|As courage endagers life even so fear preserves it. - Leonardo Da Vinci|
No. 127, 07 July 1993
RUSSIA COUP TRIAL POSTPONED AGAIN. The trial of the leaders of the August 1991 attempted coup resumed for about an hour on 7 July and was again postponed because of the illness of one of the co-defendents, Aleksandr Tizyakov, and the absence of four defense lawyers, according to the Ostankino TV news. The trial had been suspended since May due to the court's request that new prosecutors, independent of the Russian Prosecutor-General, be found. Julia Wishnevsky NO-CONFIDENCE IN GOVERNMENT? THE SPEAKER OF THE COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT, VENIAMIN SOKOLOV, TOLD RADIO ROSSII "NOVOSTI" ON 5 JULY THAT THE PARLIAMENTARY LEADERSHIP WANTS TO HOLD A VOTE OF NO-CONFIDENCE IN THE GOVERNMENT AT THE NEXT CONGRESS OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES. He said that the government had only intensified the economic crisis in the country. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi also maintained that the present government should be replaced because of the involvement of its officials in corruption. Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov told Ekho Moskvy the same day that Sokolov's annoncement was "irresponsible." He asserted that the government has gained some trust in society because it has succeeded in slowing inflation for more than a month. Alexander Rahr RUTSKOI IN NOVOSIBIRSK. Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi told deputies of the Novosibirsk Oblast Council that he will not resign because he sees his duty as preserving the interests of the electorate in the executive structures, Radio Rossii "Novosti" reported on 4 July. He said that subjects of the Russian Federation should be granted wide autonomy in the formation of local budgets and that no more than 20 percent of their tax revenues should go into the federal budget. Alexander Rahr COALITION FOR REFORM CALLS FOR CONGRESS SESSION IN JULY. Members of the pro-Yeltsin Coalition for Reform parliamentary faction began circulating a petition on 6 July calling for the convening of a session of the Congress of People's Deputies on 20 July to discuss the adoption of Russia's new constitution, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Moscow. Under existing legislation, one fifth of the Congress's deputies must sign the petition for the Congress to be convened. The majority of Moscow politicians think that the Congress should not adopt a new constitution, despite the fact that this is what the law stipulates. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov had earlier suggested that the Congress should discuss a new draft constitution at its regular session in November. Vera Tolz SHAKHRAI ON HIS PARTY. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai was quoted by Radio Rossii "Novosti" on 6 July as saying that his newly created Party of Russian Unity and Concord will not be in opposition to the present Russian leadership. Shakhrai had already spoken with President Boris Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin about the creation and orientation of his party. Little is known about the membership and financial support of Shakhrai's party but it will propagate a socially-oriented economic policy and will develop close ties to regional political forces "to the left of the center." The party is not connected to the pro-Yeltsin electoral block created by former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis or the Democratic Russia Movement. Shakhrai is frequently mentioned in the Russian press as a possible successor to Yeltsin. Alexander Rahr DEFENSE MINISTRY CRITICIZES FUNDING SHORTFALLS. Russia's First Deputy Defense Minister with responsibility for military procurement policy, Andrei Kokoshin, complained on 6 July that the failure of parliament to pass a law on state defense orders has prevented the Defense Ministry from moving to a contract system with defense suppliers, ITAR-TASS reported. Kokoshin claimed that a failure to transfer defense procurement funding to the Defense Ministry has meant that it now owes nearly 400 billion rubles to defense suppliers. Kokoshin warned that a failure to quickly pass a defense procurement law could lead to the disintegration of the defense industrial complex. Meanwhile, a battle also appears to be shaping up between the Defense and Finance Ministries over a proposal by the latter body that would, to curtail the federal deficit, suspend the granting of some benefits recently extended to servicemen and their families. Krasnaya zvezda has warned in recent weeks that such actions could undermine stability in the military. Stephen Foye YELTSIN LIMITS OFFICERS' VISITS TO PARLIAMENT. On 5 July Boris Yeltsin issued a directive forbidding Russian military leaders to appear before parliamentary committees without the permission of the President's office, ITAR-TASS reported. The directive, which was justified by the claim that such visits entail unjustified expenses and divert officers from their normal military duties, appears to underline once again the competition between the executive and legislative branches for control over military policy. Stephen Foye NO RESOLUTION TO ROCKET SALE DISPUTE. Reuter reported on 7 July that a visit by top-ranking US officials to Moscow in recent days had failed to settle a US-Russian dispute over the sale by Moscow of missile technology to India. According to the same report, US President Bill Clinton intends to make clear to Boris Yeltsin during the G-7 meeting in Tokyo that Washington takes the issue very seriously, although the US side will not attempt further negotiations in Tokyo on the sale. The US imposed sanctions on Russia last month for what it alleges is a violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), but immediately waived them in hopes of reaching an agreement by the middle of this month. Stephen Foye KOZYREV MEETS CONGRESSMEN. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met with a group of US lawmakers on 6 July in Moscow to discuss problems and perspectives in US-Russian relations. Kozyrev's aide, Galina Sidorova, told reporters after the talks that Kozyrev had raised two issues that Russia finds problematic in relations with the United States: some US legislation still considers Russia a communist country and Washington continues to link cooperation with Moscow to specific policy questions. Sidorova offered Russian cooperation with Iran and Russian troop withdrawals from the Baltic states as examples of such issue areas and said Russia opposes any linkage to cooperation with the United States, ITAR-TASS reported. Suzanne Crow NUCLEAR WEAPONS WORKERS ISSUE STRIKE WARNING. Workers at the nuclear center in Chelyabinsk-70 have threatened to strike if their demands are not met, according to ITAR-TASS on 6 July. They set out their demands last week in a letter to President Yeltsin, the Russian parliament and the government. These included granting the center the legal status of a budget organization; provision of funds to finance the work of the center, and payment by 10 July of back salaries for May and June, with compensation for the losses due to inflation. The demands echo those made in late June by workers at Arzamas-16, another nuclear weapons development center. Cessation of work at the center would affect the destruction of nuclear weapons as well as security at the center. Reuters reported that the Russian government has promised to meet the pay demands, and was seeking the release of budget funds for this purpose. Sheila Marnie. DECLARATION OF ECONOMIC ACCORD. The government-parliamentary round-table conference that was set up in January 1993 has produced a document that ITAR-TASS of 5 and 6 July variously called the "Declaration of National Economic Accord" and "Declaration of National Economic Independence." This calls for such unexceptionable measures to combat the economic crisis as halting the decline in output, curbng inflation, averting mass unemployment, and providing a social safety net. Representatives of the parliamentary reform coalition decried the signing of the declaration by Prime Minister Chernomyrdin as evidence of an anti-reform tendency in the government, but Finance Minister Boris Fedorov downplayed this, calling it a coming-together of the executive and legislature to promote the cause of reform. Keith Bush EX-IM BANK LOAN AGREEMENT WITH RUSSIA. On the eve of the G-7 summit in Tokyo, the US Export-Import Bank signed an agreement on 6 July to provide at least $2 billion in loans and loan guarantees to Russia to buy oil, gas, and petro-chemical equipment and services, the New York Times and Reuters reported on 7 July. Several technical issues reportedly remain before the money can be transferred, but these are expected to be resolved by the beginning of September. It is estimated that nearly a quarter of Russia's oil and gas wells are currently out of commission. Keith Bush NEW CHANGES IN OIL AND ELECTRICITY PRICES. President Yeltsin has issued a decree which frees oil suppliers from penalties for exceeding price limits, according to Kommersant on 7 July. These penalties have been the main formal means of regulating oil prices since the fall of 1992; their removal may in effect constitute the liberalization of oil prices in Russia. Kommersant also reported that the government's Commission on Operational Management has approved a plan to raise the electricity rates by 16 times for residential consumers. The proposal foresees raising the rates per kilowatt-hour from 36 kopecks to 6 rubles for urban residential consumers and 24 kopecks to 4 rubles for rural residential consumers. A presidential decree to this effect is expected in the near future. Erik Whitlock NEW DRAFT DECREE ON LAND REFORM. The Russian government has prepared a draft presidential decree on further land reform, according to Radio Rossii on 5 July. The draft decree allows private farmers to buy land shares which are distributed to peasants when collective and state farms are turned into joint stock companies. Farmers currently have an average of 42 hectares, and this is not enough for many of them. On the other hand pensioners, teachers and others are given an allotment of land when collective and state farms are reorganized, and many of them cannot make use of the land. Permitting farmers to purchase these allotments could be the first step towards liberalizing the buying and selling of land. Sheila Marnie. RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DISCUSSES ANTI-AIDS PROGRAM. A draft program to help prevent the spread of AIDS was discussed on 6 July by the Council of Nationalities of the Russian parliament, according to ITAR-TASS on the same day. The number of deaths from AIDS was 659 in 1992, but "hundreds of thousands" of the population are infected. More funds are needed to fight the disease; in 1992 care of one HIV positive patient cost on average 500,000 rubles. Sheila Marnie VARIOUS VIEWS ON EMERGENCE OF NEW REPUBLICS IN RUSSIA. On 6 July, President Yeltsin urged the region of Sverdlovsk and the city of Vologda to suspend their recent declarations that they are assuming the status of republics. ITAR-TASS said that Yeltsin called the declarations "ill-timed." The president proposed that the declarations should be suspended until a final agreement had been reached at the Constitutional Assembly on the new status of republics and regions. The same day, a member of the Presidential Council Georgii Satarov supported Sverdlovsk' declaration, condemning the fact that so far Russia's republics have had a privileged status compared to that of the regions, ITAR-TASS reported. According to former Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar, Sverdlovsk's declaration will make it difficult for the Constitutional Assembly to preserve inequality of status between republics and regions in a new Russian Constitution, Ostankino television reported. Vera Tolz TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA SHEVARDNADZE DECLARES MARTIAL LAW IN ABKHAZIA. The press center of the Georgian Supreme Soviet announced that Georgian Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze declared martial law effective 6 July throughout the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, ITAR-TASS reported. Shevardnadze's decree stated that recent exacerbation of the military conflict, the need to protect the civilian population, and the necessity of eliminating the threat to Georgia's territorial integrity dictated the measure. Addressing a joint session of the Abkhaz Defense Council and Council of Ministers in Sukhumi on 6 July, Shevardnadze stated that Georgia has never questioned Abkhazia's autonomy. Meanwhile, both sides report that intense fighting continued through 6 July in Ochamchira district and along the Gumista front. Catherine Dale UN SECURITY COUNCIL ADDRESSES ABKHAZ CRISIS. The UN Security Council met on 7 July in a closed-door session to discuss the possibility of deploying 50 UN military observers in the Georgian-held Abkhaz capital of Sukhumi and in Ochamchira district, the RFE/RL UN correspondent reported. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali recommended this preventative measure on 1 July, just before Abkhaz forces launched a large-scale offensive. In light of the current intensity of fighting, the Council has decided to work out a resolution to allow deployment of observers "in principle". This plan would be activated only after a ceasefire goes into effect and holds. Catherine Dale AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. A contingent of Azerbaijani reinforcements arrived in Agdam, east of Nagorno-Karabakh, on 6 July, Reuters reported from Baku. The Information and Press Department of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic denied Azerbaijani media reports that Armenian forces had taken the town, according to ITAR-TASS. Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet chairman Geidar Aliev held talks in Baku with his former ally, National Independence Party chairman Etibar Mamedov, who criticized Aliev's leadership for imposing press censorship and demanded the lifting of the state of emergency in force since March; Mamedov reportedly declined Aliev's offer of the post of foreign minister, Reuters reported. Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UPROAR IN CROATIA OVER LAND SWAP WITH SERBS. The opposition Croatian Social Liberal Party has lambasted President Franjo Tudjman for remarks made at his 5 July press conference, in which he said that Croatia would talk with Bosnian Serbs about a possible exchange of territories. The Liberals, who for some weeks have regularly beat out Tudjman's party in public opinion polls, said on 6 July that Croatia's borders are set and internationally recognized, and that only parliament had the right to change them. The opposition statement added that Tudjman's remarks "shocked Croatian public opinion." Hina also quoted government spokesmen who tried to qualify or explain the president's comments, but it seems that Tudjman has once again gotten himself into political hot water by indiscreet remarks that put him at odds with much of the Croatian public. Meanwhile, Croatian dailies on 6 July reported that the previous 12-month inflation rate was over 1,700 percent. Patrick Moore BLEAK PICTURE IN SARAJEVO. The embattled Bosnian capital has entered a new phase of suffering with the virtual collapse of the power and water systems. The director of the city hospital said on 6 July that his patients have had no hot food or hot water for two days, and that only emergency cases are operated on, given that it is not possible to sterilize instruments. Hina added that city officials are on a hunger strike to call attention to Sarajevo's plight, and to demand that the international community take action to ensure that relief supplies get through. Meanwhile, the BBC's Serbian and Croatian Services said that Muslims battled Croats around Mostar and Konjic in Herzegovina, while Serbs fought Muslims near Maglaj and Brcko in northern Bosnia. Fighting was also reported around the northern transportation hub of Gradacac, but the nature of the conflict there is unclear. Gradacac has been one of the last major strongholds where Croat and Muslim units have stood together against attacking Serbs. Patrick Moore BELGRADE INTRODUCES ARMY REFORM. Federal Defense Minister Pavle Bulatovic told reporters on 6 July that proposed legislation on reforming the Yugoslav armed forces will completely free the armed forces of "any ideological essence or party characteristics," and forbid union organizations even for civilian army or Defense Ministry employees. Defense and military planning would be assigned to the federal Supreme Defense Council made up of the president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia-as supreme commander-and the presidents of Serbia and Montenegro. The bills also envisage abolition of the defense ministries of the two republics. The bills are expected to be passed by the Federal Assembly on 16 July and will supersede numerous regulations dating back to the former Yugoslavia. Bulatovic also said that the new bills would ensure a higher professional level for the standing army, while retaining general military service. The reform measures also call for the possibility of civil military service for those recruits who chose to serve without arms; they would have to serve twice as long as the standard military service of 12 months. Mandatory service begins at the age of 19, but can be waived for university students until the age of 27. Several parties are opposed to parts of the proposed legislation. The Radical Party rejects civil military service, while several Montenegrin opposition parties are demanding separate armed forces for Montenegro Radio Serbia carried the report. Milan Andrejevich DRASKOVICS' CONDITION "PITIABLE". Danielle Mitterand, wife of the French President, described the condition of imprisoned Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) leader Vuk Draskovic and his wife Danica as "pitiable" after meeting the couple in Belgrade. She and the French Justice Minister met with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic in an attempt to free the Draskovics' so they could be flown to France for medical treatment and political asylum, according to French media. Milosevic said this was a matter to be decided by Serbia's Supreme Court. Meanwhile the high court rejected an appeal by Draskovics' attorneys that they be freed pending trial on charges that they incited the 1 and 2 June riots and assaulted a policeman. Belgrade radio B92 commented on 5 July that "the regime does not know if Vuk is more dangerous dead or alive." Milan Andrejevich HIGH COURT ACCEPTS DIMITROVA RESIGNATION. RFE/RL's Bulgarian Service reported on 6 July that Bulgaria's Constitutional Court, by a unanimous decision, accepted Vice President Blaga Dimitrova's offer of resignation. Prior to rendering their verdict, the justices had to establish that the letter of resignation was signed by Dimitrova and was therefore authentic, and that the vice president had made up her mind to leave office without being coerced into doing so. The judgment is final and took immediate effect. Dimitrova had originally submitted her resignation on 30 June and had cited differences with the government as being a major reason for wanting to leave the vice presidency. Stan Markotich. NEW LATVIAN PARLIAMENT MEETS. On 6 July the newly elected Saeima held two sessions, broadcast live by radio and television. After confirming the reestablishment of the 1922 Constitution, it decided, by a vote of 80 to 7 with 9 abstentions, to postpone approving the mandate of Alfreds Rubiks until the conclusion of his trial on charges of trying to overthrow the government. Latvia's Way candidate Anatolijs Gorbunovs was elected Saeima chairman, defeating Maris Grinbalts 65 to 25, with Andrejs Krastins of the Latvian National Independence Movement and Aivars Berkis of the Farmers' Union as his deputies and Imants Daudiss as secretary. The election of a president was unsuccessful as candidates Gunars Meierovics, Aivars Jerumanis, and Guntis Ulmanis received only 35, 14, and 11 votes, respectively, none of them winning the needed 51 votes. Saulius Girnius POLAND'S RIGHT-WING PARTIES REMAIN FRAGMENTED. There were new signs on 6 July that Poland's numerous small right-wing and anti-communist parties will fail to build a cohesive coalition in time for the elections on 19 September. The conservative Christian National Union, a partner in the ruling government coalition, gave up its attempts to form a broad "Christian-peasant-national" bloc on 6 July and announced that it will run an independent election campaign. The party's potential ally on the right, the Polish Convention, likewise announced that it would run a separate campaign. Meanwhile, the Polish Union, a coalition hammered together recently by a dozen parties supporting lustration and decommunization, showed further signs of collapse. Supporters of former Prime Minister Jan Olszewski broke away on 6 July to form a competing "Coalition for the Republic." This fragmentation may hurt the chances of the Right in the upcoming elections. The new election law sets high thresholds-5% for parties, 8% for coalitions-for representation. Opinion polls so far suggest that none of these parties or coalitions will clear the threshold on its own, leaving the field to the more stable Democratic Union, left-wing, and postcommunist parties. Louisa Vinton "OLD THEATER" IN AUSCHWITZ RETURNED TO STATE. PAP reported on 1 July that all the Carmelite nuns had left their former convent in the "old theater" adjacent to the perimeter of the site of the former Nazi concentration camp in Auschwitz (Polish: Oswiecim), and that the premises had now formally returned to the state treasury. The mayor of Oswiecim, Dariusz Dulnik, said that he had declared the order's hereditary tenure void on 29 June since the mother superior had violated the terms of the contract by leasing it to the War Victims Association for purposes other than that stated in the original contract. A final decision about the future of the property has yet to be made. Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka ROMANIAN TOP OFFICIAL DENIES CORRUPTION CHARGES. The general secretary of the Romanian government, Viorel Hrebenciuc, told journalists on 6 July that charges of corruption against him were politically motivated. He suggested that the Democratic Party (National Salvation Front), and especially a deputy for that party, Mihaita Postolache, were behind a campaign to bring him into disrepute. The charges were first leveled in April by General Gheorghe Florica, the former head of the Financial Guard. A recent preliminary report, drawn by a special parliamentary panel, appeared to confirm Florica's allegations. But Hrebenciuc resolutely denied any wrongdoing and insisted that all his actions were based on the prerogatives of his position. He also pledged to sue those who were guilty of libel, apparently meaning Florica and the media. Hrebenciuc, who is seen as the most influential person in the cabinet after Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu, directed President Ion Iliescu's successful reelection campaign last fall. Dan Ionescu NINE CONVICTED FOR CEAUSESCU-ERA KILLINGS. On 6 July a military court in Bucharest convicted nine men, including two former interior ministers, for killing three people who tried to hijack a bus to the West in 1981. The two former ministers, Gheorghe Homosteanu and Tudor Postelnicu, were sentenced to 20 years for having ordered the hijackers killed after their capture. Both men said during the trial that they only relayed former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu's orders to the Timisoara securitate staff. Six former securitate officers got jail terms of 17 years, while Gheorghe Gornic, a securitate doctor found guilty of having strangled in hospital one of the wounded hijackers, was sentenced to 18 years. All sentences were cut by half in accordance with a law dating from Ceausescu's era (decree no. 18 from 1988), Radio Bucharest reported. In the 1981 gunfight between police and hijackers, eight hostages were killed and eleven wounded. Dan Ionescu GAGAUZ INCURSIONS CONTINUE, FIGHT FOR HARVEST FEARED. In a statement reported by Basapress on 6 July, Gagauz "Supreme Soviet" chairman Mikhail Kendigelyan said that only isolated elements of the Gagauz "republican guard" have been involved in the recent raids on non-Gagauz villages; denied that Gagauz leaders protect criminal groups; and warned Chisinau against sending police reinforcements. Moldovan and, particularly, the more exposed Bulgarian villages demand police protection from Chisinau against armed Gagauz groups, which are plundering livestock and vehicles with impunity, and apparently targeting the impending harvest. Moldovan authorities, including President Mircea Snegur, who made a radio appeal to the population of southern Moldova on 2 July, have voiced concern that the use of force to stop Gagauz raids may touch off a wider armed conflict. Yet Chisinau feels that it has little choice but to protect the coming harvest and appears prepared to deploy Carabinieri around the perimeter of the Gagauz area to that end. Vladimir Socor MOLDOVA INTERCEPTS RUSSIAN MISSILE CARGO. Moldovan authorities on the Moldovan-Romanian border have intercepted a consignment of five Russian surface-to-surface missiles on a train originating from Russia and bound for Romania, Reuters and Moldovapres reported on 5 July in separate stories, citing Moldova's Ministry of National Security. The Ministry said in a communique that it is investigating the case. Russia's charge d'affaires in Chisinau has declined media requests for comment. A spokesman for Romania's Ministry of Defense on 5 July and the Minister, General Nicolae Spiroiu, both speaking on Radio Bucharest on 6 July, rejected the suggestion that the missiles were destined for the Romanian military. Vladimir Socor HUNGARY, SLOVAKIA TO SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. Hungary's Defense Ministry announced on 5 July that Hungary and Slovakia will sign a wide-ranging military cooperation agreement before the end of the year, MTI and Radio Budapest reported. According to Hungary's military attache designate to Bratislava, Colonel Imre Pataki, bilateral military relations are "quite good" and should guarantee that no contentious political issues would affect the two countries' military ties. Alfred Reisch UKRAINIAN PRIME MINISTER IN BALTIC STATES. On 6 July Leonid Kuchma, heading a 33-member delegation, held talks in Tallinn with Estonian President Lennart Meri and Foreign Minister Trivimi Velliste, BNS reports. With his Estonian counterpart Mart Laar he signed a series of agreements regulating trade and travel between the two countries and presented Ukraine's ratification of the friendship and cooperation agreement signed in May 1992. Kuchma noted that Estonia was well disposed to the local Ukrainian minority. He travels to Lithuania on 7 July, where he will meet with President Algirdas Brazauskas. Saulius Girnius ANOTHER ESTONIAN CITY TO HOLD REFERENDUM. On 6 July the council of Sillamae, a predominantly Russian populated city of 20,000, voted to follow the example of Narva and hold a referendum on local autonomy on 17 July, BNS reports. The actions were prompted by the Estonian parliament's passage of a law on aliens and other previously enacted laws that the council deemed discriminatory. Estonian President Lennart Meri decided to send back the aliens law for amendment in a special parliament session to be held later this week, RFE/RL's Estonian Service reported. Meri will make a television address this evening to explain his decision. Saulius Girnius CZECH ENVIRONMENTAL GROUP ALARMED BY GOVERNMENT INACTION. In a report given to CTK on 6 July, the Society for a Sustainable Existence expressed concern at "the disparaging and visionless approach of the Czech government and parliament to the resolution of serious ecological problems inherited form the former regime, as well as problems created in the post-November period." It charged the government of underestimating the gravity of environmental degradation and thoughtlessly exploiting natural resources. It also criticized the government for placing too little value on international activity to improve the environment. Finally, it drew attention to the lack of environmental planning in Czech legislation. Led by former minister and chairman of the Czechoslovak Federal Commission on the Environment, Josef Vavrousek, the Society is non-political. Milada Vachudova [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Anna Swidlicka & John LepingwellTHE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 80538 Munich, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. RFE/RL Daily Report
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