|Much unhappiness has come into the world because of bewilderment and things left unsaid. - Dostoevsky|
No. 136, 20 July 1993
RUSSIA MEANS OF ADOPTING RUSSIA'S NEW CONSTITUTION. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov said in an interview with the German daily Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on 19 June that if the Congress of People's Deputies refuses to ratify the new draft of the Russian Constitution, President Boris Yeltsin is ready to brand it as "incapable of taking decisions" and convene a Constitutional Convention. Such a move would be justified, Kostikov said, because plans have been laid for up to 350 pro-reform deputies to boycott the Congress. A Constitutional Convention would comprise the members of the recent constitutional assembly and an additional 760 delegates who, presumably, would be pro-Yeltsin appointees. Meanwhile, the Committee of Democratic Organizations has called for the promulgation of the constitution no later than the autumn, and about 50 diverse political parties have suggested that Yeltsin issue a decree with the force of a constitutional law, according to Russian radio reports on 15 June. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF RUSSIA SEEKS PRE-ELECTION PARTNERS. The Democratic Party of Russia, which has recently left the centrist Civic Union bloc, announced at a press conference in St. Petersburg on 16-June that it is preparing to hold discussions with like-minded parties on forming a pre-election bloc and nominating candidates for the forthcoming elections, according to ITAR-TASS on the same day. According to Viktor Talanov, a DPR leader, the DPR is prepared to cooperate with those right-of-center parties and movements which stand for "the support of democracy and market reforms, and a new Russian statehood and constitutionality." So far, the Republican Party of the Russian Federation, the Party of Economic Freedom, and the All-Russia Union "Renewal" have begun consultations with the DPR. -Wendy Slater PARLIAMENT FOR HIGHER BUDGET EXPENDITURE. The chairman of the Council of the Republics, Veniamin Sokolov, told a news conference on 19 July that parliament has rejected the government's draft budget for 1993, Reuters reported. The legislature was opposed to the "anti-social" nature of the draft and has proposed much higher expenditures (40 trillion rubles), higher income (21 trillion rubles), thus leaving a much higher planned deficit (19-trillion rubles). The figures appear to be expressed in June 1993 prices, although this was not spelled out. The proposed deficit would appear to be way above the share of GDP that has been agreed upon with foreign creditors. The government will presumably decline to accept parliament's proposed budget, but it is not clear what happens next. -Keith Bush NATURAL GAS PRICES RAISED AND INDEXED. A resolution of the Council of Ministers establishing new regulations on the price of natural gas will go into effect on 20 July, according to ITAR-TASS and Kommersant-Daily. The resolution raises the official wholesale price initially from 3,600 to 7,900 rubles per 1,000 cubic meters of natural gas and sets the excise tax at 15%. The price for industrial consumers will then rise each month in line with an industrial output price index. The price for residential customers is to rise from 600 to 2,000 rubles per 1,000 cubic meters (VAT not included), but will not be formally indexed. The resolution was signed by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin on 13-July. Domestic prices for Russian natural gas even after these increases remain at about a tenth of world price levels at the current exchange rate. -Erik Whitlock RADIATION LEAK. A small amount of Radioactive plutonium leaked into the atmosphere from a factory in Chelyabinsk-65 on 17 July, according to Reuters on 19-July. Twenty liters of plutonium-238 was released when a storage tank ruptured, but nobody was harmed, and the amount of plutonium released is reported to be insignificant. The accident follows another explosion at the Tomsk-7 plutonium processing plant earlier this year, and adds to fears about the safety of Russia's nuclear industry. The Washington Post on 20 July also reports that workers at the Krasnoyarsk-26 plutonium complex have declared the plant at risk of a nuclear accident, since skilled technicians have quit their jobs, and the key chemicals necessary to ensure safety are unavailable. The environmental group Greenpeace has criticized the Russian government for delay in reporting the Chelyabinsk-65 accident until two days after the event. -Sheila Marnie MINERS' STRIKE. Miners in Vorkuta (Republic of Komi) staged a one hour warning strike on 19 July in protest at the announcement of the first redundancies at the mines, according to ITAR-TASS on the same day. The miners are demanding that the government stop redundancies until a special program on closures has been adopted and social guarantees offered to the dismissed workers. Seven mines in Vorkuta are threatened with closure, three of which this year. At one mine 305 miners have already been given notice, and a total of more than 3,000 miners are threatened with dismissal. -Sheila Marnie GRACHEV ON MILITARY DOCTRINE. Perhaps the most authoritative article to date on the new Russian military doctrine and strategy has been published in Voyennaia mysl, no. 6, by Pavel Grachev. Grachev does not specify likely enemies, but calls for the ability to fight both local and global conventional conflicts. While noting that a pre-meditated global war or nuclear war is unlikely, he warns that "the most probable [scenario], is [Russia's] gradual entanglement in conflicts unleashed in neighboring countries and regions. With the complex interconnections and interdependent interests of various states and peoples every armed conflict could escalate into a large-scale war." Absent from his article is any discussion of defense of Russian minorities in the "near abroad," but given Grachev's vagueness on the issue of threats this may not mean that their "defense" has been abandoned. -John Lepingwell GOODBYE TO "REASONABLE SUFFICIENCY? GRACHEV EMPHASIZES THE CREATION OF A NEW MILITARY STRATEGY INCORPORATING BOTH OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS. He notes that in the event of war the military might have to fight without prepared defenses or full mobilization, and hence may have to utilize a maneuver defense. Nowhere does he refer to the concepts of "defensive sufficiency" or "reasonable sufficiency" which were so prevalent (if ill-defined) during the Gorbachev period. In terms of military technology, Grachev repeats previous calls for a technological upgrading of the Russian military, and explicitly points to the Gulf War as an example of the benefits gained by extensive use of high technology. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE OFFERS PLAN TO REGULATE ABKHAZ CONFLICT. Meeting with Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Pastukhov in Sukhumi on 18-July, Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze proposed a plan for stage-by-stage demilitarization of the conflict, Reuters reported. Steps would include a ceasefire, creation of an observer system, return of refugees, troop withdrawals, and disarmament. Speaking on Georgian Radio on 19 July, Shevardnadze said that Russian politicians in both government and parliament had begun to realize that Russia needs a stable Georgia, and that good-neighborly relations would benefit both states, ITAR-TASS reported. -Catherine Dale TAJIK UPDATE. Tajik and/or Russian warplanes bombed a strategic rebel stronghold east of Dushanbe on 19 July, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. The rebels had attacked Tajik government positions on 18 July, killing 8 soldiers, and Tajikistan's defense minister Aleksandr Shishlyannikov claimed that 100-rebels were killed in the counteroffensive. The government's goal is to reopen the strategic road from Dushanbe to Khorog, the capital of the Gorno-Badakhshon Autonomous Oblast, which the rebels have been blocking. ITAR-TASS on 19 July reported that Kyrgyzstan is to send a "task force" to help secure the Tajik-Afghan border. Previous Kyrgyz government efforts to send peacekeepers were blocked by the Kyrgyz parliament. Russian Security Minister Viktor Barannikov arrived in Dushanbe on 19 July and is discussing comprehensive measures to stabilize the situation with Tajik government officials and Russian military commanders in the area. -Keith Martin AKAEV LOSES IMPORTANT RUSSIAN SUPPORTER. Kyrgyzstan's former Vice President and First Vice Premier German Kuznetsov has emigrated to Russia, ITAR-TASS reported on 16-July, telling Kyrgyzstan's most important Russian-language daily that the government no longer listened to him and that important decisions were being taken behind his back. Kuznetsov was one of the earliest and staunchest supporters of President Akaev's reform program from Kyrgyzstan's Russian community. His departure is likely to give impetus to the emigration of Russians from Kyrgyzstan as well as being a personal blow to Akaev. On 17 July the same source reported that a gathering of democratic groups associated with the Erkin Kyrgyzstan Party had called for the resignation of Akaev, the government and legislature because they have been unable to find a way out of the country's economic decline. -Bess Brown CENTRAL ASIAN OPPOSITION FIGURES AWARDED HUMAN RIGHTS GRANTS. RFE/RL has learned that writers Shirali Nurmuradov and Mukhametmurad Salamatov of Turkmenistan, Babur Shokirov of Uzbekistan, journalist Karishal Asanov of Kazakhstan and Uzbek human rights activist Abdumannob Pulatov have been awarded grants for persecuted writers by the Fund for Free Expression, a division of Human Rights Watch. The grants are funded by a bequest from the estates of Lillian Hellman and Dashiel Hammett. Nurmuradov, a poet, is co-chairman of the Turkmen Popular Front movement Agzybirlik. Salamatov is founder and editor of the banned Turkmen human rights journal Dayanch. Pulatov, a journalist, is chairman of the Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan. Shokirov and Asanov are also journalists. All of these men have opposed the governments of their respective countries both in print and in action and have faced persecution for their activities. They have all been arrested in the past on various charges and Salamatov has been assaulted by men who he claims were KGB agents. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu CIS SEVASTOPOL UPDATE. According to an RFE/RL correspondent in New York, Ukrainian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk is pressing for an open session of the UN Security Council to consider the Russian parliament's declaration on Sevastopol. The Russian representative to the Security Council is not opposing the proposal, as the Russian government apparently wishes to go on record as repudiating the parliament's resolution. On 19 July the Russian parliament voted to include 78 billion rubles in the defense budget to finance the Black Sea Fleet. While that amendment, proposed by Sergei Baburin, was passed, another amendment that would have included 1 billion rubles for the financing of Sevastopol itself was defeated, ITAR-TASS reported on 19 July. Finally, in an interview with Uriadovy kurier on 17 July, Rear Admiral I. Pivenko noted that there are some 60,000 Ukrainian conscripts serving in the Black Sea Fleet, most of them under Russian officers. This confirms recent reports that up to 80% of the fleet's enlisted personnel are Ukrainian, rather than the 50% called for in Ukrainian-Russian agreements. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE EC TO PRESSURE CROATIA WITH SANCTIONS THREAT. International media reported on 19 July that the Community's foreign ministers agreed to warn Croatia that it could face limited economic sanctions if it does not move to make the Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina stop fighting the Muslims. German opposition prevented the session from taking up immediate trade sanctions, but the Belgian foreign minister is slated to take a "strong message" to Zagreb on 20 July. For months there has been talk in Croatian public life and the media of "silent sanctions" allegedly already imposed on Croatia by the EC. The view has also been expressed that Croatia has been abandoned by most of its "natural allies" in Roman Catholic Central Europe, and particular bitterness has been expressed toward German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel. Few, if any, domestic commentators are willing to suggest that Croatia bears responsibility for its seeming isolation. -Patrick Moore MORE BATTLES IN BOSNIA. Fighting continued on 19-July on Mount Igman outside Sarajevo. Government forces called it the heaviest Serb assault in the area since fighting began last year. A UN official said that if the government forces lose the mountain, as many as 32,000 people might flee across the airport runway, where scores of civilians have been shot dead by snipers. According to Reuters, another UN official said, "We would like to prevent this happening at all costs because an exodus across the runway would be a turkey shoot, a tragedy." Meanwhile, the Bosnian presidency has agreed in principle to attend peace talks, but cited as preconditions an end to Serb offensives, a solid cease-fire, and the restoration of water, power, and gas in Sarajevo. Elsewhere, international media reported heavy attacks by Bosnian Croatian forces against Muslims in Vitez and Mostar, while Gorazde was under Serbian shelling. International aid officials wrestled with the problem of 230 abandoned mental patients, half of them children, in Fojnica. Bosnian troops seized Fojnica from Croat forces last week and the patients were left behind. -Fabian Schmidt ALBANIANS, SERBS MEET IN OHRID. On 9-11 July, intellectuals from Kosovo, Albania, and Serbia met in Ohrid to continue talks begun in April in Budapest. At the meetings, organized by the Soros Foundation in Belgrade, Tirana, and Pristina, the participants said that "people meet either before the fight-to prevent it, or afterwards-to count the victims." They agreed to undertake joint activities in Kosovo to calm tensions and to influence public opinion against the lawlessness there. Meetings for medical professionals from Albania, Kosovo, and Serbia are planned for Pristina, where many Albanian doctors have lost their jobs. The Albanian newspaper Aleanca carried the report on 13 July. -Fabian Schmidt REACTIONS TO REFERENDUMS IN ESTONIA. Commenting on the results of the recent referendums on making the predominantly Russian towns of Narva and Sillamae autonomous regions in Estonia, a Russian foreign ministry official said that no matter how many people took part, a dialogue remains necessary to resolve the complaints of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia. Peteris Vinkelis, First Secretary of the Latvian embassy in Moscow, said that the referendums created a dangerous precedent for his country, even if Latvia does not have such enclaves as Narva. He added that an official dissociation from blunt statements by Russian politicians on this issue would be welcomed, Baltic media reported on 19 July. Latvians picketed the Russian embassy in Riga last week to protest what they saw as Russian efforts to pressure Estonia. In Tallinn, the Supreme Court is now discussing the referendums and will issue a ruling soon. The official Estonian view has been that the referendums were illegal. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT LEADER IN LATVIA. Diena reported on 17 July that extreme Russian nationalist and National Salvation Front leader Ilya Konstantinov is visiting Latvia to assess the situation of Russians there. He plans to meet in Riga with the 500-or so members of the Nash Sovremennik club, which was founded about three years ago and has encouraged Russians to take a more active part in Latvian elections. He told Diena that Russia's National Salvation Front has good contacts in Latvia, as does the Nash Sovremennik club. Along with the Defense of Human Rights Committee, the club gathers in a building at 4 Tornu Street, where pro-Soviet organizations continue to meet. -Dzintra Bungs SLOVAK PARLIAMENT ELECTS SUPREME CONTROLLER AND NATIONAL BANK GOVERNOR. On 19 July the Slovak parliament elected Marian Vanko of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia as chairman of the Supreme Supervisory Office, which oversees state offices and institutions. Vanko received 79 of 140 votes, while vice-chairmen Peter Sokol and Marian Vrabec of the Slovak National Party each received 80-votes. After his election, Vanko pledged "impartiality and objectivity," TASR reports. Chairman of the Party for the Democratic Left Peter Weiss called the election "a loss of democracy" since the MDS will remain unchecked. Weiss also criticized the SNP for breaking its vows to join the opposition in electing a non-MDS official as chairman. In the same session, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar's choice for National Bank Director, Vladimir Masar, was approved, receiving 79 of 133 votes. Marian Tkac was appointed vice-governor with 77 votes, although CTK reported that the Christian Democratic Movement opposed his appointment. -Sharon Fisher POLISH GOVERNMENT SHAKEUP. Poland's acting agriculture minister, Janusz Bylinski, resigned his post on 16 July. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka named Jacek Janiszewski, a member of the coalition's Peasant Christian Alliance, to replace him on 19 July. Bylinski made his announcement a few hours after Suchocka had fired Wlodzimierz Rembisz as head of the Agricultural Market Agency, the body that makes interventionary purchases to keep farm prices stable. A government audit charged that Rembisz made use of foreign autos loaned by grain importers, apparently in return for preferential treatment. Bylinski told reporters on 19 July that policy differences with Suchocka's agricultural adviser sparked his resignation, but there was speculation that the move was designed to improve his chances in the elections. Bylinski is a candidate for the Peasant Alliance (PL), the party that defected from the coalition in May. The ministerial post has been vacant since PL chief Gabriel Janowski resigned in protest on 8 April. -Louisa Vinton FRICTION BETWEEN WALESA AND SUCHOCKA? THE GOVERNMENT SHAKEUP PROMPTED A QUICK REACTION FROM PRESIDENT LECH WALESA, WHO REQUESTED IN A LETTER TO THE PRIME MINISTER CARRIED BY PAP ON 19 JULY THAT SUCHOCKA PRESERVE "CONTINUITY IN THE FUNCTIONING OF ALL STATE OFFICES." He requested that she consult all further personnel changes with him "because otherwise the public could perceive them as part of a preelection political game." Suchocka responded on the same day that she is "of a single mind" with the president on this issue. Without making an explicit protest, her press secretary indicated that Walesa had been consulted on the new appointment before he released his letter for publication. -Louisa Vinton IMF PRAISES POLAND'S PROGRESS. Ending a two-week visit to Warsaw on 17 July, a delegation from the International Monetary Fund had high praise for Poland's economic performance in the first half of 1993. A final assessment of Poland's compliance with the standby arrangement reached in November 1992 will have to wait until August, however, apparently to allow the IMF time to judge the seriousness of Poland's trade deficit. Exports are running as planned, but imports are far higher than expected. The introduction of the VAT may have spurred a temporary import boom. The trade deficit at the end of June was $796-million, PAP reported on 16 July. IMF representatives stressed that the overall picture is positive: Polish production is rising faster than predicted, while the mid-year budget deficit, at 31 trillion zloty ($1.8 billion), is only 38% of the planned total for the entire year. IMF approval will clear the way for $700 million in new loans for Poland. -Louisa Vinton POLISH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION UP 9.4%. Reports from the state statistical office (GUS) on the first six months of 1993 show that Poland's economy continues to grow. Industrial production was 9.4% higher than in the first half of 1992, PAP reported on 16-July. Production for June was 12.8% higher than in June 1992. Labor productivity and firm profitability continued their slow but steady rise. Inflation slowed, with prices 34.3% higher than in June 1992. On the down side, agriculture remained depressed, apartment construction dropped to roughly one-half the level of last year, and unemployment continued to rise, as virtually all new school graduates registered for benefits in June. Total registered unemployment is now 14.6% of the work force, or 2,701,793 people. The unemployment rate varies sharply by region, ranging from 7.3% in Warsaw to 26.6% in Koszalin. Labor ministry officials predicted on 19 July that unemployment will peak at 3,200,000 at the end of 1994 and then fall gradually to 2,300,000 by 2005. -Louisa Vinton LITHUANIA'S PRODUCTION CONTINUES TO DROP. Despite lower inflation, production in Lithuania continued to decline in June, BNS reported on 19 July. Compared to May, production was lower in 35 of 47-principal groups. The biggest drops were in mineral fertilizers (91%), canned meat (88%), tape recorders (71%), paper (28%), and footwear (26%). Lithuania stopped producing synthetic ammonia, superphosphates, window glass, sugar, toilet paper, combined fodder and other goods. Production was up in only 11-principal groups: canned milk (97%), cheese (44%), butter (30%), flour (17%), laundry detergents (16%), and cement (10%). Lithuania's industries worked at only 52% capacity in June. -Saulius Girnius NEW EC RESTRICTIONS ON POLISH IMPORTS. The European Community's decision on 19 July to impose mandatory minimum prices on imported Polish cherries drew sharp protests from the Polish government. Polish TV reports that the minimum prices imposed by the EC exceed current market prices in Europe, and will thus effectively shut out Polish exporters. Similar restrictions were imposed earlier on Hungarian cherries. Poland has protested the decision as unlawful. Foreign Economic Cooperation Minister Andrzej Arendarski said that the EC policy reflects a "consistent but absurd logic" of imposing minor restrictions to protect EC markets from East European competition. He worried that "now it's cherries; in two weeks it will be plums, apples, and pears." Poland's cherry exports earned almost $3.5 million in 1992. -Louisa Vinton JORDAN HALTS IMPORT OF BULGARIAN MEAT. Jordan has prohibited the import of all Bulgarian meat products, Western agencies reported on 19 July. Referring to cases of hoof-and-mouth disease in Bulgaria during May, officials in Amman said the ban was motivated by the need to protect Jordanian livestock. On the same grounds the European Community introduced an import ban in early June, but lifted it after Sofia declared that the source of contamination had been eliminated. Bulgarian diplomats in Amman expressed surprise at the untimely measure. In 1992 Bulgaria supplied Jordan with 7,000 metric tons of meat, roughly 30% of the country's total red meat imports. -Kjell Engelbrekt HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN TRADE TALKS. Hungarian Minister of International Relations Bela Kadar and Minister of State Misu Negritoiu, Chairman of the Romanian government's council for economic coordination, strategy, and reform, discussed bilateral trade in Budapest on 19 July, Radio Budapest reports. They agreed to set up a new Hungarian trade office in Cluj and a joint bank in Oradea, and to request the aid of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for the establishment of a joint Hungarian-Romanian trade development bank. Last year, Hungarian exports to Romania rose by 15%, while Romania, which has a 26-million transferable ruble debt vis-a-vis Hungary, doubled its exports to that country. -Alfred Reisch ROMANIA, MOLDOVA TO BOOST TIES. On 17 July Mircea Snegur, President of the Republic of Moldova, paid a one-day visit to Bucharest at the head of a high-ranking delegation, including Premier Andrei Sangheli and Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu. Snegur had two rounds of talks with Romania's President Ion Iliescu, in the presence of Romanian Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. The two delegations discussed ways to boost bilateral relations, and especially economic integration. They agreed on plans to set up a joint bank and chamber of commerce, as well as joint facilities in the energy and transport sectors. In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest at the end of the meeting, Snegur dismissed rumors in the media about a chill in Romanian-Moldovan relations. Iliescu, on the other hand, stressed the "political significance" of Snegur's visit. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIA'S EX-COMMUNISTS CONDITIONALLY SUPPORT GOVERNMENT. Ilie Verdet, chairman of the Socialist Labor Party, and his first deputy Tudor Mohora told journalists on 19 July that their organization would continue to offer conditional support to Nicolae Vacaroiu's minority cabinet, dominated by the Party of Social Democracy in Romania (the former Democratic National Salvation Front). Verdet and Mohora acknowledged that the parliamentary alliance with the ruling party had been strongly attacked at a recent SLP assembly, with many speakers calling for withdrawing support from the government to protest the decline in Romania's economic and social life. Verdet suggested that further support for the cabinet would depend on its future policies. He was also quoted by an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest as saying that because of government toadying to Western countries, Romanian is in fact ruled by the IMF and the World Bank. The SLP is the main successor to the Romanian Communist Party, which disappeared from the political scene in December 1989, after Nicolae Ceausescu's overthrow. -Dan Ionescu ESTONIAN NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE PARTY CONGRESS. On 17-18 July, the Estonian National Independence Party held its 6th Congress, BNS reported on 19 July. After party chairman and Interior Minister Lagle Parek tendered her resignation, the congress elected Ants Erm, the party's faction leader in the parliament, as its new chairman. The congress had been called to resolve internal disputes that had weakened the party's standing. -Saulius Girnius POLAND REPORTS DROP IN ILLEGAL MIGRATION. Polish border guards detained 11,441 people (including 5,487 Romanians) attempting to cross the border illegally in the first half of 1993. Of these, 10,038 were detained during attempts to cross into Germany; only some 900-were caught trying to enter Poland. The total for the same period in 1992 was 15,624, PAP reported on 17 July. Refugee office chief Tomasz Kozlowski told Der Spiegel on 19 July that illegal attempts to cross the Polish border had declined, both because of the deterrent effect of the new German asylum law and better controls on the "green border." During the first two weeks after the new asylum law took effect, Germany returned only 136 would-be asylum seekers to Poland, Kozlowski noted. Poland itself has not recorded an increase in requests for asylum but Kozlowski warned that Poland's attractiveness would grow as refugees' paths to Western Europe were cut off. -Louisa Vinton NEW LATVIAN EMIGRATION DATA. Diena reported on 17 July that 982 adults emigrated from Latvia to countries other than the former Soviet republics during the first half of 1993; the comparable figure for 1992 was 1012. In the first half of 1993, 404 people left for Israel, while 578 emigrated to the US, Germany, Finland, Sweden, and Poland. Most emigrants are Jews; the second-largest group are Russians. Only 22 are ethnic Latvians, according to Internal Affairs Ministry data. -Dzintra Bungs HEALTH GAP BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN EUROPE. Health conditions in Eastern Europe are far behind those in Western Europe, according to the World Bank's "Report on Global Health," published in July. In Eastern Europe, people face "a variety of serious environmental health threats, of which the greatest are particulates and gases in air, lead in air and soil and nitrates and metals in water." Mortality rates for middle-age males are roughly double those in Western Europe. Air pollution is cited as most damaging to health, especially in the "black triangle" of northern Bohemia and Moravia, Silesia, and Saxony. In the black triangle areas of the Czech Republic, "air pollution causes up to 3% of total mortality and is responsible for roughly 9% in the gap in mortality rates with Western Europe. -Milada Vachudova [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Sheila Marnie and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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