT IN LITHUANIAN RIGHT WING. On 21 July leaders of the right of center Democratic Party, Liberal Union, and National Union of Lithuania met and condemned the 14 July decision by the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party and the Homeland Union (Conservatives of Lithuania) to form a new bloc, BNS reports. Liberal Union Chairman Sarunas Davainis expressed the fear that the new bloc will only increase confrontation between the left and the right wings "by ignoring weaker political forces." -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Sheila Marnie and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.