|Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that happen to a man. - Leon Trotsky|
No. 132, 14 July 1993
RUSSIA POLITICIANS COMMENT ON NEW DRAFT CONSTITUTION. Executive secretary of the parliament's Constitutional Commission Oleg Rumyantsev told Ekho Moskvy radio on 13 July that he was sure that the Congress of People's Deputies would not approve a draft constitution prepared by the Constitutional Assembly. Rumyantsev argued that the draft that was given to the assembly's delegates on 12 July gave the president excessive powers at the expense of the parliament. In contrast, a leader of the Democratic Russia parliamentary faction, Aleksei Surkov, praised the assembly's draft, saying that it limited the powers of the president compared to the draft constitution that Yeltsin unveiled in April. Surkov told Russian Television that, for instance, the new draft did not give the president constitutional review powers that were given to him in the presidential draft constitution. Vera Tolz SHAKHRAI ON POWER STRUGGLE. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai has accused the parliamentary leadership of pushing local leaders toward a policy that will result in Russia's disintegration in order to preserve the power of the old nomenklatura. In an interview with Segodnya on 13 July he said that such a scenario had been developed by the former Politburo in 1989/90 to fight Russia's sovereignty. He claimed he had studied secret CPSU archive materials on that issue. Shakhrai also asserted that Sverdlovsk oblast's declaration that it is now the "Ural Republic" had been initiated by President Boris Yeltsin's opponents. Alexander Rahr DEMOCRATIC PARTY SEEKS NEW PARTNERS; APPROVES SEVASTOPOL VOTE. Nikolai Travkin, the leader of the Democratic Party of Russia (DPR) which until recently was a member of the Civic Union, told journalists on 13 July that the party's political council had authorized him to sound out possible partners for a new coalition. According to ITAR-TASS, Travkin claimed to have initiated the DPR's exit from the Civic Union because, since the seventh congress in December 1992, the bloc had moved away from a centrist position. The most likely future partner for the DPR, Travkin said, was the Center for International and Interregional Economic Questions, headed by the former secretary of the Security Council Yurii Skokov. The DPR also officially registered its approval of the recent parliamentary vote declaring Sevastopol a Russian city, because this represented "the defense of state interests." Wendy Slater CENTRAL BANK INTERVENES TO SUPPORT THE DOLLAR. Izvestiya on 14 July noted that the Russian Central Bank (RCB) has been intervening heavily to prevent any "wholesale fall" in the dollar rate on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange. As an example, it cited trading on 12 July, when the RCB bought something like $30-40 million. The purpose of such intervention is to avoid sharp surges in the ruble rate which could adversely affect Russian exporters. The article discloses that the RCB will shortly allow nonresidents access to the domestic foreign exchange market: this could appreciably increase the inflow of foreign exchange. The slight strengthening of the ruble may be attributable to optimistic pronouncements by Russian and Western spokespersons prior to the G-7 summit, to the (slightly) reduced monthly inflation rate, and to the realization that a rate of over 1,000 rubles to the dollar is way out of line with purchasing power parities (PPPs). Under the terms of the joint government-RCB statement on monetary-credit policy, published in Rossiiskie vesti of 1 June, the RCB undertook not to intervene in the currencies market with the aim of artificially supporting the ruble exchange rate: the agreement did not mention supporting the dollar exchange rate. Keith Bush RUSSIA TO BACK OUT OF INDIAN ROCKET DEAL? REUTERS REPORTED ON 13 JULY THAT MOSCOW IS CONSIDERING PULLING OUT OF ITS $350 MILLION ROCKET DEAL WITH INDIA. The deal, which calls for Moscow to supply cryogenic rocket engines and related technology to India, has met stiff opposition in Washington. The problem was discussed by the US and Russian presidents in Tokyo following the G-7 summit and, according to Reuters, Yeltsin offered to cancel the sale so long as Washington offered adequate compensation, including a share in the lucrative business of launching US commercial satellites. The head of Glavkosmos, the Russian commercial space agency, is in Washington and is expected to begin talks with US officials on 14 July in hopes of reaching agreement. Indian officials have warned that cancellation of the sale could harm Russian-Indian cooperation in other areas. Stephen Foye FOREIGN AID FROM RUSSIA? IN MATERIALS SUPPLIED TO PARLIAMENT, FINANCE MINISTER BORIS FEDOROV CLAIMED THAT RUSSIA IN 1992 TRANSFERRED $17 BILLION TO OTHER FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS, ITAR-TASS REPORTED ON 13 JULY. This figure is juxtaposed with the GDP to suggest that Russian foreign aid is proportionally much higher than, say, US or Japanese aid disbursements that year. Fedorov's estimate, which has also been given by other government spokesmen, refers, however, to the difference between world prices and the prices charged within the CIS plus the value of technical credits extended by Russia to its CIS trading partners. It should therefore not be categorized as foreign aid. Keith Bush "GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT" ON COAL PRICES PROPOSED. The cabinet on 13 July agreed to a proposal aimed at limiting increases in coal prices after their deregulation on 1 July, ITAR-TASS reported. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets, who was presiding, announced that some coal mining regions wanted to push up their prices by a factor of 8-10. Metal industries have complained that this would drive the price of their product up to 20-30% above world prices. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais therefore proposed that the coal miners and metal industries reach a "gentlemen's cartel agreement" whereby coal prices be kept to a reasonable level. Keith Bush MINIMUM WAGE/PENSION TO BE RAISED? THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT PLANS TO RAISE THE MINIMUM WAGE TO 7,000 RUBLES A MONTH EFFECTIVE FROM 1 JULY, ACCORDING TO EKHO MOSKVY ON 13 JULY. The minimum pension will likewise be raised to 14,200 rubles a month. (The average wage at the beginning of April was 23,599 rubles a month.) Sheila Marnie NEW COMMANDER FOR NORTH CAUCASUS MILITARY DISTRICT. Krasnaya zvezda reported on 13 July that Colonel General Aleksei Nikolaevich Mityukhin has been named the new commander of the forces of the North Caucasus Military District. The order was signed by Boris Yeltsin on 29 June. Mityukhin was born in 1945 in Tula oblast and his most recent posting was as First Deputy Commander of the Western Group of Forces. (Mityukhin appeared on Russian Television on 24 April to defend the leadership of the Western Group of Forces against corruption charges leveled by Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi.) Mityukhin succeeds Colonel General Lev Shustko. Mityukhin's post is a key one for Russian military leaders have made clear that changing geo-strategic realities have compelled them both to restructure the old military district system and to focus their attention on the defense of Russia's southern borders. The North Caucasus Military District, which is one of the linchpins in this southern strategy, will apparently also be one of the first military districts to be restructured. Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA GEORGIA ISSUES ULTIMATUM TO ABKHAZIA. The Georgian Defense Ministry issued an ultimatum to Abkhaz separatists on 13 July, demanding that Abkhaz troops cease shelling Sukhumi and withdraw from two strategic villages north of the Georgian-held city by midnight on 14 July. Defense Minister Georgii Karkarashvili stated that if Abkhazia does not comply, Georgia will launch a full-scale offensive which will extend to Gudauta, the separatist stronghold, Reuters reported. Catherine Dale NO PROGRESS TOWARDS IMPLEMENTING CSCE KARABAKH PEACE PLAN. Four days of talks in Baku, Erevan and Stepanakert, between government officials and CSCE Karabakh mediator Mario Raffaelli have produced no concrete results, a spokesman for the Nagorno-Karabakh Department of Information and the Press told ITAR-TASS on 13 July. Raffaelli, whose itinerary was twice altered because of imminent fighting in the area, refused to comment on his meeting with Karabakh officials. According to Radio Rossii, Karabakh officials have requested a one-month postponement of implementation of the latest timetable for the withdrawal of Armenian forces from Kelbadzhar (scheduled to begin 15 July) because of the political instability in Azerbaijan. After visiting the besieged town of Agdam on 12 July, Raffaelli had warned of "terrible consequences" if no settlement is reached on implementing the proposed peace settlement. Liz Fuller REBEL ATTACK IN TAJIKISTAN. In the bloodiest cross-border raid since the Tajik civil war ended, about 200 Tajik rebels and their Afghan supporters have captured a Russian border post in Tajikistan and destroyed a nearby village of 700, Russian and Western news agencies reported on 13 July. The attack was preceded by heavy mortar attacks; unconfirmed reports speak of 20 to 25 "families" and at least 20 Russian border guards being killed. Russian and Tajik government forces were reportedly counterattacking. Tajikistan's foreign minister repeated his country's view that the Afghan government was aiding the rebels, and that Tajikistan would take "appropriate measures." Afghanistan's foreign minister, also on 13 July, told Radio Free Afghanistan that his government is not interfering in Tajikistan's internal affairs and is conducting a dialogue with the Tajik government. Keith Martin CIS SHOKHIN: CENTRAL ASIA, AZERBAIJAN MUST CHOOSE. Russian Deputy Prime Minister, Aleksandr Shokhin, told reporters on 13 July that those former Soviet republics which have joined the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), must choose whether to stay in that organization or join the newly-formed economic union between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. These states--the Central Asian republics and Azerbaijan--recently took part in an ECO conference in Istanbul, where they agreed to further measures aimed at economic integration. Shokhin cited the ECO meeting as an impetus for the recent agreement between Belarus, Ukraine and Russia to form a common economic space. Part of that agreement stipulates that countries cannot be members of another economic group (such as the ECO) if that would impede economic integration. The pan-Slavic agreement is seen in Central Asia as an effort to push them out of the ruble zone and as a possible first step toward the dissolution of the CIS. Erik Whitlock and Keith Martin BAIKONUR STAFF APPEALS TO MOSCOW AND ALMATY. A group of military construction workers at the Baikonur space launch center have appealed to the presidents and chairmen of the legislatures of Russia and Kazakhstan to decide the future of the center and of the town of Leninsk which services it, Radio Mayak reported on 12 July. The appeal asks that CIS states, particularly Russia, Ukraine and Belarus agree to provide the type of assistance to long-time workers at Baikonur that Kazakhstan has introduced for victims of the environmental catastrophe in the Aral Sea region. Deterioration of living conditions for Baikonur workers in Leninsk were a factor contributing to riots at the beginning of June. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ISLAMIC STATES OFFER TROOPS FOR BOSNIA. UN mediator Thorvald Stoltenberg warned on 13 July of possible UN personnel withdrawals from Bosnia-Herzegovina. He said that it has been difficult to obtain reinforcements for humanitarian operations through the coming winter, and that he would recommend withdrawal if aid is not forthcoming. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, moreover, confirmed that there is a "real risk" that the UN will withdraw if the conditions continue to deteriorate. Meanwhile, six Islamic countries (Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Turkey, Tunisia) and the PLO offered to contribute more than 17,000 troops to the UN peacekeeping mission. Boutros-Ghali had asked for "a light option" of 7,600 troops to defend security zones for Bosnian civilians. A final resolution, adopted by the Organization of Islamic Conference at a two-day meeting in Islamabad, said that the soldiers would not take part in "any plan to partition the country or to create refugee ghettos in Bosnia Herzegovina." Western commentaries noted, however, that the offer might not be accepted, since the Serbs and perhaps others are unlikely to consider some of these states neutral. Fabian Schmidt CROAT-MUSLIM RELATIONS CONTINUE TO DETERIORATE. Reuters reported on 13 July that Muslims launched an offensive against Croats in Herzegovina, and Hina said that a similar attack was underway in central Bosnia. The BBC's Serbian Service on 14 July quoted UN sources as saying that the Croats meanwhile have stepped up their ethnic cleansing campaign against Muslims in Mostar, adding that the males were being held in especially bad conditions. Meanwhile in Rovinj in northwest Croatia, Vjesnik reports on 14 July that Muslim refugees have recently forced their way into 500 vacant apartments in an apparently well-organized procedure. This follows similar developments elsewhere in Croatia. The outbreak of Croat-Muslim fighting this spring, together with long-standing Croat fears about large numbers of Muslims ultimately remaining in Croatia and changing the demographic balance, have led to much speculation that Zagreb might change its hitherto generous policy toward Muslim refugees. At his 5 July press conference, President Franjo Tudjman indicated that the Muslims' welcome is indeed wearing thin. Patrick Moore CROATIAN UPDATE. Tudjman's press conference, however, is best remembered for the Croatian president's remarks to the effect that his government is considering a land swap with the Bosnian Serbs. Tudjman has subsequently been criticized not only across the political spectrum and in Dalmatia, but within his own party as well. Vecernji list reported on 13 July that parliament speaker Stipe Mesic has added his voice to those opposed to such a deal, saying that Croatia must preserve Bosnia's territorial integrity if it expects others to honor Croatia's borders, and that "the Serbs as aggressors must capitulate" and are not acceptable negotiating partners. Meanwhile, plans are going ahead to open a pontoon bridge at Maslenica to reopen Dalmatian coastal traffic. Vjesnik on 14 July quotes the engineers as saying that work is moving along on schedule, and another article in the same paper reports that Croatia has formally announced its intentions to the UN. Finally, Vecernji list notes that polemics are continuing unabated between Croatia and Slovenia, making it highly unlikely that a proposed friendship treaty will see the light of day at any time soon. Patrick Moore MORE US TROOPS ARRIVE IN MACEDONIA. Western agencies report on 12 July that a force of 200 US soldiers has arrived in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This is in addition to another group of 100 US soldiers that arrived last week. The total UN force in Macedonia is now approximately 1000. The mandate of the force continues to be the monitoring of Macedonia's potentially volatile border with Serbia and Albania. UN authorities are especially concerned that the post-Yugoslav conflict might spill over into the Serbian province of Kosovo, which would widen the conflict considerably. Robert Austin WALESA PROMOTES BBWR IN NATIONAL ADDRESS. In an address broadcast by public radio and television on 13 July, President Lech Walesa urged Poles to cast ballots in the September elections and explained the reasoning behind his Nonparty Bloc to Support Reform (BBWR). Walesa warned that "stagnation" and a repeat of the old parliamentary impasse are real threats. "We cannot afford a parliament that quickly exhausts its possibilities [and] is unable to form a stable government," Walesa said. Existing political parties have only shallow roots. Poland needs practical politicians with specific proposals for solving problems. The president denied that the BBWR is an extension of his own political ambitions; the BBWR "is not my party, but rather my concept," he said. The BBWR was formed to "protect reform" from mounting public dissatisfaction. The reform process itself is not responsible for discontent, Walesa said, but rather errors and delays in its implementation. The president said he is not opposed to parties per se but wants to goad them to action and to think in practical terms. BBWR is "a bucket of cold water on the politicians' feverish heads," designed to mobilize people "unconvinced by slogans and bored with ideological spats and endless talk." Party leaders across the spectrum immediately criticized Walesa for abusing his position to campaign for the BBWR. Louisa Vinton POLISH RIGHT-WING PARTIES FORM "CATHOLIC COALITION." The inability of Poland's fractious right-wing parties to unite in advance of the September elections appears to have prompted the Church hierarchy to take action. A nine-hour meeting hosted by Archbishop Tadeusz Goclowski in Gdansk on 13 July yielded a "Catholic election coalition" to be called "Fatherland." The coalition will include both the more traditionalist Christian-National Union and the more centrist parties belonging to the Polish Convention headed by Aleksander Hall. Representatives of former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski's anticommunist Coalition for the Republic attended the meeting, but there were conflicting reports as to whether they had agreed to join the new coalition. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that the two coalitions would collaborate in the Senate elections but run separately for the Sejm. Poland's right-wing parties have formed numerous similar arrangements in recent weeks, but conflicts among party leaders have generally led to their speedy collapse. Intervention by the Church reflects the bishops' concern that the more stable left-wing parties will profit in the elections from the right wing's fragmentation. Louisa Vinton CZECH-SLOVAK RELATIONS ARE "MAJOR SUCCESS." Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec told journalists that the manner in which the division of Czechoslovakia had been carried out and the relations between its two successor states represent a "major success," CTK reported on 13 July. Zieleniec pointed out that despite the skepticism of foreign observers and fears of developments similar to those in the former Yugoslavia and the former Soviet Union, Czechs and Slovaks have demonstrated that they were willing and capable of dissolving the federation peacefully. The foreign minister added that the remaining 25 billion koruny worth of federal property that has yet to be distributed represents a minor problem. The border issue remains the one important unresolved matter, and Zieleniec made it clear that the Czech Republic will introduce border checks for "persons from third countries," no matter what lovakia decides to do. Jan Obrman SLOVAK LAW ON NAMES HITS A SNAG. On 13 July Premier Vladimir Meciar returned the law on names and surnames to the National Council because of a "recommendation by the government," TASR reports. Minister of Culture Dusan Slobodnik explained that Meciar's action does not mean a complete disapproval of the law, but the majority of the Slovak government believes the law "violates the grammatical construction of the Slovak language." The law, which was passed by parliament on 7 July, follows the Council of Europe's recommendation that Slovakia broaden its minority rights legislation. Sharon Fisher AUSTRIAN PRESIDENT IN SLOVAKIA. Thomas Klestil arrived in Slovakia on 13 July for a two-day visit. In talks with President Michal Kovac, Klestil expressed concern over Slovakia's nuclear power station at Bohunice, near the Austrian border. The two also discussed Slovakia's entry into European structures and cooperation between the Bratislava and Vienna airports, TASR reports. Klestil spoke with Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar about refugee problems and business cooperation. On 14 July Klestil will visit various Slovak-Austrian joint ventures. Austria is the largest foreign investor in Slovakia, with 27.3% of all investment. Sharon Fisher FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER IN HUNGARY. Alain Juppe paid a one-day visit to Hungary, MTI reports. He had talks with Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, to whom he extended a formal invitation to visit Paris. Juppe pointed out that half of French investments in Eastern Europe are in Hungary, symbolizing the excellent political relations between the two countries. Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky said that Hungary is ready to work on Premier Edouard Baladur's all-European peace proposal, which emphasizes respect for national minority rights. They also agreed on future high-level political contacts between the two countries. Karoly Okolicsanyi SLOVAKIA, HUNGARY BEGIN GABCIKOVO TALKS. MTI reports that unannounced talks have started in Brussels about an interim Danube water distribution agreement. The new talks were initiated by the EC after earlier negotiations were deadlocked. An interim solution is being sought until the International Court of Justice rules on a joint appeal to settle the dispute. Karoly Okolicsanyi ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT, MINERS WRESTLE OVER PAY RISES. On 12 July the government renewed efforts to break a deadlock in wage negotiations with representatives of the Jiu Valley coal miners. The miners' delegation was headed by Miron Cosma, a controversial union leader who led his men into Bucharest on four occasions in 1990 and 1991 to crush opposition to President Ion Iliescu. A first round of talks, held on 11 July in Lupeni, was attended by Economic Reform Minister Misu Negritoiu and Labor and Social Protection Minister Dan Mircea Popescu. The miners threatened to strike unless their wages were tripled--from 96,000 to 310,000 lei (about $120 to $400), depending on the performed work. They also presented a list of social claims, including better housing conditions and medical care. After the 12 July talks in Bucharest, Negritoiu told Radio Bucharest that he considered the demands exaggerated. He also noted that the coal miners already earned far more than the average Romanian. On 13 July the National Trade Union Bloc, one of Romania's main union organizations, appealed to the government not to give in to pressure from miners. Dan Ionescu IMF MISSION TO BUCHAREST. On 12 July a mission of the International Monetary Fund, headed by Max Watson, chief negotiator for Romania, was received by Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu, who spoke of recent steps to boost economic reforms, including a last price liberalization round on 1 May and the introduction of the value-added tax on 1 July. Talks began on the same day at Romania's National Bank on completing a financing agreement for 1993. On the 13th the delegation discussed restructuring-related issues with Economic Reform Minister Misu Negritoiu. More negotiations are expected to follow this week at the Finance, Labor and Trade Ministries, as well as at the Commission for Economic Forecast and the National Statistical Board. Dan Ionescu UKRAINE TO TAKE SEVASTOPOL ISSUE TO UN SECURITY COUNCIL. According to a Foreign Ministry official, Ukraine intends to ask the UN Security Council to consider the Russian parliament's declaration of sovereignty over Sevastopol, Radio Ukraine reported on 13 July. The official claimed that the Russian move represents a "threat to peace and international security" and can therefore be addressed by the Security Council under the terms of the UN Charter. John Lepingwell KRAVCHUK SEEKS CANCELLATION OF CONFIDENCE VOTE. President Leonid Kravchuk has asked parliament to cancel a referendum on confidence in his administration, calling the vote to hold the referendum unconstitutional, Reuters reported on 13 July. Legal experts agreed with Kravchuk that the 228-18 vote fell short of the 300 votes required. The referendum was scheduled for September to fulfill in part the demands of miners who staged a 12-day strike in June. Kravchuk has said that he will not be obligated to resign even if the vote is against him. He called the vote on the parallel referendum on confidence in parliament unconstitutional as well but did not request its cancellation. Susan Stewart INDIANS IN UKRAINE, BULGARIA. Indian President Shankar Dayal Sharma has arrived on his first official visit to Ukraine, according to Ukrainian Radio on 13 July. He will meet with President Kravchuk, Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma and other officials. The visit is primarily for the purpose of political consultations. Meanwhile, BTA reports that representatives of the Bulgarian and Indian governments met in Sofia on the same day and agreed to establish closer relations between their respective defense ministries. The memorandum, which was also initialed by Bulgarian Minister of Defense Valentin Aleksandrov and India's Minister of State for Defense M. Mallikarjun, will allow the signatories to move towards "military and technical cooperation" in the future. According to an AFP report, the Indian delegation seemed to express particular interest in spare parts for Soviet-built aircraft used by the Indian air force. Susan Stewart and Stan Markotich REACTIONS TO ESTONIAN ALIEN LAW. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky criticized the revised law on aliens signed by Estonia's president Lennart Meri on 12 July. The new version, he said, includes only some of the changes suggested by CSCE and Council of Europe experts. CSCE High Commissioner for Minorities Max van der Stoel said that Estonia had taken a "major step" forward by revising the law and noted that a number of old formulations that might have led to arbitrary decisions had been removed. He noted positively Estonia's decision to grant official status to the assembly of representatives of the Russian minority, an RFE/RL correspondent in Munich and Russian media reported on 13 July. Dzintra Bungs BALTIC, RUSSIAN REACTION TO PROPOSAL TO DENOUNCE TREATIES. The recent proposal of the Russian Supreme Soviet Presidium to denounce the 1920 Russian-Latvian and Russian-Estonian peace treaties has drawn criticism both from the Russian and Baltic foreign ministries, Baltic media reported on 13 July. The Estonians said that the proposal is an attempt to destabilize bilateral relations and expressed the hope that Moscow will have the common sense to honor its international commitments. The Latvians called it a dangerous precedent that could lead to unpredictable consequences. Russian Foreign Ministry official Aleksandr Udaltsov said that while Russia does not believe that the 1920 treaties are in force because they were signed by Soviet Russia, he termed the presidium's proposal "nonsensical" from the point of view of international law. Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA ALLOWS DETENTIONS UP TO TWO MONTHS. On 13 June, in an effort to combat the activities of organized criminal groups, parliament approved the detention for up to two months of individuals suspected of planning to commit crimes detailed in Article 227 of the Criminal Code, Radio Lithuania reports. The article, "Organizing, Leading or Participation in a Criminal Organization (Group)," was passed on 28 January 1993. The detention has to be approved by the city or raion prosecutor as well as the Prosecutor General. The law is temporary, in force only until 1 January 1994. Saulius Girnius RUSSIAN MILITARY EXERCISES HELD. Diena reported on 13 July that the Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces is going ahead with the three-day military exercises in Dobele despite official protests from Latvia. Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Charles Trumbull and John Lepingwell THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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