|If you wish to make an apple pie truly from scratch, you must first invent the universe. - Carl Sagan|
No. 134, 16 July 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA CHERNOMYRDIN WANTS TRADE EXPANSION.-.-. Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, on the second day of a three-day visit to Germany, told reporters in Bonn on 15 July that Russia, as never before, is prepared for dialogue, compromise, and cooperation with its foreign partners. The Russian minister noted that Russia was interested in continuing to provide Germany with raw materials and energy sources, but would like to expand into other forms of trade as well. Chernomyrdin said he was "obviously dissatisfied" with the reception of Russian goods in the EC market, saying "we don't agree with the discrimination to which Russian products are subjected." He cited machine tools, consumer goods, and textiles as examples, according to an RFE/RL correspondent in Bonn. -Suzanne Crow .-.-.-AND GERMANY RESPONDS. According to Victor Vogt, head of Foreign Trade Department of the German Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Cologne, Germany is ready to go ahead with investment in Russia, specifically with three joint ventures designed to modernize Russia's energy infrastructure, but "it is up to [Russia] to deliver the necessary conditions for the investments to proceed." German businessmen told the Chernomyrdin delegation during talks on 15 July that Russia needs to clarify which authorities (regional or central) and which government agencies in Russian have the power to make decisions, the Financial Times reported on 16 July. -Suzanne Crow KHASBULATOV MEETS WITH WESTERN JOURNALISTS. Ruslan Khasbulatov chided Western journalists for their "one-sided" reporting of the political situation in Russia at a press conference aired on Russian television on 14 July. He again denied that the parliament was anti-reform, pointing to the recent economic roundtable between the government and parliament as proof of parliament's commitment to reform. He dismissed the possibility of an early convocation of the Congress of People's Deputies and called instead for a national conference on the economy in order to determine future economic policies. Khasbulatov also warned that efforts to undermine the legislative branch were having a negative and destabilizing impact throughout Russia, and called on the international community to ensure the rights of national minorities in the Baltic States. -Dominic Gualtieri MORE ON ARMY'S MANPOWER PROBLEMS. Lt. Gen. Vladimir Bondartsev, the first deputy chief of the Defense Ministry's organization-mobilization directorate, was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 15 July as saying that although Russia's spring draft targets had been fully met, the army's enlisted ranks are still only 51% manned, leaving a total shortfall of more than 700,000. Bondartsev estimated that following the demobilization of some 320,000 draftees this fall, manning levels among enlisted men would fall to 30-35% of the required number, a level at which normal functioning of the army would be impossible. He said that the Defense Ministry had requested that medical and educational deferments be narrowed and that approval of a draft law on alternate military service be delayed until 1994-1995. Bondartsev also said that the recruitment of 109,000 contract servicemen had proven insufficient, and revealed that the army had gone to the government with a request for an additional 12 billion rubles in order to sign up another 50,000 contract soldiers. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REVIEWED. A parliamentary commission, headed by the chairman of the Sub-Committee for Foreign Security and Intelligence of the Committee for Foreign Policy and Foreign Economic Relations, Evgenii Kozhokin, has confirmed that the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) is abiding by current Russian laws. At a press conference reported by ITAR-TASS on 14 July, Kozhokin said that his commission, which consisted of twelve deputies from different factions, had found that a majority of officers want to continue working in the SVR but that many others had quit their job for financial reasons. -Alexander Rahr TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RUSSIA ACTS ON TAJIK SITUATION. On 15 July Russia's parliament approved an urgent order to the Russian government to take "all necessary measures to protect and ensure the safety" of Russian border guards in Tajikistan; it also ratified a treaty with Tajikistan, signed on 25 May 1993, that creates a legal basis for Russian troops to engage in combat operations, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. Citing "a threat to the national security of the Russian Federation," President Boris Yeltsin threatened unilateral action if parliament did not act quickly. Deputy Defense Minister Konstantin Kobets implied that Russian forces, now authorized to use aircraft and missiles, might attack bases in Afghanistan; he said Russian troops would take action "on the entire territory of the conflict," and acknowledged that "most of the weapon stockpiles and terrorist training camps are in Afghanistan," AFP reported on 15 July. Meanwhile, Krasnaya Zvezda compared the situation to US attacks on Iraq, urging similar Russian strikes against Afghanistan. -Keith Martin TAJIK UPDATE. Fighting continued on both sides of the Tajik-Afghan border on 15 July. ITAR-TASS reported two further attacks on Russian border posts near the site of the large assault on 13 July that were repelled without any Russian casualties. Radio Kabul on 15 July again denied that Afghan fighters were involved in the fighting, and said that at least seven people were killed in an Afghan town attacked by unknown forces on the Tajik side of the Pyandzh river, which separates the two states. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev is expected to arrive in the border area on 16 July to assess the situation, AFP reported. -Keith Martin KAZAKHSTANI RESPONSE TO SLAVIC AGREEMENT. Kazakhstani State Counselor Tulegen Zhukeev told Izvestiya's correspondent in Kazakhstan that the economic integration agreement between Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus contains many points proposed over recent months by President Nursultan Nazarbaev to strengthen the CIS-and now Kazakhstan itself is excluded from the agreement. Zhukeev's complaint that it was Nazarbaev who called for the organization of an economic union, the creation of coordinating bodies and a single customs union was published in the 15 July issue of Izvestiya. The Kazakhstani official was reacting to Russian demands that the Central Asian states choose between association with the Slavic states and the Economic Cooperation Organization. -Bess Brown ERK'S RESPONSE TO THE NEW SLAVIC UNION. The Erk (Will) Democratic Party of Uzbekistan believes that the three Slavic states of the CIS want to push the Central Asian states out of the Commonwealth, said the spokesperson of the Erk Party, Dilaram Ishaqqizi, speaking with the RFE/RL Uzbek Service on 13 July in a telephone interview from Tashkent. Erk said that "although these [Slavic] states have not signed an official agreement, right now they are saying 'it is impossible for Central Asia to enter [this union]'." Ishaqqizi added that "whatever happens, the funeral of CIS is being held. In the near future we will see who will grab on to the corpse [of the CIS]." In a related development, on 13 July the Turkish daily Milliyet said that the purpose of this new union is to bar Turkish influence from Central Asia. -Yalcin Tokgozoglu ABKHAZ UPDATE. Although Abkhaz separatists refused to comply with a Georgian ultimatum demanding that Abkhaz troops pull back from Sukhumi by midnight on 14 July, Georgia has yet to launch its promised "massive offensive." ITAR-TASS quoted the Georgian forces press center in Abkhazia as saying that the front remained quiet but Georgian troops are being redeployed and have begun naval patrols. The Abkhaz Defense Ministry stated that both sides continued to shell enemy positions through 15 July, and that Abkhaz troops still hold the villages of Shroma and Akhalsheni near Sukhumi. Meanwhile, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Pastukhov met with Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze in Tbilisi on 15 July, and with the head of the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet Vladislav Ardzinba on 14 July in Gudauta, in an effort to arrange a ceasefire, ITAR-TASS reported. -Catherine Dale RUSSIAN ARMY BACKING ABKHAZIA? ON 18 JULY MOSKOVSKIE NOVOSTI CARRIED AN INTERVIEW WITH A FORMER RUSSIAN OFFICER WHO CLAIMED TO BE FIGHTING AS A MERCENARY FOR ABKHAZ SEPARATISTS. The officer, who said that the Abkhaz forces included a number of Afghan veterans and Cossacks, characterized relations between Russian and Abkhaz military units as "brotherly." He implied that Russian Defense Ministry statements claiming neutrality were largely for public consumption, and claimed that the success of Abkhaz forces was due at least in part to the advice rendered by Russian officers. The officer claimed that Russian officers had acted out of bitterness towards Shevardnadze for his role in the dissolution of the USSR and out of anger at the treatment of Russian military personnel by the Georgians. He suggested that many in the Russian General Staff favored supporting Abkhazia. -Stephen Foye COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES TENSIONS MOUNT OVER SEVASTOPOL. On 16 July, Ostankino TV reported that Sevastopol officials were deploying additional security forces in preparation for a planned mass demonstration in support of the city's joining Russia. Ekho Moskvy reported that the Ukrainian ambassador to Moscow has warned that a group of Russian parliamentarians planning to visit the city will not be allowed in. On a more conciliatory note, Dmitrii Pavlychko, the head of the Ukrainian parliament's foreign affairs committee, told Radio Ukraine on 15 July that he has proposed a meeting between Ivan Plyushch and Ruslan Khasbulatov, the speakers of the two parliaments, to try to resolve the dispute. -John Lepingwell RUSSIA TO PROPOSE NUCLEAR WEAPONS AGREEMENT,-.-.-. According to Krasnaya zvezda of 14 July 1993, the Russian government has approved a draft agreement on nuclear weapons elimination that will be proposed to Ukraine. The draft calls for Russia to reprocess the highly enriched uranium from the nuclear warheads into reactor fuel for Ukrainian nuclear power plants. Russia would assume responsibility for the long-term storage of other nuclear components, and during the dismantling process would maintain and service the weapons. As reported, the agreement appears to lack any provision for security guarantees or explicit recognition of Ukrainian ownership of the weapons, both likely preconditions for Ukrainian acceptance. In its basic outlines the draft appears similar to the agreement that Izvestiya on 28 June claimed was to have been signed during Prime Minister Chernomyrdin's visit to Ukraine in late June. -John Lepingwell .-.-.-AND SOME MISSILES MAY ALREADY BE DEACTIVATED.-.-.According to ITAR-TASS, Izvestiya reported on 15 July that Russia and Ukraine had already signed an agreement to deactivate some nuclear weapons. Work to remove warheads from 5 ICBMs at the Pervomaysk base (where both SS-19s and SS-24s are based) was reported to have begun on 15 July. Izvestiya claims that up to 10 ICBMs are to be deactivated under the terms of the agreement. -John Lepingwell .-.-.-BUT WHO'S MINDING THE WEAPONS? The Russian draft agreement calls for the special "nuclear-technical" troops now guarding nuclear weapons sites in Ukraine to be subordinated to the Russian Ministry of Defense. According to testimony given before a subcommittee of the US. Senate Foreign Relations Committee on 24 June by Bruce Blair, a nuclear weapons expert at the Brookings Institution, these troops are administratively subordinate to Ukraine but are supposedly operationally subordinate to Russia. Thus, in theory, they would only release the warheads on Moscow's orders. It is therefore unclear whether the proposed agreement represents a significant change. However, the explicit subordination of these troops to Russia may well be a stumbling block, given Ukraine's resistance to the stationing of Russian troops on its soil. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE DRASKOVIC VOWS TO FIGHT ON. Vuk Draskovic was released from a Belgrade neurological clinic on 15-July. According to Radio B92 and international media, the head of the opposition Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) told supporters he will renew his fight against the regime of Slobodan Milosevic by uniting all Serbian opposition parties: "United, we shall force Milosevic to resign and free Serbia of its isolation, hunger, poverty, and torment-.-.-." Doctors have advised Draskovic to rest for the next two months and undergo therapy to deal with the effects of severe beatings by police and a nine-day hunger strike. Draskovic and his wife were arrested 2 June after violent antigovernment demonstrations in Belgrade. The couple were pardoned by Milosevic on 9 July, but Draskovic still faces criminal proceedings for having attacked a policeman. -Milan Andrejevich FEDERAL YUGOSLAV GENERALS "RETIRED." Belgrade and international media report on 15 July that nearly a third of the Federal Army generals and admirals face retirement in a move to "rejuvenate" the military command structure. Other details such as the names of those facing retirement and those to be promoted and the exact numbers involved were not specified in the announcement by the Supreme Defense Council (Federal President Zoran Lilic, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, and Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic). It is estimated that about 40 officers will be replaced and that Chief of Staff Gen. Zivota Panic, under fire in parliament for alleged corruption, will retire at the end of July. This would be the second major wave of retirements since early 1992 and is regarded by some as a further consolidation of Milosevic's power. Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj, who accused Panic and four other high-ranking generals of corruption and disloyalty to Serbia, told Radio Serbia on 15 July that he is "shocked" by the "unacceptable pensioning off of a large group of generals who are steeped in corruption," and who should be removed and taken to court. -Milan Andrejevich SERB-CROAT CONFLICT HEATING UP. International media report on 15 and 16 July that the UN Security Council, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and the chief UN civilian official in the Yugoslav area have all warned Croatia not to go ahead with plans to reopen the Maslenica bridge and Zemunik airport on 18 July. The Serbs object in particular to Croat plans to reopen the bridge with a ceremony and have vowed to attack the place with their well-positioned artillery. The UN, for its part, regards the Croat move as a violation of an agreement calling for the withdrawal of Serb and Croat troops from the area. The Croatian government, however, has staked its domestic political prestige on reopening the bridge and airport, which are key factors in reinvigorating the devastated Dalmatian economy. In particular the symbol of the bridge featured prominently in the ruling party's election campaign last winter as they ran on the slogan "we will put our house in order." Meanwhile, Serb forces continued to subject Karlovac to the worst shelling since the 1991 war, and the Los Angeles Times reports on 16 July that the Serbs are "threatening to attack-.-.-. Zagreb with Scud-type missiles." -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN UPDATE. The Serbian forces besieging Sarajevo permitted the restoration of natural gas service after a cutoff last month, international media reported on 15 July. Three diesel tanker trucks with 75 tons of fuel were allowed into Sarajevo one day after the visit by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. After a deal between Serbian and Bosnian leaders, water is again flowing into the western districts of Sarajevo, but restoration of electricity hinges on further delicate talks. Meanwhile, according to Bosnian Radio, Croat forces launched a heavy-infantry attack on Mostar. The Bosnian army said "several thousand" missiles hit Mostar. A UN spokesman said no food aid has reached the Muslim side of Mostar for months and the 30,000 residents there have only two communal water taps, both exposed to sniper fire. -Fabian Schmidt KLAUS RECEIVES LETTER FROM ANTALL ON MINORITY RIGHTS. On 15 July, the eve of the Central European Initiative (CEI) summit in Budapest, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus noted that he has received a letter from Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall expressing misgivings about the rights accorded to the Hungarian minority in Slovakia, CTK reports. Klaus indicated that the Czech government has prepared a response to Antall's letter, expressing its belief that Slovak legislation is up to European standards and stating that the Czech Republic does not want to be "pulled into any specific disagreements regarding this issue." -Milada Vachudova CZECH COMMUNISTS PROTEST LAW CONDEMNING COMMUNIST REGIME. The Czech Communist Party has sent a letter to the European Court of Human Rights, Amnesty International and other international organizations protesting a law on the illegitimacy of the communist regime passed by the Czech parliament on 9 July. The letter charges that the law violates basic human rights and sidesteps international standards of justice by including collective guilt and enabling retroactive prosecution. The law states that the CPCS and other groups were criminal organizations whose ideology was designed to suppress democracy and human rights. -Milada Vachudova CZECH-SLOVAK AGREEMENTS READY FOR SIGNATURE. At the 15 July session of the Commission for the Division of Former Czechoslovak Property, Czech and Slovak finance ministers Ivan Kocarnik and Julius Toth prepared for signature agreements on the transfer of state assets and liabilities, the transfer of state guarantees, and the division of obligations to the former USSR, TASR reports. Toth said the amount of assets of the former Czechoslovak State Bank under contention has been reduced by 6.6 billion koruny; the two ministers agreed to an international audit to divide the remaining 18.1 billion koruny. Unresolved issues include the division of the 1992 state budget deficit. Toth also brought up the issue of the use of the name "Czechoslovakia" in company trademarks. -Sharon Fisher EC PHARE PROGRAM AID TO SLOVAKIA. The ambassador of the European Community Commission to Slovakia, Leopoldo Giunti, and Slovak Foreign Affairs Minister Jozef Moravcik signed an agreement in Bratislava on 15 July that provides Slovakia with 1.4-billion koruny in aid for the year 1993, TASR reports. Moravcik said the sum will be used for the development of the private business sector, human resources, and infrastructure, as well as for the General Technical Aid Fund (EURO-GTAF). -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PARLIAMENT BANS VILLAGE'S CURFEW FOR GYPSIES. On 15 July the east Slovak village of Spisske Podhradie's curfew for "Gypsies and other suspicious persons" was declared unconstitutional, Reuters reports. Implemented in an effort to reduce crime, the legislation caused an uproar in Slovakia, as representatives of 17 minority and human rights groups protested. Deputy Premier Roman Kovac previously asked village mayor Frantisek Slebodnik to abolish the curfew, but Slebodnik refused, saying there is nothing the police can do since Gypsies "sleep during the day and steal at night." Local chief of police Slavomir Lach said the regulation is "probably illegal but effective-.-.-. we have not noticed any crimes or violations" since the law went into effect in early July, TASR reported on 10-July. -Sharon Fisher SLOVAK COALITION DISCUSSIONS TO CONTINUE? ACCORDING TO SLOVAK NATIONAL PARTY DEPUTY CHAIRMAN PETER SOKOL, THERE IS NO OBSTACLE TO SIGNING A MUTUAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SNP AND THE RULING MOVEMENT FOR A DEMOCRATIC SLOVAKIA, TASR REPORTS ON 15 JULY. Sokol also said the SNP "does not consider the number of cabinet posts important, but the common philosophy of progress in political stabilization, as well as an agreement on economic aims." However, the daily Praca reports on 15 July that the two partners have taken a "10-day time out" since the coalition agreement was not completed on time. The paper quotes Meciar as saying he has "five methods to solve this possible political crisis," though observers note that early elections may be the only solution. -Sharon Fisher SUCHOCKA: GOVERN NOW, CAMPAIGN LATER. At the latest in a series of press conferences held to report on the government's work, Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka said on 15 July that she will enter the election campaign "extremely late." Suchocka heads the Democratic Union list for the Sejm in Poznan. Campaigning now, she told reporters, would interfere with the government's work. Refusing comment on the president's recent statements promoting his Nonparty Bloc to Support Reform, Suchocka said that her press conferences are held to discuss government policies, not her own political views. On other issues, Suchocka reported that, as part of its plan to push ahead with the "pact on state firms" and other economic programs despite the lack of a parliament, the government will choose a final list of firms for mass privatization by the beginning of September. Antitrust Office chairman Anna Fornalczyk will be appointed to head the "selection commission" that will choose management firms for the program. Suchocka expressed satisfaction that the introduction of the VAT had not prompted a surge in prices and said the reform of Poland's taxation system will be completed within two years. -Louisa Vinton POLAND GIVES LITHUANIA ARMS. During celebrations on 15 July to mark the 583rd anniversary of the Polish-Lithuanian victory over the Teutonic Knights at Grunwald in 1410, Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz presented his Lithuanian counterpart Audrius Butkevicius with ten armored transport vehicles and other military supplies and equipment. "The greatest sign of trust that can be shown a neighbor is to present him with arms," Butkevicius commented. Lithuania's armed forces now number about 12,000 soldiers, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton HUNGARIAN LIBERAL OPPOSITION PARTIES SIGN CAMPAIGN PACT. Hungarian Radio reports that the leaders of the two largest opposition parties, the Association of Young Democrats and the Association of Free Democrats have signed an election pact in preparation for the spring general election. The unusual agreement improves the prospects for the leaders of both parties, because it stipulates that they will not run against each other in individual districts. In other districts if, in the first round of the election, one candidate receives 5% more votes than the other party's candidate, the latter will not run in the second round. The two parties also agreed to consider forming a coalition in case of election victory, but excluded the possibility of cooperating in a coalition with either the present ruling coalition parties or with the Hungarian Socialist Party. The two parties also agreed to extend an offer of cooperation in the first round of elections to the new Party of the Republic, which is not now represented in parliament but which has as its head the highly popular Janos Palotas. -Karoly Okolicsanyi ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT OFFERS MINERS BIG PAY RISES. In a statement read on Radio Bucharest on 15 July, the Finance Ministry said the government could offer striking Jiu Valley coal miners wages 70% higher than last month's average salary. Additional resources are being sought to subsidize more pay increases for miners, who initially demanded that their salaries be tripled. In a first reaction to the announcement, Victor Ciorbea, leader of the National Confederation of Romania's Free Trade Unions-Fratia, warned the government that preferential treatment for miners would lead to social discontent and more tension among different social categories. -Dan Ionescu ZHELEV INTERVIEWED. On 15 July Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev spoke about a number of political issues in an interview to RFE/RL in Sofia. He said he felt the judiciary was at fault because communists were not held accountable for their misdeeds while in office, noting that neither he as president nor the parliament could perform the duties of a prosecutor. He also suggested that the opposition coalition, the Union of Democratic Forces, despite the fact that it had formed Bulgaria's first postcommunist government, has now succeeded in turning itself into "a marginal political force" and had alienated itself from erstwhile parliamentary supporters such as the ethnic Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms. Blaga Dimitrova's recent decision to resign from the vice presidency, Zhelev said, is "a huge political mistake." -Stan Markotich UKRAINIAN-TURKISH DEFENSE ACCORD. On 14-July Ukraininan Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov and his Turkish counterpart Nevzat Ayaz signed a memorandum of mutual understanding, Ukrainian TV reported on 15 July. The accord paves the way for an agreement on defense ministry cooperation that is currently being completed. An RFE/RL correspondent quoted Ayaz as saying that Turkey is willing to support Ukraine if it wishes to join NATO. Both ministers stressed that the geopolitical situation has made military and technical cooperation between Turkey and Ukraine essential. -Susan Stewart LATVIA ADOPTS LAW ON COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. Following heated debates and a walkout by the Independence Movement, Concord for Latvia, and Democratic Center Party factions, late on 15 July parliament reinstated the 1925 Law on the Council of Ministers. A coalition of Latvia's Way and Farmers' Union pushed for the law. It is they who want to form the new government, which will consist of 12 ministries: defense; foreign affairs; welfare; justice; state reform; finance; economics; internal affairs; education, culture, and science; agriculture; transportation; environmental protection; and regional development. Diena reported on 15 July that it is possible that the majority coalition will present its ministerial candidates as early as the next plenary session of the parliament that is scheduled for 20 July. -Dzintra Bungs KOHTLA-JARVE WILL NOT HOLD OPINION POLL. On 15 July the Kohtla-Jarve city council decided to reject a proposal to hold a poll on local autonomy, arguing that it would be a violation of the Estonian Constitution, Baltic media report. Kohtla-Jarve, which has a Russian-speaking majority, will thus not follow the example of its neighbors, Narva and Sillamae, which plan such referendums on 16-17 July. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN PRIME MINISTER IN ISRAEL. On 13 July Mart Laar on an official visit to Israel held talks with Foreign Minister Shimon Peres. At a meeting with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin Laar expressed satisfaction with the agreement to purchase armaments and ammunition worth $50 million from Israel, Radio Lithuania reported on 15 July. The two signed an agreement on cultural, scientific, and educational cooperation. Laar said he was surprised to learn that Estonia was the only Baltic State that has officially declared its intention to restore Jewish property nationalized by the Soviets. -Saulius Girnius CRIME DOWN, UNEMPLOYMENT UP IN BALTIC. According to data of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, since March the number of crimes in Latvia has been declining (5470 in March, 4938 in April, 4607 in May and 4572 in June) but violent crimes have been rising and the number of murders has doubled during the first half of this year as compared with the number for the same period in 1992. The RFE/RL Latvian Service reported on 15 July that during the first half of 1993 some 28,345 crimes were committed in Latvia, 32,025 in Lithuania, and 18,960 in Estonia, but the crime rate was highest in Estonia (124 crimes committed per 10,000 residents-compared with 108 in Latvia and 85 in Lithuania). Diena also reported on 13 July that about 65,900 persons have been officially registered as jobless and that the unemployment figure nationwide has risen to 4.6%. On 1 July the unemployment rate in Lithuania remained at 1.5% with 32,242 people officially registered as unemployed (an increase of 755 from 1 June), Respublika reported on 8 July. -Dzintra Bungs and Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by John Lepingwell and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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