|He that breaks a thing to find out what it is has left the path of wisdom. - J.R. Tolkien|
No. 138, 22 July 1993
RUSSIA PARLIAMENT STEPS UP ATTACKS ON PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM. On 21 July, parliament adopted a resolution that transferred the rights to privatize property from the State Property Committee (GKI) to the government, which may then share them amongst ministries and departments, ITAR-TASS reported. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais later told Ostankino TV that he had discussed the parliament's move with the president and prime minister and that "necessary decisions will be adopted"-without elaborating. If allowed to stand, the measure could presumably result in the GKI being backstaged to the technical implementation of a privatization program that would be slowed or halted by bureaucratic inertia and/or infighting. -Keith Bush RUTSKOI REBELLING. The presidential apparatus has received evidence that Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, during his trip to Amur oblast, called for civil disobedience and for the withholding of federal tax payments, Russian TV "Vesti" reported on 21 July. Rutskoi reportedly said in public that he expects popular uprisings to occur throughout the country, and that this will result in the ouster of President Boris Yeltsin and the installment of Rutskoi in his place. He also expects members of the democratic government to be toppled. He stated that no-one is currently governing Russia because Yeltsin, who is currently on vacation, never authorizes anyone to deputize in his absence. The Yeltsin administration now wants the Constitutional Court to rule on Rutskoi's remarks. Rutskoi also expressed support for greater regional autonomy, claiming that the federal government should be responsible only for defense, communications, the energy complex and law enforcement organs. -Alexander Rahr AMUR OBLAST DECLARES ITSELF REPUBLIC. Amur Oblast in the Soviet Far East is the latest oblast to declare itself a republic. The oblast soviet took this step on 21-July, CIS television reported. Five other territories (Vologda Oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast, Kaliningrad oblast, Primorsky krai, and St. Petersburg) have recently requested or proclaimed republic status, and Khabarovsk krai is considering doing so. Their actions have been condemned by the federal authorities who say that they could complicate the adoption of the new constitution. -Ann Sheehy PROJECTED BUDGET DEFICIT SOARS. Seven months into the budget year, parliament continues to debate amendments to the 1993 budget. The latest projection of this year's budget deficit was given on 19 July by a deputy finance minister. In an interview with Ostankino TV, he put it at more than 25 trillion rubles, or about one quarter of GNP. (The Russian government has undertaken to reduce its budget deficit to less than 10% of GDP by December 1993). -Keith Bush ARMS EXPORTS IN 1992. The value of Russian arms exports to the Third World in 1992 dropped to $1.3-billion, according to a Congressional Research Service study, quoted by the International Herald Tribune on 21-July. This estimated total is even lower than those given in gloomy Russian pronouncements, which have attributed the decline in a major export category to the general disintegration of the Russian economy, adherence to international embargoes, concern among potential customers over servicing and spares, the poor showing of Russian arms in the Gulf War, and intense competition on the world arms market. -Keith Bush STORM ERUPTS IN PARLIAMENT OVER ROCKET DEAL. Parliamentarians on 21 July denounced the government's recent decision to cancel a rocket deal with India and moved to block the action by issuing a resolution that would require parliamentary approval for any Russian involvement in the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Reuters and AFP reported that parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov had labeled cancellation of the sale a "national disgrace" and had criticized President Yeltsin for reneging on a pledge to New Delhi that he said had been made by both leaders during visits to India earlier this year. Addressing the parliamentary committee on International Affairs and Foreign Relations, a leader of the Russian space agency Glavkosmos, Aleksandr Dunaev, charged that the Foreign Ministry had exceeded its authority in nixing the deal during negotiations in Washington, and said that Glavkosmos would proceed with shipments to India, including technology transfers, under the terms of the original contract. The outcry demonstrated that debate over the rocket deal would not escape the politicization that has already plagued a number of foreign policy issues. -Stephen Foye URALS DEFENSE INDUSTRY WORKERS GIVE STRIKE WARNING. Trade Union representatives of defense industry workers in the Urals region met in Perm on 20 July, according to ITAR-TASS on 21 July. The unions criticized the economic policy of the president and government, and claimed that non-fulfillment of the law on conversion, as well as of general and branch tariff agreements, was threatening the whole defense industry. There is no state "military doctrine" or arms program, and this has contributed to the breakdown in intra-branch links. The closure of the branch's scientific-research institutes means that there are less facilities available for the development of new technologies to assist the conversion process. It was decided to hold a one-hour warning strike on 29 July. -Sheila Marnie RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES LAND LEGISLATION. Parliament has approved the "Fundamentals of Land Legislation", according to ITAR-TASS on 21-July. According to this legislation, land can be owned by private individuals, the state, and municipalities. Foreign citizens or juridical bodies cannot own land in Russia, but can only lease or make temporary uses of plots of land. Land can be bought and sold, and mortgaged "in strict accordance with Russian legislation." The main federal body responsible for state control over the use and protection of land is the Committee for Land Resources and Land Tenure. -Sheila Marnie TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA UPDATE ON THE TAJIK SITUATION. Russia has officially notified the UN Security Council that it will help Tajikistan defend itself against attacks launched from Afghan territory, ITAR-TASS reported on 21 July. UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali has expressed his willingness to help find a peaceful solution, through the offices of his special envoy to Tajikistan. Shodmon Yusuf of the banned opposition' Democratic Party, in an interview with Reuters in Kabul, claimed his forces had killed the 25 Russian border guards in the 13 July attack, after being fired on. He also called President Boris Yeltsin's decision to strengthen the Russian military presence in Tajikistan "a big mistake". He claimed that Islamic governments are not helping the rebels, for if they were, the Tajik government would already have been overthrown. Russian and Central Asian groups, including Uzbekistan's main opposition movement Birlik, released a statement in Moscow on 22 July criticizing the Russian decision to back the "old Communist elite," Reuters reported. -Keith Martin AZERBAIJAN PARLIAMENT CHAIRMAN CALLS FOR MEASURES AGAINST ARMENIA. At a meeting with a British diplomat in Baku on 21 July, Azerbaijan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev denounced what he termed a new Armenian offensive against the town of Agdam east of Nagorno-Karabakh, Reuters reported quoting local journalists. Aliev argued that the new offensive proved that Armenia wished "to ruin" the ongoing CSCE Karabakh peace process and called on the US, Russia and Turkey, which together launched an earlier joint peace plan, to take resolute action to halt "Armenian aggression." -Liz Fuller SHEVARDNADZE TO FIRE HIS PRIME MINISTER? GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT CHAIRMAN EDUARD SHEVARDNADZE HELD FOUR HOURS OF TALKS IN THE ADZHAR CAPITAL, BATUMI, ON 20 JULY WITH ADZHAR SUPREME SOVIET CHAIRMAN ASLAN ABASHIDZE, WHO FOR THE PAST TWO AND A HALF YEARS HAS PURSUED AN INDEPENDENT, TURKISH-ORIENTED POLICY. Radio Mayak on 21 July quoted "well-informed sources" as predicting that Shevardnadze would appoint Abashidze Georgian Prime Minister in place of Tengiz Sigua, who held that post under ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia and subsequently aligned himself with the warlords responsible for Gamsakhurdia's ouster. Shevardnadze and Sigua have been at odds in recent months over economic policy and Russian-Georgian relations. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTANI OFFICIALS SEEK ECONOMIC TIES OUTSIDE CIS. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev, in Thailand on an official visit, told ITAR-TASS on 21 July that his country is very interested in the Thai experience with building a market economy and attracting foreign investment. Nazarbaev's Thai hosts are showing particular interest in Kazakhstan's natural resources which Thailand lacks. One of the primary purposes of Nazarbaev's trip is to lay the groundwork for an expansion of Thai-Kazakhstani economic and trade ties. -Bess Brown CIS RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT REFUSES TO RECONSIDER SEVASTOPOL RESOLUTION. On 21 July, the Russian parliament voted down a proposal to reconsider its resolution on Sevastopol, ITAR-TASS reported. The motion to place the issue on the agenda was put forward by deputy Aleksandr Kopeika, who noted that the resolution had been criticized by the UN Security Council and the Crimean parliament. According to Ekho Moskvy and Ostankino TV, deputy Nikolai Gonchar called for the resolution to be held in abeyance while the matter is referred to the International Court of Justice. At the same time, measures to implement the resolution would be prepared. Gonchar's proposal was not accepted either. The parliament's committee on foreign affairs will, however, examine the role of the Russian Ambassador to the UN, Yuli Vorontsov, in the preparation of the UN's statement. Some deputies have accused Vorontsov of defending Ukraine's interests, rather than Russia's. -John Lepingwell POLITICAL CONFLICT IN SEVASTOPOL. Ukrainian TV reported on 21 July that the self-proclaimed mayor of Sevastopol, Aleksandr Kruglov, is preparing new moves to destabilize the situation in the city. Kruglov, a deputy of the Crimean parliament and head of the Sevastopol branch of the National Salvation Front, heads the so-called Small Russian City Council of Sevastopol, which was established as an alternative to the legally elected city authorities. The latter has ruled that Kruglov's group is illegal. In the meantime, Ekho Moskvy reported on 21 July that the city council is planning to discuss the question of a referendum on the status of Sevastopol. -Roman Solchanyk RUSSIA AND TAJIKISTAN SIGN MONETARY AGREEMENT. Russia and Tajikistan have signed three agreements concerning monetary relations between the two nations, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 July. The agreements, signed in Moscow by Russian deputy prime minister Aleksandr Shokhin and the chairman of the Tajik Council of Ministers, Abdumalik Abdulladzhanov, convert Tajik's 49 billion ruble trade bill to Russia (in the form of so-called technical credits) into sovereign debt, which Tajikistan will pay back in five installments over five years, beginning in 1996. Russia also agreed to lend up to 60 billion rubles to Tajikistan for the purchase of Russian imports this year. More important, perhaps, was that Tajikistan has agreed to conditions (unspecified in the ITAR-TASS account) for remaining in the ruble zone. Given Russia's recent ultimata to other ruble zone members to conduct their monetary policy consistent with Russia's or leave the zone, Tajikistan has presumably agreed to concede some of its autonomy in economic policy-making. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IZETBEGOVIC READY TO JOIN PEACE TALKS. International media report that heavy fighting continued at Mount Igman near Sarajevo on 21 July. Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladic said his troops could possibly cut off the Muslim defenders on 22 July. Muslim forces said they had pushed the Serbs back on the southwest side of the mountain, but the UN has been unable to gain access to find out what is happening. Water and power have been cut off in Sarajevo for four weeks, and food convoys have been blocked. Meanwhile Serb troops continued to assault Gorazde, refusing to allow peacekeepers to deploy there. According to a UN official, Bosnian Croat forces have not allowed convoys to travel from southern Croatia to central Bosnia since 16 July. At a mental institute near Fojnica, where 230 abandoned patients were found by UN-troops, four children have died. Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic has apparently accepted an invitation by international mediators to enter marathon peace talks in Geneva on the condition that the Serbs stop the offensive against Mount Igman and aid supplies are permitted to get through to Bosnian towns. -Fabian Schmidt POLAND SUSPENDS DEBT TALKS. The third round of talks on Poland's $12.3-billion debt to the London Club of commercial banks appeared to end in fiasco on 19-July. Poland's debt negotiator, Krzysztof Krowacki, rejected the club's offer and said he views the talks as suspended until the banks propose new, more acceptable terms. The London Club reportedly offered a 35% reduction in Poland's commercial debt in return for annual repayments of more than $700 million. Krowacki said this proposal is inconsistent with the three principles agreed upon in May: that long-term loans, interest, and revolving credits be treated as a single package; that the agreement not exceed Poland's ability to pay; and that the reduction be comparable to the terms agreed upon in 1991 with the Paris Club of government creditors. The Paris Club offered a 50% debt reduction. Poland wants an analogous 50% reduction from the London Club and says it can afford yearly payments of at most $400 million. In remarks reported by Polish TV, Krowacki said that "Poland's negotiators are prepared for talks at any time, but not on our knees." As in the past, Krowacki's tough talk may be a bargaining tactic. -Louisa Vinton SMOOTH SAILING FOR POLAND'S VAT. Poland's value-added tax, introduced on 5 July, has so far prompted only a 1.5% increase in prices, PAP reported on 21 July. "All those forecasts of catastrophe-.-.-. simply did not come true," Deputy Finance Minister Witold Modzelewski told reporters. Larger hikes in the price of meat, meat products, and sugar were attributed to higher producer costs rather than the VAT. Some 400,000 tax-payers have so far registered for the VAT. The biggest problem, Modzelewski said, was the lack of any standardized tax form, but one will be issued soon. Zycie Warszawy commented on 22 July that the VAT's relatively painless introduction demonstrated the "maturity" of the Polish market; suppliers refrained from using the chance to mark up prices out of fear of losing their customers. -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK NATIONAL PARTY COALITION TALKS FAIL. In an official proclamation on 21 July, the SNP declared coalition negotiations with the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia "unsuccessful," TASR reports. According to the SNP, the failure stems from disagreement between the two parties over two competing draft laws that deal with parliamentary deputies who have left their parties between election years. In an interview with TASR following the SNP proclamation, Prime Minister and MDS Chairman Vladimir Meciar said that although "the problems to be solved are very complicated," his party "is willing to continue in coalition talks." If a coalition agreement is not reached between the two parties, new elections may be the only option. -Sharon Fisher CZECHS APPROVE BORDER AGREEMENT WITH SLOVAKIA. On 21 July the Czech government approved an agreement that Premier Vaclav Klaus reached with his Slovak counterpart, Vladimir Meciar, on 17-July requiring that citizens of third countries cross the Czech-Slovak border only at official stations. CTK reports that Czech and Slovak citizens will continue to be able to cross the border anywhere without official travel documents. Meciar originally opposed changes in the Czech-Slovak agreement on the border regime signed in late 1992, which permitted free movement of people between the two republics. However, in an effort to stem the flow of people trying to reach Germany after that country introduced a strict asylum law on 1 July, the Czech government has pressured Slovakia to introduce border controls for citizens of third countries entering the Czech Republic. -Jiri Pehe THE CZECH-SLOVAK STAND AT THE CEI SUMMIT. In a 20 July statement on Radio Prague also reported by Radio Budapest, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus said that his support for Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar's move to block a legally binding draft on national minorities at the Central European Initiative's 16-17 July summit in Budapest was a gesture to Slovakia. The minority issue should be solved on an all-European basis and not through national protective legislation, Klaus said, as the latter would destabilize the region and could lead to questioning the current status. The Czech Republic's primary interest in the future, he said, is to support Slovakia first, before any other form of cooperation or association. In a 21 July statement, Hungarian Foreign Ministry spokesman Janos Herman said Klaus had "misunderstood" the letter sent to him by Hungarian Premier Jozsef Antall on the eve of the CEI summit in which Antall outlined Hungary's expectations vis-a-vis Slovakia following Bratislava's admission into the Council of Europe. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN ROMA ORGANIZATION ON DEMONSTRATION, ELECTION PLANS. Gyorgy Naday, Chairman of the Democratic Association of Gypsies in Hungary, the country's biggest Roma organization, called the Roma demonstration held on 11 July in Eger "hasty and poorly timed from a political viewpoint" because of the passage by parliament of the law on minorities, Radio Budapest reports. Naday criticized the organizers for not informing the other Roma organizations in time, although he conceded that the action brought attention to the plight of the Romas. He said the union was ready to participate in the 1994 general elections by cooperating with parties that accept its statute and by fielding joint candidates with them. -Alfred Reisch PERMANENT MFN STATUS REQUESTED FOR BULGARIA. President Bill Clinton has told the US Congress to expect a bill to grant Bulgaria permanent most-favored-nation status, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 21 July. The move would put Bulgaria into the category of close US trading partners, and also eliminate the otherwise mandatory annual review of emigration policies. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN FARM LAND RESTORED TO FORMER OWNERS. Roughly one quarter of the farm land due to be restored to 1.7 million precommunist owners is now in private hands, officials of the National Statistical Institute told news agencies on 20 July. Decollectivization, which began as early as 1991, has met with more difficulties than originally anticipated. Apart from cumbersome legal procedures, the reform has been opposed on political grounds, mainly by the Socialist Party. -Kjell Engelbrekt ROMANIAN FLEET MANAGERS FIRED. In a statement released on 21 July, Romania's Transport Ministry announced that the managers of the state-owned shipping company Petromin have been dismissed and that a new managerial board has been appointed effective 20 July. The statement referred to "breaches of the law, abuses, and errors," apparently in connection with a controversial shipping deal between Petromin and a Greek company, Forum Maritime, that gave the latter a majority interest for $335 million. Belated attempts by the government to renegotiate the contract and reduce Greek participation to 49% have proved unsuccessful so far. -Dan Ionescu ITALIAN PRESIDENT TO ROMANIA. On 21 July Oscar Luigi Scalfaro began a two-day official visit to Romania, which Radio Bucharest described as the first ever by an Italian head of state. Scalfaro met President Ion Iliescu, the chairmen of the parliament's two houses, Oliviu Gherman and Adrian Nastase, and other high-ranking Romanian officials as well as leaders of the opposition and of the Italian community. He stressed on several occasions Italy's determination to support Romania's efforts to join European organizations. Iliescu, on the other hand, hailed the traditional ties between Romania and its "Latin sister." He also praised Italians as "the most dynamic and active" Western investors in Romania, adding that Italian capital ranked first in joint ventures with Western investors. On 22 July Scalfaro is scheduled to tour monasteries in Bucovina before traveling on to Bulgaria. -Dan Ionescu SNEGUR ASKS PARLIAMENT TO APPROVE CIS MEMBERSHIP. In a letter dated 2 July addressed to Parliamentary Speaker Petru Lucinschi, President Mircea Snegur appealed to the legislature to ratify Moldova's membership in the CIS, AFP reported on 21 July. Deputy Alexandru Buruiana, head of the parliament's foreign relations committee, said that Snegur is bowing to pressure from Moscow that Moldova either ratify its membership or be excluded from the club. Alecu Reneta, a deputy representing the Moldovan Popular Front, described Snegur's letter as the most shameful betrayal since Moldova was annexed by the Tsarist empire in 1812, but Snegur said CIS membership would serve Moldova's interest in several fields of economic cooperation. The Moldovan leadership has long been in favor of ratification on economic grounds, but as long as the Transdniestr deputies are boycotting the parliament the popular front deputies can stymie any vote. -Ann Sheehy MOLDOVA TO HAVE OWN CURRENCY? PRESIDENT SNEGUR HAS SET UP A COMMISSION TO DRAW UP A MECHANISM FOR INTRODUCING A NATIONAL CURRENCY, WHICH IT IS HOPED WILL BE PUT INTO CIRCULATION BY THE END OF 1993, ITAR-TASS REPORTED ON 21 JULY. The government has been promised assistance from the World Bank and the IMF. Snegur said on Moldovan TV that the government's financial policy has proved untenable and led to an uncontrolled rise in prices and a record inflation rate of 1500% in 1992. Snegur said that this record could be repeated in 1993. -Ann Sheehy SILLAMAE CITY COUNCIL ON REFERENDUM RESULTS. On 21 July the council confirmed the results of the referendum on changing the town's status to an autonomous zone in Estonia. Baltic media report that the council considers the results to be valid and has proposed the drafting of a law on the special status of the predominantly ethnic-Russian town. Members of the council also stated that the new law would restrict the implementation of laws considered discriminatory. In addition, the city council issued an appeal to the Council of Europe, CSCE, and the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus in which they affirm their intention to preserve Estonia's territorial integrity and stress that the town's new status could contribute to dialogue and cooperation between states. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS WITH KAZAKHSTAN, KALININGRAD. On 21 July Kazakh Prime Minister Sergei Tereshchenko made a short stop in Vilnius en route to Australia, Radio Lithuania reports. With his Lithuanian counterpart Adolfas Slezevicius he signed a free trade treaty and three agreements on cooperation in air, motor, and railway transport as well as agreeing to establish trade missions in the capitals. Slezevicius noted that trade with Kazakhstan was unsatisfactory, making up less than 1.5% of Lithuania's imports and exports. Kazakhstan would like to increase its exports of grain and coal to Lithuania and use the refinery at Mazeikiai for oil exports. Klaipeda could serve as a convenient port for Kazakh trade with northern Europe while Kazakhstan could be the route for Lithuanian trade with China and Central Asia. On the 19th Lithuanian and Kaliningrad regional officials signed a free trade agreement that will, however, go into effect only after additional protocols on the origin of goods are signed and a list of restricted goods is compiled. Some observers suggest that this agreement is impractical since an accord with Russia should properly have preceded an agreement with one of its regions. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN GERMANY. On 21 July in Bonn Povilas Gylys and his German counterpart Klaus Kinkel signed a joint declaration that will serve as the basis for future political and economic cooperation treaties between the two states, Radio Lithuania reports. Germany has signed similar declarations with Latvia and Estonia. The foreign ministers also signed a cultural exchange accord. Gylys held talks with Bundestag President Rita Suessmuth, Education and Science Minister Rainer Ortleb, and other government officials. On 22 and 23 July Gylys will visit Schleswig-Holstein with stops in Kiel and Luebeck. -Saulius Girnius YELTSIN CONGRATULATES ULMANIS. Meeting with the new Latvian president, Russian ambassador to Latvia Aleksandr Rannikh transmitted to Guntis Ulmanis a letter of congratulation from Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Diena reported on 21 July. Yeltsin expressed satisfaction with Latvia's willingness to transfer imprisoned OMON leader Sergei Parfenov to Russia and conveyed the hope that Ulmanis, as representative of the multinational population of Latvia, will guarantee genuine equality of human rights for Russians. Rannikh warned that if Latvia adopts a citizenship law resembling that of Estonia, a tense ethnic situation like that in the Caucasus and Central Asia could result-a view not shared by Ulmanis. Rannikh stated his regret that Russian troop withdrawals from Latvia have been suspended until fall, and both men spoke of the resumption of Latvian-Russian talks as soon as possible. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA RETRIEVES PROMISSORY NOTES. Twenty promissory notes, worth $400 million, improperly issued by Latvia's Investment Bank last December have been retrieved in Belgium and invalidated, Diena reported on 21 July. The issuance of the notes, which led to the resignation of Ilze Jurkane from the presidency of Latvia's Investment Bank, is being investigated by the Latvian State Prosecutor's Office. It is not yet clear if criminal charges will be brought against those involved. -Dzintra Bungs MOLDOVA'S NATIONAL INCOME DROPS FURTHER. According to Moldova's State Department of Statistics, the country's national income dropped 20.2% in the first half of 1993 compared with the same period last year, ITAR-TASS reported on 20 July. Agricultural output, the mainstay of Moldova's economy, fell by 36%. ITAR-TASS said that experts consider the decline in production is of a chronic nature and is due to the unbalanced nature of the economy, the breakdown of traditional economic ties, and the lack of raw materials. Inflation in the first half of 1993 was officially put at 24.3%, but the newspaper Nezavisimaya Moldova reckoned it is really 300%. -Ann Sheehy HUNGARIAN SOCIAL STATISTICS. According to the Central Statistical Office, there were nearly 19,000 abortions in Hungary during the first quarter of the year, 22% fewer than during the same period of 1992, MTI and Radio Budapest reported on 21 June. The decrease was evident in all groups, particularly women over 30 and married women. It is speculated that the decrease is due to better family protection services. In any case, the number of live births is expected to rise in the last quarter of the year, reversing the trend of the past years. Meanwhile, the State Health Institute reported that 373 cases of HIV-positive infection have been registered so far in the country, of which 124-have resulted in AIDS, involving mostly males. So far 67-persons have died of AIDS in Hungary, MTI reports. -Alfred Reisch [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Sheila Marnie and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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