|Everyone knows it is much harder to turn word into deed than deed into word. - Maxim Gorky|
No. 130, 12 July 1993
CIS RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DECLARES SEVASTOPOL A RUSSIAN CITY. On 9 July, the Russian parliament voted nearly unanimously to declare the Crimean city of Sevastopol part of the Russian Federation, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. The move came after a joint session of parliament which debated Sevastopol's status and the situation in the Black Sea Fleet. Evgenii Pudovkin, the head of a special parliamentary committee that studied Sevastopol's status, claimed that experts had asserted that Russia did not transfer its sovereignty over Sevastopol when the Crimea was transferred to Ukraine in 1954. Deputies instructed the parliament's constitutional commission to begin preparing the necessary constitutional amendments to change the city's status. The declaration passed despite the strong opposition of parliamentary leader Ruslan Khasbulatov, yet another sign of his diminishing influence in the legislature. Dominic Gualtieri and John Lepingwell PARLIAMENT CALLS FOR RUSSIAN FINANCING OF BLACK SEA FLEET. The Russian parliament on 9 July issued a declaration to the personnel of the Black Sea Fleet supporting their call for the retention of a unified fleet, ITAR-TASS reported. The parliament also passed a resolution calling for the Russian government to take over direct financing of the fleet and to open negotiations with Ukraine concerning the use of Sevastopol as the main base for a unified fleet. Ukraine and Russia have wrangled in the past over which side should pay for the fleet, and the issues of salaries has been an especially contentious one. By taking over full financing of the fleet, Russia would be advancing a de facto claim to the ownership of the entire fleet. The declarations also make it clear that the Moscow agreement to divide the fleet between Russian and Ukraine will not be ratified by the Russian parliament. John Lepingwell YELTSIN CONDEMNS PARLIAMENT'S ACTION. Russian President Boris Yeltsin told reporters upon arriving in Irkutsk on 10 July that he was "ashamed" of the Russian parliament's decision on Sevastopol, according to Radio Mayak. Yeltsin asserted that the problems of the Black Sea Fleet must be solved gradually and calmly. Following suit, on 11 July the Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement criticizing the parliament's action and saying that the declaration "deviates from the line adopted by the president and the government," Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow UKRAINIAN REACTION. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk responded to the Russian parliament's decision on Sevastopol with an official statement read over Ukrainian television on 9 July. Kravchuk characterized the decision as a gross violation of generally accepted norms and principles of international law, overt interference in Ukraine's internal affairs, and an infringement on Ukraine's territorial integrity and borders. Kravchuk called on international bodies, including the UN Security Council, to persuade Russian lawmakers to reconsider their activities in the interests of peace and stability in the world. The Ukrainian leader, while characterizing the decision as a continuation of the Russian parliament's "anti-Ukrainian policies," expressed the conviction that the Russian people as a whole do not support the decision. Kravchuk's statement was handed to a representative of the Russian embassy in Kiev by the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Ukrainian Defense Ministry said that the Russian parliament will be responsible for "all possible consequences" of its decision. The presidium of the Ukrainian parliament issued a separate statement condemning the action. Roman Solchanyk US REACTION. In a statement issued in Kiev on 10 July, US Ambassador to Ukraine Roman Popadiuk said Washington regards Sevastopol as "an integral part of Ukraine," and characterized the Russian parliament's decision as "untimely." The United States, he said, supports the Helsinki accords on the inviolability of borders. Noting Ukraine's intention to improve relations with Russia, Popadiuk said that this was not the time for Russian lawmakers to attempt to strain those relations. Popadiuk's comments were reported by Radio Mayak and Western agencies. Suzanne Crow and Roman Solchanyk TOWARD THE INTEGRATION OF RUSSIAN, UKRAINIAN, AND BELARUSIAN ECONOMIES? THE PRIME MINISTERS OF RUSSIA, UKRAINE, AND BELARUS MET ON 10 JULY OUTSIDE MOSCOW, ITAR-TASS, UKRINFORM, AND WESTERN AGENCIES REPORTED. They pledged to move towards economic integration and to elaborate a draft agreement before 1 September. Within a "joint economic space," citizens of any of the three states could live, work, and buy property freely. The joint statement issued after the meeting called for the creation of a customs union and a single market in goods, services, and capital, with a unified policy on prices, investment, and taxes. The Russian prime minister said that the agreement goes further than the proposed CIS economic union signed in mid-May. Other former Soviet republics will be permitted to join under certain, unspecified, conditions. Keith Bush KUCHMA STRESSES DECLARATION WILL NOT LEAD TO REVIVAL OF UNION. After signing the declaration on economic integration, the prime ministers of the three Slavic states offered differing assessments of its significance, Reuters reported on 11 July. Russia's Viktor Chernomyrdin hailed it as a "great event" which would lead to the signing of a "historic agreement." Belarus' Vyacheslau Kebich described it as victory for common sense. Not surprisingly though, Ukraine's Leonid Kuchma, was more circumspect. "No one is talking about restoring the Soviet Union," he told journalists on his return to Kiev. "It looks more like the creation of some kind of European Community. No document was signed, just a declaration. All the work remains to be done in the future." Bohdan Nahaylo RUSSIA AND UKRAINE AGREE ON OIL PRICE. Russian Fuel and Energy Minister Yurii Shafranik announced on 10 July that Moscow and Kiev have agreed on the prices for Russian oil deliveries to Ukraine, Reuters reported. Russia will supply 20 million tons of oil to Ukraine in 1993 at a price of $80 a ton now and $100 a ton starting in December. (The current world price for crude oil is roughly $120 a ton.) Keith Bush RUSSIA CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY MEETS FOR ITS LAST SESSION. On 12 July, the Constitutional Assembly is meeting for what is scheduled to be its last plenary session. The session is expected to discuss the final draft constitution that is to be sent to leaders of Russia's republics and regions for approval. On 11 July, Ekho Moskvy radio quoted the chief of the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov, as saying that republican and regional leaders would need at least two weeks to consider the final draft. After the leaders give their approval to the draft it could be submitted to the Congress of People's Deputies, Filatov added. According to Filatov, an emergency session of the Congress could convene at the very end of July. So far, President Yeltsin has maintained that he does not want the Congress to adopt a new constitution, despite the fact that it is what the current Russian legislation requires. In contrast, many republican and regional leaders have spoken in favor of the adoption of a new constitution by the Congress. Vera Tolz YELTSIN, KOHL MEET AT BAIKAL. Russian President Boris Yeltsin and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl held a two-day summit at Lake Baikal starting on 10 July to discuss bilateral relations, Russian troop withdrawals, and integration of Russia into Europe. Yeltsin assured Kohl that Russian withdrawals from eastern Germany would be complete by the end of August 1994. Yeltsin and Kohl also discussed the situation of the ethnic Russian population in the Baltic states, Western agencies reported. Suzanne Crow YELTSIN ON TIES WITH US. At a news conference on 10 July in Tokyo, Boris Yeltsin characterized his meetings with US President Bill Clinton as "very meaningful" and expressed approval for the development of US- Russian relations since the Vancouver summit. Yeltsin said he and Clinton had "synchronized" their watches during meetings in Tokyo, and asserted that the US-Russian friendship is becoming stronger, ITAR-TASS reported. Suzanne Crow RUSSIAN CENTRAL BANK UNDER FIRE. On 9 July, parliament discussed the operations of the Russian Central Bank in 1992. According to ITAR-TASS of 9 July, and The Financial Times of 9 and 10 July, the bank was criticized on a number of counts. Its lax controls permitted the embezzlement of more than 3 billion rubles by the use of forged documents. A report by a Western accountancy firm highlighted "distortions, mistakes, and possible abuses." In his report to parliament, the bank's chairman, Viktor Gerashchenko, painted a gloomy picture of the economy which contrasted with recent upbeat portrayals by government spokesmen. Keith Bush INDIA ADAMANT ON ROCKET DEAL. A representative of India's space agency told ITAR-TASS on 11 July that New Delhi considers the acquisition of sophisticated Russian rocket technology critical to the success of its space program and said that it would insist Moscow honor the terms of a sale of two cryogenic engines to India as agreed upon earlier. The deal has foundered on the opposition of the US government, which has argued that the technology has military applications and represents a violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime. Reuters reported on 10 July that the Russian and American presidents had discussed the issue in Tokyo following the G-7 Summit, but had failed to reach a resolution. The conflict is particularly difficult for Russia, which is desperately in need of hard currency earnings. A failure by Russia to honor the deal could harm its relations with India, which is one of Moscow's most important arms markets, while completion of the sale could sour relations with the US and cost Moscow lucrative cooperation agreements with the US space program. Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA UN SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVES SENDING OBSERVERS TO GEORGIA. The UN Security Council on 9 July unanimously approved sending fifty military observers to Georgia as soon as a ceasefire holds, Reuters reported. The unarmed observers will try to establish communication between the warring sides to prevent ceasefire violations. Meanwhile, peace talks mediated by Russia in Moscow have reached a standstill, the leader of the Georgian delegation Aleksandr Kavsadze stated on 10 July. Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze told journalists on 11 July in Sukhumi that perhaps the solution to the Abkhaz conflict lies in a combination of military and peaceful means. He added that Georgia could not acquiesce to the Abkhaz precondition for a ceasefire, that all Georgian troops withdraw from Abkhaz territory, Reuters reported. Catherine Dale MULTILATERAL COMMISSION TO DEAL WITH TAJIK-AFGHAN BORDER SITUATION. The creation of a multilateral commission to deal with the unstable situation on the Tajik-Afghan border was announced by Tajikistan's head of state, Imomali Rakhmonov, on 10 July, ITAR-TASS reported. Tajikistan's government is particularly concerned about penetration into Tajikistan by armed members of the Tajik Islamic opposition and their Afghan supporters. In addition to seeking solutions to the problem of illegal border crossings, the commission, consisting of representatives from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Russia and Afghanistan, is to seek to speed up the return to their homeland of Tajik refugees in Afghanistan. Most of the refugees fled to Afghanistan at the beginning of 1993 after the present government of Tajikistan took power, and attempts to persuade them to go home have met with limited success. The Tajik government has claimed that Afghan fundamentalists have prevented the return of some Tajik refugees. Bess Brown RUSSIAN COMMANDER IN TAJIKISTAN REPLACED. The commander of Russia's 201st Motorized Rifle Division in Tajikistan, Major General Mukhriddin Ashurov, has been replaced by Colonel Viktor Timofeev, who was previously a division commander in Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast, KHOVAR-TASS reported on 9 July. The 201st has played a central role in Tajikistan's affairs since the beginning of the civil war in May 1992; while it officially maintained neutrality and guarded vital installations, the Islamic- democratic coalition accused it of siding with the pro-Communist forces. Maj. Gen. Ashurov, an ethnic Tajik, is to study at the Russian General Staff Academy, the first Tajik to do so. Col. Timofeev, who was born in the northern Tajik city of Khodjent and whose family still resides there, is believed to have been the preferred candidate of Tajikistan's Prime Minister, Abdumalik Abdulladzhanov, who is also from Khodjent. Keith Martin CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY DECIDES ON PARTITION. International media reported on 11 July that the republic's executive body endorsed setting up regional units, but said they could not be based on ethnic criteria. The decision is unlikely to please the Serbs and Croats. The presidency also underscored that the constituent regions in the federation could not conduct relations with other states, Hina added. At first glance, it is difficult to see any major difference between this decision and President Alija Izetbegovic's long-standing position that Bosnia could become a federal state but only with units based on geographic and economic criteria. The Serbs and Croats favor a very loose confederation of three nationally-based departments. Patrick Moore CROATIAN UPDATE. Vecernji list on 10 July reports that the Croatian Helsinki Committee has appealed to Prime Minister Nikica Valentic to slow down the privatization of the media. Critics of the government have charged that the present and often vague privatization regulations are enabling persons close to the ruling party to establish a firm grip on the media. The Helsinki Committee wants new measures enacted to give editorial staffs and other employees priority in acquiring shares in the newspapers or magazines where they work. Meanwhile, discussion continues over the possibility of a land exchange between Croats and Serbs. A novel and sharply-worded article in Vecernji list on 10 July defends the idea, arguing that no outside party will help Croatia get its occupied territories back and that the best alternative is to strike a deal with Belgrade. Most Croatian politicians and commentaries, however, have taken the stand that Croatia should go to war if the UN fails to enforce the Vance plan on the Serb-held lands. Finally, the Belgrade Politika of 12 July discusses some concrete ways in which the swap might be carried out. Patrick Moore MILOSEVIC PARDONS DRASKOVIC. Belgrade and international media report on 9 July that Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic pardoned the leader of the opposition Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) Vuk Draskovic and his wife Danica. Milosevic overruled a Belgrade Court decision earlier that day which denied the couple's release pending trial. Milosevic's order said the turn of events was harming Serbia's image and had to be stopped, contradicting his earlier insistence that the matter was strictly in the hands of the court. The couple has been pardoned on the count of inciting the riots, but Draskovic must still face the charge of assaulting a policeman. A SPO spokesman told an RFE/RL correspondent that Milosevic's tactics were well applied, but might have been prompted by concern over the mass opposition rallies planned throughout Serbia for 17 July. Danica Draskovic said the protests would probably be canceled but that all democratic forces must "step up efforts to topple this [Milosevic] dictatorship." Milan Andrejevich MONTENEGRO DISAGREES WITH SERBIA OVER CSCE OBSERVERS. Radios Serbia and Montenegro reported on 9 July that the Montenegrin government disagrees with a decision reached earlier by the federal government of the rump Yugoslavia banning CSCE monitors from further activities in Kosovo, Sandzak and Vojvodina. Montenegro's Foreign Minister Miodrag Lekic expressed regret that Montenegro's opinion had been disregarded. He added that CSCE representatives can travel unimpeded in Montenegro in order to see first-hand that international human rights standards are genuinely respected in interethnic relations. Milan Andrejevich SERBS SEE POVERTY AS CAUSE OF CIVIL WAR. In an opinion poll, carried out by the Institute for Social Sciences of the Belgrade University in April and May, 35% of the respondents said that poverty and unemployment are most likely to cause a civil war in Serbia-Montenegro. Other potential sources named were: the Albanians in Kosovo and Metohija (30%); clashes between the ruling authorities and the opposition (15%); the Serbian Radical Party with Vojislav Seselj (11%); and conflicts over Serbian involvement outside rump Yugoslavia (3%). Some 49% of the respondents thought the financial situation is much worse than last year and 37% expect it to become still worse, although 60% estimate their personal situation to be the same as others'. The study was published in Vreme on 21 June 1993. Fabian Schmidt CZECH PARLIAMENT PASSES LAW ON ILLEGITIMACY OF COMMUNIST REGIME. The Czech parliament adopted a Law on the Illegitimacy of the Communist Regime, Czech TV reported on 9 July. The law states that the CPCS and other groups were criminal organizations whose ideology was designed to suppress democracy and basic human rights and that the CPCS leadership and its members were responsible for the decline of the country from 1948 to 1989. The law invalidates the statute of limitations for the 41 years of communist rule to allow prosecution of some crimes committed during that period. At the same time, the law declares all anti-communist resistance, even that carried out "in cooperation with a foreign democratic power," to have been legitimate and just. According to CTK, 129 deputies voted in favor of the law, while 34 were against and three abstained. Jiri Novak, the Czech Minister of Justice, said in an interview that passage of the law did not mean a new wave of purges in the Czech Republic. Jan Obrman CDA DISSATISFIED WITH THE WORK OF THE COALITION. Jan Rejzek, the spokesman of the Civic Democratic Alliance told journalists that his party is "seriously dissatisfied with the increasing number of breaches of coalition agreements," CTK reported on 9 July. Other CDA officials indicated that the unity of the coalition is in serious jeopardy and that internal disputes over "foreign policy and nominations to the Supreme Control Office and the Constitutional Court" hinders the coalition parties' work in the parliament. The criticism was dismissed by Deputy Chairman of the Civic Democratic Party Petr Cermak, who declared that the coalition was functioning well. Jan Obrman SLOVAK GOVERNMENT COALITION TALKS CONTINUE. On 10 July representatives of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party (SNS) met for further negotiations, TASR reports. According to SNS Chairman Ludovit Cernak, his party submitted its proposal on 5 July, and the MDS "has had enough time for arguing." If the two parties do not reach agreement by 24 July, "the SNS will not enter the coalition," Cernak said. In a 10 July press conference Premier Vladimir Meciar said the MDS is "looking for a coalition partner for at least 3 years." Neither Meciar nor Cernak would comment on specific staff positions being discussed. Sharon Fisher SLOVAKS DEVALUE CURRENCY 10%. On 9 July the Slovak National Bank announced that the Slovak koruna would be devalued by 10% in relation to hard currencies beginning on 10 July. The bank's Vice Governor Marian Tkac, who has been strongly opposed to such measures, said the decision was made because of "contradictions between money supply and money demand" and because "the development of the Slovak economy does not yet have the required dynamism," TASR reports. The devaluation is expected to heighten inflation; however, the country's trade balance and hard currency reserves should be positively affected. Premier Vladimir Meciar and Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak agreed that no further devaluation is expected. Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PARLIAMENT VOTES FOR HIGHER TAXES. In its 9 July session the Slovak parliament approved a modification of the law on the Slovak state budget, raising the value added tax on most goods from 23 to 25% and the service tax from 5 to 6%, TASR reports. The measures come as a result of a sharp increase in the country's budget deficit, which rose from 11 billion koruny in March to a current 14 billion koruny. According to Slovakia's June agreement with the IMF, the deficit must not surpass 16 billion koruny. The higher taxes are expected to raise 3.4 billion koruny in extra revenue. Sharon Fisher HUNGARY TO SIGN NEW IMF AGREEMENT SOON. According to a joint IMF and Hungarian Finance Ministry and Hungarian National Bank statement issued on 9 July, the IMF delegation in Hungary does not see any obstacles that would prevent the conclusion of an agreement with Hungary soon. The IMF deal would make about $700 million in fresh loans available to Hungary in 1993 and 1994, ending a freeze on new credits imposed by the IMF last year to punish the Hungarian government for its large deficit spending, Reuter reports. The loan would also restore Hungary's standing in the international finance world and pave the way for additional World Bank loans. During the past two weeks of talks, IMF officials reviewed Hungary's fiscal policy, discussed the state of the economy, and met labor leaders to discuss spending on the social safety net. Judith Pataki INTELLECTUAL PIRACY THREATENS POLAND'S MFN STATUS. A high-ranking official from the Polish Foreign Affairs Ministry warned on 9 July that the lack of suitable copyright protection legislation has jeopardized Poland's most-favored-nation trade status with the US. In an interview with PAP, American Department director Zbigniew Lewicki said that the US could take steps to withdraw Poland's MFN this fall because of losses caused by pirated videos, tapes, and computer programs. The foreign ministry had been able to forestall US sanctions for two years by arguing that legislation was in preparation in the parliament, but the need to begin the legislative process anew after the September elections means that another two years' delay is likely. In this case, Lewicki said, Poland would be forced to "ask the Americans, since they've already tolerated two years of theft, to wait out another two." He warned that the US government would likely face stiff pressure from business lobbies to impose effective sanctions. Louisa Vinton ROMANIAN RULING PARTY CHANGES NAME. On 10 July the Democratic National Salvation Front decided to change its name to the Party of Social Democracy in Romania and to amend its statutes. The decision was taken at a two-day national conference which debated the party's activities since June 1992 as well as its future strategy. The DNSF, which ranked first in last year's general elections with 28% of the votes, was the main political force behind the re-election of Ion Iliescu as Romania's president in 1992. In a message to the congress, Iliescu urged the party to preserve its unity. Among the main speakers were DNSF Chairman Oliviu Gherman, first Deputy Chairman Adrian Nastase, and Deputy Chairman Ion Solcanu. Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu, who is not officially affiliated with the party, also addressed the delegates. The conference approved a merger with three minor parties: the Republican Party, the Democratic Cooperatist Party and the Romanian Socialist Democratic Party. The PSDR's National Council reconfirmed Gherman as party Chairman, and elected Nastase as executive chairman. Dan Ionescu DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION OF ROMANIA CALLS FOR RADICAL CHANGE. The Executive Committee of the Democratic Convention of Romania, an alliance of the main opposition forces, issued on 9 July a nine-point declaration-program calling for radical change and vowing to take the country out of the current political and economic crisis. It includes suggestions for halting inflation, ensuring economic recovery, creating new jobs, and improving social protection. It also pays special attention to problems of local government. Predicting the imminent collapse of the government, CDR President Emil Constantinescu described the document as offering an alternative. A spokesman for President Ion Iliescu promptly stated that, for the time being, the president saw no need for a new government formula. Dan Ionescu UKRAINE SIGNS TRANSPORT AGREEMENT WITH IRAN. The Ukrainian and Iranian transportation ministers signed a series of accords in Teheran, Ukrainian Radio reported on 11 July, quoting ITAR-TASS. Each side agreed to allow the other use of its ports and to set up flights between Teheran and Kiev. Ukraine has also granted Iran transit rights on Ukrainian territory on favorable terms. AFP reported on 10 July that the new route to Central and Western Europe will be shorter and cheaper for Iran and decrease its dependence on Turkey. Iran has concluded similar agreements with Russia and Azerbaijan in the past year. Susan Stewart RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM LITHUANIA. On 8 July National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius and chief of staff Colonel Stasys Knezys held a press conference, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania. Knezys noted that the completion of the withdrawal might be completed several days ahead of the 31 August deadline signed in September 1991 except for an artillery depot near Klaipeda. The number of troops has decreased from 34,000 at the beginning of 1992 to about 7,000. Butkevicius said that in practical terms the Russian army had withdrawn, although uniformed men remain loading and guarding equipment. The armed forces now only have basic weaponry; any further purchases require a political decision. Such purchases have been discussed with Russia, the Czech Republic, and Poland. He noted that a Kalashnikov sub-machine gun costs about $200 while comparable Western models more than $1,000. Saulius Girnius RUSSIA RESTORES GAS SUPPLY TO LITHUANIA. On 9 July Petr Rodionov, the director general of Lentransgaz, told a press conference in Vilnius after meetings with Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius and energy officials that the shipment of natural gas to Lithuania would be restored, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuania has repaid some of the more than $40 million debt to Lentransgaz and promised to supply gas only to households and 115 enterprises able to pay for it. The two sides discussed the creation of joint ventures; the Russian Gazprom has expressed an interest in buying 50% shares of the Lithuanian gas-main, 20% of the oil refinery at Mazeikiai, and a controlling share in the Azotas fertilizer plant in Jonava. Saulius Girnius CSCE HIGH COMMISSIONER IN ESTONIA. On 11 July CSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Max van der Stoel on his third visit to Estonia in the last two weeks held talks in Narva with the mayors of Narva and Sillamae, Vladimir Chuikin and Aleksandr Maximenko, Baltic media report. Even though the Estonian parliament amended the law on aliens on 8 July, the planned referendums on local autonomy in the cities on 16 and 17 July have not been canceled. The mayors called on the Estonian authorities not to interfere with the referendums, but said that the cities would respect the "territorial integrity" of Estonia and comply with any decisions of the Estonian Supreme Court. Saulius Girnius WEIZSAECKER VISITS ESTONIA. On 11 July German President Richard von Weizsaecker arrived in Tallinn after a four day visit to Finland, Western agencies report. This is his first official visit to Estonia and any part of the former USSR after its collapse. He was met at the airport by President Lennart Meri and Prime Minister Mart Laar. Weizsaecker said that his visit should strengthen the sovereignty of Estonia and help its reform process. He noted: "Estonia is as much a part of Europe as Germany is." A central part of his visit will be to gain a better understanding of the status of the country's Russian minority who are complaining about discrimination. Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Anna Swidlicka and John Lepingwell THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RI-DC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.