|If you wish to make an apple pie truly from scratch, you must first invent the universe. - Carl Sagan|
No. 120, 28 June 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN ISSUES STATEMENT ON CORRUPTION CHARGES. On 25 June President Boris Yeltsin issued a statement dismissing as an anti-presidential provocation corruption charges against two top government officials, First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko and head of the Federal Information Center Mikhail Poltoranin. (See RFE/RL Daily Report no. 119 on the charges). In his statement distributed by ITAR-TASS Yeltsin said that the accusations against the officials were an attempt to discredit him (Yeltsin) and thereby to bloc the adoption of a new Russian Constitution. The statement also accused the parliament of engaging in the "dangerous practice of confrontation" by voting for the dismissals of Poltoranin and Shumeiko. -Vera Tolz GROUP OF DEPUTIES CALLS FOR DISMISSAL OF KHASBULATOV. More than fifty members of the Congress of People's Deputies have signed a statement saying that its leadership had to be replaced if "true parliamentarism and political and economic stability" were to be established in Russia. The statement, distributed by ITAR-TASS on 26 June, accused the parliament's leadership , especially its speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, of trying to suppress any dissenting views. It said that several parliamentary commissions and committees which disagreed with Khasbulatov's line were "practically liquidated." The statement accused the leadership of trying to consolidate in its own hands all branches of power in Russia. It said that "the activities of the speaker of the parliament discredits the entire corps of deputies and the very idea of representative democracy." According to ITAR-TASS of 26 June, the group continues to collect signatures for the statement. -Vera Tolz WORK ON THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION TO CONTINUE. The plenary session of the Constitutional Assembly on 26 June was originally planned to be the last one. Yet, addressing the session, President Yeltsin said that the prepared draft constitution could not be regarded as the final one, but would need further discussion and revision. The Russian media quoted Yeltsin as saying that there were still unresolved issues and this was sure to cause changes in the draft. The president said the draft should go back to the assembly's working groups for further work and that another plenary session would have to be held. The media said that this session would be held in early July. -Vera Tolz REGIONS OBJECT TO HIGHER STATUS OF REPUBLICS. The chairman of the Krasnoyarsk krai soviet Vyacheslav Novikov, speaking in the name of the krais and oblasts, objected strongly at the plenary session of the constitutional assembly on 26 June to the republics' having higher status than the regions, ITAR-TASS and Western media reported. He said the republics' demand for more autonomy than the regions reminded him of George Orwell's Animal Farm where all animals were equal but some were more equal than others. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai maintained, however, that no other solution was politically viable at the present juncture, and said the draft made clear that, although the draft declared the republics sovereign, they did not have the right of secession, and the draft secured the equality of citizens of the Russian Federation throughout the federation. A concession has evidently been made to the regions as regards the composition of the future upper house, the Council of the Federation. In the original presidential draft the republics were to have at least 50 percent of the seats, but now each subject of the federation, whether republic or region, will have two. Shakhrai said this mean that decisions would have to be adopted by a majority of three quarters to make sure the voice of the republics was heard. -Ann Sheehy TATARSTAN STILL INSISTS ON SPECIAL STATUS. Tatarstan's Vice-President Vasilii Likhachev reiterated at the plenary session of the constitutional assembly on 26-June that the text of the constitution should make provision for the special status of individual subjects of the federation, ITAR-TASS reported. Tatarstan had threatened to boycott the assembly on this issue, but Yeltsin had promised that Likhachev could speak if he continued to participate, an RFE/RL correspondent in Moscow reported on 25 June. Likhachev maintained that there was still time to include in the draft of the constitution norms on the treaty-constitutional status of some subjects. -Ann Sheehy RUSSIA SUPPORTS US RAIDS ON IRAQ. The Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 27-June expressing Moscow's approval of pre-dawn air attacks on the headquarters of the Iraqi intelligence service by US forces. The Foreign Ministry statement said: "In the opinion of the Russian government, the actions of the United States are justified in as much as they stem from the right of a state to individual or collective self-defense in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations charter. We hope for the achievement of mutually acceptable solutions in this bilateral problem without the escalation of military activity." At an emergency session of the UN Security Council called by the United States on 27 June, Russia's permanent representative to the UN, Yulii Vorontsov, expressed his appreciation of US efforts to clarify the situation and provide information to the other UNSC members, ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow US TO BUY MORE TOPAZ REACTORS FROM RUSSIA. Citing an article in the US weekly Space News, ITAR-TASS on 26 June reported that the US is planning to purchase an additional four Topaz-2 nuclear reactors designed to produce electricity for spaceprobes and satellites. The deal may be worth up to $20 million. The reactors are to provide the basis for the development by US firms of a larger reactor based on the Topaz design. -John Lepingwell MILITARY TO HOLD EXERCISES. The Russian military is to hold exercises at the Kubinka military base near Moscow starting 29 June, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 June. The exercises, which will apparently test the interaction of mobile forces with regular army units, was delayed a week so that government officials could observe them. John Lepingwell RUSSIA-JAPAN UPDATE. Less than ten days before the start of the 7-9 July G-7 summit, Tokyo and Moscow continue to joust over a proposed Western aid plan for Russia and the status of discussions on ownership of the disputed Kuril Islands. On 25 June, according to AFP and Kyodo, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzembsky and Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais criticized remarks made earlier that week by Japanese Foreign Minister Kabun Muto to the effect that a proposed G-7 privatization fund for Russia would be scaled back from some $4 billion to under $500 million. Yastrzembsky accused Tokyo of lacking a "positive approach" and of attempting unilaterally to set a ceiling on aid to Russia. Meanwhile, Kyodo on 25-June quoted Muto as suggesting that Japanese public opinion would compel the government to take up the Kuril Islands dispute with Boris Yeltsin during the summit, although he repeated that the issue would "probably not be included" in this year's political declaration as it had been last year at the G-7 summit in Munich. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. On 25 June President Abulfaz Elchibey denounced as unconstitutional the decision of the National Assembly the previous day to transfer his powers to Supreme Soviet chairman Geidar Aliev, Western agencies reported. Police fired warning shots to disperse a student demonstration in Baku on 25 June in support of Elchibey, according to ITAR-TASS. In Vienna, the CSCE Council of Senior Officials issued a statement on 25 June condemning "any unconstitutional attempt to remove the democratically elected president of Azerbaijan". On 26 June Secretary of State Ali Karimov, Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov and Presidential Press service chief Arif Aliev announced that they were "temporarily stopping their authorities" to protest the "unconstitutional decree of 24 June", Turan reported. On June 27 rebel leader Surat Huseinov held talks with Gaidar Aliev in Baku on resolving the crisis, after which Huseinov announced that his revolt was over, and pledged loyalty to Aliev. Huseinov then ordered his troops to withdraw from Baku and redeploy in Nagorno-Karabakh. Meanwhile, Armenian forces on 27 June took the town of Mardakert in northern Karabakh, according to The Los Angeles Times of 28 June. -Liz Fuller TAJIK PARLIAMENT CONTINUES RESTORATION. Through 26 June, Tajikistan's Supreme Soviet, in its first full session since the end of the civil war, adopted several resolutions aimed at strengthening the pro-Communist forces. Khovar-TASS reported the parliament decided that the resignation of then-President Rakhmon Nabiev in September 1992 was made under pressure, and hence, all decrees made under his successor, Akbarsho Iskandarov, were illegal. The resolution has no effect on the presidency itself; the position was abolished in December 1992, and Nabiev died in April. The deputies also voted to strip two opposition deputies of their immunity, and to indict them on criminal charges for "guiding the terrorism and civil war in Tajikistan." The two, Qazi Ali Akhbar Turadzhonzoda (formerly Tajikistan's religious leader) and Takhir Abdujobar (leader of the opposition Rastokhez movement), are both in exile. Parliament also ratified a friendship treaty with Russia and a Commonwealth of Independent States collective security agreement; both of which give the Russian military considerable latitude within Tajikistan. -Keith Martin COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES BLACK SEA FLEET OFFICERS OPPOSE AGREEMENT. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 25 June, senior staff officers in the Black Sea Fleet have urged sailors to hoist the Russian naval ensign on their ships on 1 July. The officers also reportedly oppose the Yeltsin-Kravchuk agreement on 17 June that provides for the fleet to be evenly divided between Russia and Ukraine and called upon the parliaments of the two countries to reject it. A larger meeting of officers is planned for 29 June to further discuss the statement. The number or rank of officers issuing the statement is uncertain, but it echoes a similar call by officers of the fleet's air arm, and appears to reflect a widespread sentiment that the personnel's interests are being neglected in negotiations over the fleet. -John Lepingwell COMMERCIAL DEBT SERVICE DEFERRED AGAIN. A spokesman for the Deutsche Bank, which is acting as point man for the roughly 600 Western banks that are owed money by the former Soviet Union (FSU), told an RFE/RL correspondent on 25 June that interest payments on the estimated $25 billion of commercial debts have been deferred for 90 days for the seventh time. Russia has assumed responsibility for the FSU's government and commercial debts which are currently estimated to total around $88 billion in principal and interest but has let it be known that it cannot repay more than $2-3 billion in 1993. -Charles Lambeth and Keith Bush DEADLINE FOR DECISION ON RUBLE ZONE. An official of the State Committee for Coordination with the Commonwealth of Independent States told an RFE/RL correspondent on 25 June that CIS members must decide by 1 July whether they wish to remain in the ruble zone or issue their own currencies. Those former Soviet republics that have issued their own currencies have been asked to return ruble notes to Russia. -Keith Bush CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS AND CROATS COORDINATE ATTACKS ON MUSLIMS. International media over the weekend quote Sarajevo radio to the effect that Serb and Croat forces are cooperating in making war on the Muslims. The area most affected is that around Maglaj, Zepce, and Zavidovici, which lie along the north-south route linking Sarajevo with the Serb-held town of Doboj and on to Croatia. Meanwhile, the BBC on 28 June quotes Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as warning the Muslims that they had better accept the Serb-Croat three-way partition plan "or face a two-way division." Finally, Austrian media reported on 25 June that authorities in that country are investigating charges that the colorful Bosnian presidency member Fikret Abdic has embezzled $8 million in refugee relief funds. Abdic, who made headlines in Yugoslavia in the late 1980s following the collapse of his Agrokomerc business empire, denies the charges. Other accounts suggest that he may currently be engaged in lively trading across Muslim, Serb, and Croat battle lines. -Patrick Moore RUMP YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT ELECTED, MORE PROTESTS. The Federal Assembly of rump Yugoslavia on 25 June elected Zoran Lilic as federal President replacing Dobrica Cosic who was ousted on 1 June. Deputies from the main Socialist Party (SPS), the Radicals, and the main Montenegrin Democratic Socialist Party backed him. The 39 year old Lilic is widely regarded as a close ally of Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic and currently serves as President of Serbia's National Assembly and on the ruling Socialist Party's Executive Steering Committee. In his acceptance speech Lilic pledged to revive the economy and end isolation but "not at any price . . . and not at the expense of national interests." According to Politika of 26 June, the latest government figures show that the monthly inflation in Serbia-Montenegro reached a record 366.7% in June. Economists also estimate that rump Yugoslavia lost $20 billion in revenues due to UN sanctions imposed in late May 1992. Meanwhile, on 26-June some 10,000 members and supporters of the opposition Serbian Renewal Movement rallied in front of the St.-Sava Cathedral in Belgrade to demand the release of their jailed leader Vuk Draskovic and his wife. Police blocked off side streets during the rally and no clashes were reported. Radios Serbia and B92 carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich SLOVENIAN PRESIDENT UNDER FIRE. Five popular members of the Slovenian government and a former foreign minister have accused Slovenian President Milan Kucan of being "pro-Yugoslav." In a letter to Kucan, the six accused Kucan of awarding the country's highest award, the Golden Medal for Slovenian Freedom, to two former communists who are secretly pro-Yugoslav and of pulling strings on behalf of former Yugoslav army officers seeking retirement benefits and housing. Kucan told reporters on 25 June that he is mystified by the charges. Among those who signed the letter is Defense Minister Janez Jansa, who is seen as the master-mind of recent criticism against Kucan. Primer Minister Janez Drnovsek has not commented on the letter, but some members of his Liberal Democratic Party are accusing the six of trying to trigger a parliamentary crisis that would force new elections in the fall. The letter appeared as Slovenia marked its second anniversary of independence. According to the daily Delo, "the rift is polarizing the country." Milan Andrejevich INCIDENT ON MACEDONIAN-ALBANIAN BORDER. Western news agencies reported on 27-June that one Albanian border guard was killed and another wounded from shots fired by troops of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It appears that the two Albanian guards had crossed the border and ignored calls to halt. A commission from both countries was investigating the incident. Relations between the two countries are outwardly good, but Tirana is concerned about the rights enjoyed by Macedonia's large Albanian minority, while Skopje is concerned about possible Albanian irredentism. -Robert Austin GRECO-ALBANIAN TENSIONS ON THE RISE. Western media reported on 26 June that Albania had expelled a Greek priest on grounds that he was fostering irredentist sentiments in Southern Albania. The region has a sizeable Greek minority of some 50,000, although Athens puts the figure much higher. Reuters reported on 27 June that Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis called the action an "unwarranted provocation." Greek authorities, moreover, have rounded up 4,500 Albanians judged as illegal immigrants and is preparing to deport them. -Robert Austin SOLIDARITY: GOING IT ALONE. The Solidarity labor union held its fifth congress in Zielona Gora from 25 to 27 June. PAP reports that the congress voted overwhelmingly that the union should field its own candidates in the forthcoming parliamentary elections, thereby disappointing any lingering hopes that President Lech Walesa may have had of winning Solidarity's support for his Nonparty Bloc to Support Reforms (BBWR). As a result, Walesa declined the union's invitation to address the congress on the final day of proceedings, and told Polish Television that for the first time their ways had parted. The congress passed one resolution strongly critical of the Network, the association of Solidarity locals from the major industrial plants, which have been pursuing their own interests and, in particular, supporting Walesa, and another resolution condemning its own deputies in the previous Sejm for going against the recommendations of the union's National Commission. Both resolutions were subsequently toned down in order to avoid the appearance of a major split at election time. Solidarity's Chairman, Marian Krzaklewski accused the outgoing government of having failed to implement negotiated agreements and pledged that the union would continue fighting for long-term solutions that would help to build a stable and efficient social and economic system. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka WALESA'S REFORM BLOC COLD-SHOULDERED. Most political parties also distanced themselves from the BBWR, PAP reported on 27 June. The Chairman of the Polish Peasant Party, Waldemar Pawlak, said that the BBWR lacked a program. Aleksander Hall's Conservative Party ruled out any participation in the bloc. The Democratic Union's leader Tadeusz Mazowiecki criticized the BBWR as "an element of disorientation and misinformation" and the party's campaign leader Bronislaw Geremek said it would only lead to "a repeat of the previous incompetent and fractious Sejm." Another influential member of the party, head of the office of the Council of Ministers, Jan Maria Rokita, did not, however, exclude the possibility of working with the BBWR after the elections if that bloc proved to be "a self-disciplined force." A new lay-Catholic group called the Movement for Responsibility for the Nation, the State and the Church is considering joining the BBWR. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka CZECH COMMUNISTS SPLIT. The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, the second strongest party in the Czech Republic, held a congress in Prostejov on 26-and 27 June. Jiri Svoboda, the party chairman since 1990, resigned on 25 June, claiming that the party cannot be reformed. Svoboda and his followers, who had campaigned for a change of the party's name and a non-communist orientation, had increasingly found themselves under pressure from neo-Stalinist elements. CTK reports that the congress voted against a change of the party's name and elected conservative Miroslav Grebenicek the new party leader. At the same time, it expelled from the party's ranks several ultra-conservatives, such as Miroslav Stepan and Jaromir Obzina, two top officials under the regime of Milos Jakes in the 1980s. Earlier this year, Stepan and Obzina had founded a platform in the party, whose main goal was the revival of orthodox Marxism-Leninism. Some 70 delegates, unhappy with developments at the congress, walked out and announced that they would form a new, non-communist opposition group, called the Party of the Democratic Left, with Jiri Svoboda as its chairman. Svoboda has not said whether he intends to lead the new party.--Jiri Pehe RUSSIA, UKRAINE AGREE ON OIL PRICES. After the official program of Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's visit to Ukraine had ended, a last minute agreement was reached on the price of Russian gas, the cost of its transport through Ukraine, and on Ukraine's gas debt to Russia. ITAR-TASS reported on 25-June that Ukraine is to pay 42,000 rubles per 1,000 cubic meters of gas. As of 1 January 1994 Ukraine will go over to hard currency payments at a rate of $80 per 1,000 cubic meters. Russia has been renegotiating its gas prices with all of the CIS states to bring them up to world levels and its agreement with Ukraine has been the first to be concluded in this vein. -Ustina Markus SHEVARDNADZE, KRAVCHUK DISCUSS UKRAINIAN PARTICIPATION IN ABKHAZIA SETTLEMENT. The chairman of Georgia's parliament, Eduard Shevardnadze, met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk on 26 June, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. One of the issues discussed in their 45-minute meeting was possible Ukrainian mediation in settling the Abkhazian conflict. Georgian Foreign Minister Aleksandr Chikvaidze said the mediation could take place under UN auspices or through bilateral relations. The UN has reportedly reacted positively to the possibility of Ukrainian involvement in resolving the problem. -Ustina Markus HUNGARIAN-UKRANIAN JOINT COMMITTEE MEETS. On 24 June, the Hungarian-Ukrainian Joint Committee began its two-day meeting in Nyiregyhaza, Hungary, MTI reports. The committee was set up two years ago as part of an agreement on national minorities. Several major agreements were reported to have been reached, such as opening two new border crossings, placing Hungarian schools under their own administration, opening a Hungarian library in Beregovo, and improving the operation of the Hungarian theater there. Hungary also pledged 60 million forint to build a hospital in that town. Hungary was reported ready to introduce Ukranian language classes and training in two high schools as well as in one college. The two countries also plan to set up special trading zones along their borders. -Judith Pataki HUNGARIAN FREEDOM DAY. On 27 June, several meetings and celebrations were held across Hungary to celebrate Freedom Day to mark the Soviet troop withdrawal two years ago. In Mohacs, for example, Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky received diplomatic representatives of all those countries that had ever occupied the country throughout its history. In Fertod, Social Welfare Minister Laszlo Surjan reacted to the fact that the Russian parliament did not support a clause in the bilateral treaty by which Russia would apologize for the 1956 invasion of its neighbor. Surjan said that the present Russian parliament is not yet free, but the next one might be. -Judith Pataki MOLDOVAN-HUNGARIAN TALKS. Hungarian parliament chairman Gyorgy Szabad headed a delegation representing all six parliamentary parties for talks with the Moldovan leaders in Chisinau on 25 June, Basapress reported. President Mircea Snegur, parliament Chairman Petru Lucinschi, and Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu thanked their visitors for Hungary's support to Moldova in international institutions and on the Dniester problem. On the latter point, Szabad reaffirmed at a press conference that Hungary "found Moldova's position convincing" and "very much wanted to see Moldova independent and integral." Hungary "wished that its relations with Romania were as good as they are with Moldova," he added. The sides noted that the preparation of a bilateral state treaty is nearly complete (Moldova has thus far declined to sign the one proposed to it by Romania). -Vladimir Socor "DNIESTER CITIZENSHIP" TO BE IMPOSED ON MOLDOVANS. Several "Dniester republic" leaders, including its Vice-President Aleksandr Karaman, said on Tiraspol TV on 25-June that residents are soon to be registered for "Dniester citizenship." Those who decline will be excluded from the privatization of housing and other property and from public employment, and will forfeit the right to vote. Basapress carried the story. -Vladimir Socor ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN DISPUTE CONTINUES. The dispute between Estonia and Russia intensified on 25-June when Lentransgaz halted the daily shipment of 500,000 cubic meters of natural gas. While Lentransgaz commercial director said that the cutoff was due to Estonia's discrimination against Russian speakers, other Russian officials stated that it was prompted by Estonia's failure to pay existing gas debts of about $11 million. Eesti Gaas officials replied that the debt was only $6-million and would be settled soon, in part with credits from the Japanese Import-Export Bank. In a radio address Prime Minister Mart Laar called for calm, noting that only about 10% of Estonia's energy needs are supplied by gas and existing reserves would result in no disruptions for 3-4 days, Baltic media report. On 25 June Estonian President Lennart Meri decided to delay signing the proposed law on aliens, which Russia claims is discriminatory, until receiving expert opinions on it from the Council of Europe, the CSCE, and other international organizations. -Saulius Girnius LALUMIERE SUPPORTS ZHELEV. On 25 June Catherine Lalumiere, the Secretary General of the Council of Europe who was in Bulgaria for a two day visit, defended President Zhelyu Zhelev in the wake of opposition rallies designed to bring down his government. BTA carried the report. According to Reuters, she was greeted upon arrival by anti-Zhelev demonstrators but referred to him as "a true Democrat." Meanwhile, speaking on Bulgarian radio on 27-June, Zhelev called for an end to all hunger strikes, including those sponsored by his supporters as a counter-measure to an anti-government one. Zhelev appealed to his supporters, saying it was partly up to them to show the country that political differences can be solved through reasonable means. -Stan Markotich ROMANIAN SHIPPING DEAL TURNS INTO POLITICAL SCANDAL. Romanian independent media criticized official plans to sell a 51% controlling stake in the Romanian state shipping firm Petromin to the Greek Forum Maritime company for $335 million, suggesting that the Greek offer was below the scrap value of the 106 ships involved in the deal. The mass circulation daily Evenimentul zilei accused the government of selling off Romania's fleet "for a pittance," while the usually pro-government daily Adevarul spoke of a "deliberate wrecking of the Romanian fleet." Both newspapers questioned the role of President Ion Iliescu in the affair. Recently, Iliescu defended the deal, saying that it was necessary to avoid bankruptcy. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN RULING PARTY ANNOUNCES POLITICAL PACT, MERGERS. According to Western agencies, the president of the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front Oliviu Gherman announced on 25-June that his party won a pledge of support from the Socialist Labor Party (the reborn communist party), the Greater Romania Party, and the Party of Romanian National Unity (two parties known for their extreme nationalist views). The DNSF, which won 28% of votes in last year's elections, has traditionally depended on those parties in parliament but has refrained so far from entering an open alliance with them. A communique released by the new alliance says that the parties agreed that Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu should have the authority to issue regulations when the Parliament is not in session. In a separate development, Radio Bucharest announced on 26 June the DNSF's decision to merge with the Republican Party and the Romanian Socialist-Democratic Party, two leftist parties which are not represented in parliament. These developments, which come shortly before the DNSF's national congress, appear as a response to recent moves by the opposition towards more unity. -Dan Ionescu [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Saulius Girnius and Patrick Moore THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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