We are so bound together that no man can labor for himself alone. Each blow he strikes in his own behalf helps to mold the universe. - K. Jerome
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 119, 25 June 1993







RUSSIA



CHERNOMYRDIN CANCELS WASHINGTON VISIT. Prime Minister Viktor
Chernomyrdin on 24-June canceled a planned visit to Washington
over US accusations that Russian plans to sell sophisticated
missile technology to India violate international export regulations,
The Washington Post and New York Times reported. Clinton Administration
officials revealed that the US had imposed sanctions on Russian
companies involved in the disputed sale, but said that the sanctions
have been waived until mid-July to allow the two sides time to
resolve their differences. According to the Post, Administration
officials said that the talks planned between Chernomyrdin and
US Vice President Al Gore on US-Russian cooperation on energy,
science and technology hinged on Moscow's cancellation of the
rocket engine sale to India. Disagreement over the terms of Russia's
sale to Washington of weapons-grade uranium extracted from Russian
nuclear weapons was also reportedly a point of friction. Discussions
are to be continued in early July when the two Presidents meet
in Tokyo at the G-7 Summit. -Stephen Foye

TATARSTAN TO BOYCOTT CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. Tatarstan's president
Mintimer Shaimiev and Supreme Soviet Chairman Farid Mukhametshin
issued a statement on 24 June saying that Tatarstan was recalling
its representatives from the constitutional assembly, Russian
and Western media reported. The statement complained that the
assembly had ignored Tatarstan's request that the treaty-constitutional
relations between the republic and the Russian Federation, that
is its special status, be acknowledged in the draft constitution.
-Ann Sheehy

STATUS OF REPUBLICS AND DRAFT CONSTITUTION. The reinstatement
in the merged text of the draft constitution, produced by the
constitutional assembly's conciliation commission, of the designation
of the republics as sovereign states is meeting resistance, ITAR-TASS
reported on 24 June. Originally supported by the section of the
subjects of the federation, it had been rejected by the other
four sections of the assembly, and they are still expressing
their reservations. Representatives of the section of commodity
producers, for instance, maintain that the sovereignty of the
republics is in conflict with the idea of a single economic space.
Member of the Presidential Council Andranik Migranyan thinks,
however, that the opposition may be reconciled by the fact that
the draft limits the sovereignty of the republics by proclaiming
the primacy of federal laws and in effect forbidding secession.
-Ann Sheehy

SUBJECTS OF FEDERATION OBJECT TO DRAFT DECREE ON ELECTIONS. The
section of the subjects of the federation of the constitutional
assembly has objected to the draft "Act on Elections to the Supreme
Body of Legislative Power of the Russian Federation-the Federal
Assembly" which participants of the assembly received on 24 June,
ITAR-TASS reported. The Russian president's representative in
St. Petersburg, Sergei Tsiplyaev, told ITAR-TASS that "the idea
of elections by party lists cannot be supported by the heads
of the regions because all the leadership of the parties is concentrated
in Moscow." Members of the sections of the federal organs of
power and of commodity producers also voted against the draft.
-Ann Sheehy

SEVEN PRE-ELECTORAL BLOCKS. According to Kommersant-daily on
24 June, seven pre-electoral blocks are currently being set up
for the next parliamentary and, possibly, presidential elections:
first, the "Coalition of Civic Forces" on the basis of the Civic
Union, which supports the candidacy of Aleksandr Rutskoi for
president; second, the "Block of Reformist Forces," formed by
former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis and the Movement Democratic
Russia in support of President Boris Yeltsin; third, the "Block
of Reformist and Liberal-Conservative Forces," created by the
leader of the Movement for Democratic Reform, Gavriil Popov,
and Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai; fourth, the Movement
"Entrepreneurs for a New Russia" which supports the candidacy
of economist Grigorii Yavlinsky; fifth, the "Block of Liberal
Forces", organized by the Republican Party; sixth, the "United
Democratic Block", set up by the leader of the People's Party,
Telman Gdlyan; and, seventh, the "Block of State-Patriotic Forces",
set up by the Russian Communist Party. -Alexander Rahr

SHUMEIKO, POLTORANIN ACCUSED OF CORRUPTION. Parliament on 24
June called for the firing of First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir
Shumeiko and the head of the Federal Information Center, Mikhail
Poltoranin, because of corruption, ITAR-TASS reported. Deputy
Prosecutor General Nikolai Makarov, who had investigated allegations
of corruption in government leveled by Vice President Aleksandr
Rutskoi, told parliament that both men had given approval to
a number of commercial contracts with Western firms which had
"damaged Russia's interests." He also accused Defense Minister
Pavel Grachev of a similar "squandering of state funds." Parliamentary
speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov commented that the facts contained
in Makarov's report were sufficient to warrant dismissing the
entire government immediately. -Alexander Rahr

SHUMEIKO DEFENDS HIMSELF. First Deputy Prime Minister Shumeiko
said that he will sue Makarov for slandering him at the session
of the parliament, ITAR-TASS reported on 24-June. He also called
upon the entire parliament to resign and to stop resisting reform.
Shumeiko stated that Makarov's allegations were a "political
provocation" and noted that he also plans to sue Vice President
Aleksandr Rutskoi. Meanwhile, First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg
Lobov told Rossiya (No. 26) that he has evidence that Rutskoi
had falsified corruption investigation results. -Alexander Rahr


MEMBERS DENOUNCE REFORM ARMY GROUP. Five members of the parliamentary
group "Reform Army" have left the group, charging that its leader,
Vitalii Urazhtsev, is engaged in a pre-election campaign aimed
at nominating Aleksandr Rutskoi for president, ITAR-TASS reported
on 24 June. The five also renounced the recent actions of the
group, which have included leveling allegations of corruption
at the Russian military leadership. On 16 June the "Reform Army"
group hosted a speech in the parliamentary center by Rutskoi
in which the Vice President accused President Boris Yeltsin of
trying to buy off the military leadership and of ignoring social
problems in the armed forces. The five included Yeltsin military
advisor Dmitrii Volkogonov and Konstantin Kobets, another Yeltsin
ally who was recently named Russian Deputy Defense Minister.
-Stephen Foye

QUALIFIED OPTIMISM OVER THE ECONOMY. At a Moscow news conference
on 24 June, members of the Working Center on Economic Reform
painted an upbeat picture of economic developments, an RFE/RL
correspondent reported. Although credit emissions during the
second quarter (3.4 trillion rubles) will exceed the guidelines
laid down by the joint government-Russian Central Bank agreement
reached two months ago (2.8 trillion rubles), other indicators
were more hopeful. The inflation rate in June was expected to
fall to 15%, after 23% in May and 19% in April, and confidence
was expressed that the monthly rate would decline to single digits
by the end of the year. The ruble was, it was claimed, stabilizing
against the dollar (it rose for the seventh consecutive trading
session to 1,066 rubles to the dollar on 24 June). Plans for
the reduction of the budget deficit were reportedly on course,
and output had largely stabilized during the past ten months.
-Keith Bush

TOKYO MUTES CRITICISM OF WASHINGTON AID PLAN. Kyodo reported
on 24 June that Japanese Foreign Minister Kabun Muto has formally
retracted his criticism of a US aid plan for Russia. On 22 June,
according to The New York Times, Muto had characterized as "preposterous"
a US proposal to create a $4-billion fund aimed at converting
Russia's state-owned firms into private companies. Muto had said
that it was too early to fund privatization because Russia still
lacked the basic ingredients necessary to create a capitalist
system. Those remarks, reported originally by Kyodo, were made
during the monthly meeting of a study group on international
affairs. In Moscow, Russian Foreign Ministry officials speculated
that Muto's remarks were made primarily for the domestic Japanese
audience and were not subscribed to by other G-7 participants.
Meanwhile, on 24 June Mainichi Shimbun reported that Foreign
Minister Andrei Kozyrev had once again requested that Japan not
link the question of Japanese aid to resolution of the Kuril
Islands territorial dispute. -Stephen Foye

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



AZERBAIJAN'S NATIONAL ASSEMBLY STRIPS ELCHIBEY OF PRESIDENTIAL
POWERS. The Azerbaijan National Assembly (the rump parliament)
reconvened on 24 June to debate a 16-point compromise proposal
submitted by President Elchibey whereby he would transfer most
of his powers to parliament speaker Geidar Aliev for an unspecified
time period, retaining only control of foreign policy and the
right to sign or veto legislation, Western agencies reported.
The National Assembly finally rejected this option as "unconstitutional"
and voted instead to strip Elchibey of all his authority. Ten
members of the ruling Popular Front boycotted the vote and one
condemned it as "the use of military force by the opposition
to topple the government, according to The New York Times of
25-June. A statement faxed to the National Assembly by rebel
leader Surat Huseinov claimed that three of his supporters had
been shot dead in Gyandzha by unidentified "provocateurs", Turkish
TV reported. -Liz Fuller

KAZAKHSTAN: MORE KAZAKHS, FEWER RUSSIANS. ITAR-TASS, citing figures
from Kazakhstan's State Committee for Statistics, reported on
23 June that the number of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan rose sharply
(224,000) in 1992. By contrast, the percentage of Russians, Ukrainians,
and Germans fell. At the beginning of 1993, Kazakhs accounted
for 43.2%, up from 42% the year before; the percentage of Russians
decreased from 37% to 36.4%. This marks the first time in recent
history that Kazakhs outnumber Russians and Ukrainians, combined,
in Kazakhstan. Two main reasons have accounted for the large
increase in Kazakhs: a significantly higher birth rate than among
the European nationalities, and a large in-migration of Kazakhs
from Russia and Mongolia; approximately 50,000 Kazakhs arrived
in Kazakhstan last year from those two states alone. Conversely,
the lower birth rates and out-migration among the European nationalities,
especially Germans, accounted for the decrease in their numbers.
-Keith Martin

COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES



CIS REPRESENTATIVES DISCUSS REGULATION OF ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES.
Problems of the legislative and economic regulation of the activity
of enterprises in CIS states are being discussed at a conference
that opened in St. Petersburg on 24 June, ITAR-TASS reported.
The conference, which is being held under the auspices of the
CIS Interparliamentary assembly, is being attended by political
leaders, economists, bankers, and leading engineers from all
the CIS states except Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and also by
representatives of Azerbaijan. The rector of St.-Petersburg University,
Professor Leonid Tarasevich, told ITARTASS that he thought the
high level of representation-deputy prime ministers, chairman
of parliamentary commissions, bank directors, well-known scientists-should
ensure progress in solving the problems of the paralysis of the
activity of many enterprises caused by the collapse of the Soviet
Union. -Ann Sheehy

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



BOSNIAN TALKS MOVING APACE. International media report on 24
and 25 June that Bosnian Serb and Croat leaders have agreed on
a constitutional plan to create a confederation of three constituent
geographical units, with one "republic" each for Serbs, Croats,
and Muslims. The seven-member Bosnian government delegation at
the ongoing Geneva talks says that President Alija Izetbegovic,
who is boycotting the session, is simply a first among equals.
It appears that the delegation is effectively assuming the authority
to negotiate. That body consists of three Serbs, three Croats,
and one Muslim, the latter being the ambitious and colorful Fikret
Abdic, who denied that a coup had taken place but nonetheless
stressed that the delegation would continue to talk. The plan
keeps Bosnia as an internationally recognized entity, but the
vague wording of the constitutional plan prohibits the Serb and
Croat entities from entering into agreements with their respective
mother states only "if it can damage the interests of the other"
constituent units. -Patrick Moore

RUMP YUGOSLAV ECONOMY ON VERGE OF COLLAPSE. On 23 June Federal
Prime Minister Radoje Kontic warned the long-term implementation
of international sanctions could lead to economic collapse and
major social upheavals that "would fall upon the conscience of
the international community." He described the current situation
to foreign journalists as catastrophic, saying that hyper-inflation
has reached 300% per month, more than one million people are
on forced annual leave, and the average monthly wage has fallen
to about $50. He added that no government can combat inflation
under such conditions without extensive foreign assistance. Radio
Serbia carried the report. Critics, however, blame Serbia's economic
problems primarily on the neo-communist policies of President
Slobodan Milosevic. -Milan Andrejevich

NEW PRESIDENT FOR RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. On 24-June the Federal Assembly
is scheduled to elect a new president. Zoran Lilic is the candidate
of the main Socialist Party (SPS) of Milosevic and is expected
win election. He is currently president of Serbia's National
Assembly and member of the SPS Executive Steering Committee.
Lilic will be opposed by three independents. Radio Serbia carried
the reports.--Milan Andrejevich

YELTSIN DENOUNCES ESTONIAN ACTIONS. Reacting to Estonia's Law
on Aliens, on 24-June President Yeltsin accused Estonia of unfriendly
actions toward his country and charged that "there is ethnic
cleansing similar to apartheid going on in Estonia." Stressing
that he would not tolerate infringement on the legitimate rights
of ethnic Russians in Estonia, Yeltsin said that appropriate
measures would be taken "to protect the honor, dignity, and legitimate
rights of our compatriots, including servicemen, retired army
officers, workers at munitions plants and members of their families."
Russian media also reported that the Supreme Soviet is to discuss
on 25 June a resolution on how to deal with Estonia. In a related
move, orders have apparently been issued to suspend the withdrawal
of Russia's Baltic Fleet from Estonia, Baltic media report. -Dzintra
Bungs

RUSSIA TO REDIRECT OIL FROM UKRAINE THROUGH LATVIA. An RFE/RL
correspondent reported that according to the 17 June oil industry
publication, Nefte Compass, Russian oil from Tatarstan and Bashkortostan,
once sold to Ukraine at subsidized prices, will be exported through
Latvia to be sold at world prices in the west. Ukraine now receives
only 4-to 5% of what Russia had agreed to supply earlier. As
a result the giant refinery in Lisichansk has shut down completely.
The Kremenchug refinery east of Kiev seems likely to go next:
beginning this week, oil which had been delivered there will
be redirected for western export through a pipeline to Ventspils
in Latvia where there is a large marine oil terminal. Negotiations
had taken place between Ukraine and Russia on the supply and
price of oil in May. Despite claims by both sides that an agreement
was at hand, this does not appear to have been the case. -Ustina
Markus

RUSSIA, UKRAINE REACH ECONOMIC AGREEMENTS. On 24 June Russian
Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Shokhin met with Ukrainian President
Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev to discuss economic relations, ITAR-TASS
reported the same day. Shokhin emerged from the meeting saying
agreements had been reached in a number of areas, including a
free trade agreement, a Russian three-year credit of 250 billion
rubles to Ukraine, and on the issue of Ukraine's use of former
Soviet properties abroad. The most important problem, the price
and supply of Russian gas and oil to Ukraine, has not been resolved,
however. How much Ukraine will be charged will largely be determined
by how much Ukraine will charge Russia for transporting oil through
its territory. -Ustina Markus

OPEN ECONOMIC REGIME IN THE CRIMEA. Ukrainian President Leonid
Kravchuk has issued a decree supporting the Crimea's intention
of creating an "open economic regime" on the territory of the
peninsula, Ukrainian Radio reported on 23 June. Crimean lawmakers
resolved to liberalize financial, tax, customs, and foreign economic
relations on 16 June. The presidential decree supports that initiative
by instructing that the Crimean Council of Ministers and the
Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers prepare appropriate legislation
to regulate economic relations under the new circumstances. -Roman
Solchanyk

BELARUS WANTS MORE MONEY TO DISMANTLE NUKES. The Foreign Minister
of Belarus, Pyotr Krauchenka, told a news conference on 23 June
that other countries should provide funds in addition to the
$74-million proposed by Washington for the elimination of its
nuclear weapons, Reuters reported on 24-June. He suggested that
Britain, France, Germany, and Scandinavian states may contribute
towards the estimated $232 million needed for the job. The Belarusian
parliament ratified START-1 earlier this year thereby committing
itself to dispose of the 72 SS-25 missiles in Belarus. -Ustina
Markus

HAVEL CRITICIZES HUNGARY. In a meeting at the Prague Castle on
24 June, Czech President Vaclav Havel told the Hungarian Ambassador
to Prague, Gyorgy Varga, that the attitude of Hungary toward
the admission of Slovakia into the Council of Europe is "inadequate
and confrontational." Hungary has linked its consent for Slovakia's
admission to the CE to improvements in the situation of the Hungarian
minority in Slovakia. After his meeting with Varga, Havel told
journalists that he does not think that the situation of the
Hungarian minority in Slovakia is optimal but that it is not
a reason for blocking Slovakia's admission to the CE. Varga said
he would pass Havel's statements on to his government and president.
-Jiri Pehe

SLOVAK PREMIER IN BUCHAREST. On 24 June Slovak Premier Vladimir
Meciar arrived in Bucharest on a two-day official visit, accompanied
by Economy Minister Jaroslav Kubecka and State Secretary of the
Foreign Affairs Ministry Jan Liguch. Radio Bucharest reported
that Meciar met his Romanian counterpart Nicolae Vacaroiu. The
two concluded that Romania and the Slovak Republic were facing
similar difficulties in their current transition to democracy.
Meciar was also received by Romanian President Ion Iliescu, with
whom he discussed bilateral ties and problems related to the
two countries' large Hungarian minorities. In statements after
the meeting, both leaders stressed that ethnic minorities had
to be loyal to the state they lived in. Meciar added that he
would "salute the day Slovaks in Hungary enjoyed the same rights
as Hungarians in Slovakia." Iliescu accepted an invitation to
visit Bratislava later this year to sign a cooperation and friendship
treaty. -Dan Ionescu and Sharon Fisher

SOLIDARITY AND THE BBWR. After a working breakfast with President
Lech Walesa on 24-June, Solidarity chairman Marian Krzaklewski
told PAP that the president had suggested that Solidarity should
represent the employee lobby within his Nonparty Bloc to Support
Reforms (BBWR). Krzaklewski said that the president's offer would
be presented to Solidarity delegates at their national congress
beginning on 25 June but recalled that the unionists had thus
far planned to go into the elections alone. Only one day earlier
RFE/RL's Polish Service had reported Krzaklewski to have authorized
activists of the Network, Solidarity's influential heavy industry
lobby that is close to Walesa, to join the BBWR on their own
account but to have been against the involvement of union organizations
as corporate BBWR members. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

"OLD THEATER" IN AUSCHWITZ TO BECOME ARCHIVE. The building adjacent
to the perimeter of the site of the former Nazi concentration
camp in Auschwitz that is being vacated by the Carmelite nuns
is to become an Archive for Polish Victims of War and Totalitarianism,
PAP reported on 24 June, quoting an official of the War Victims
Association. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka

ZHELEV SLAMS OPPOSITION. On 23 June Bulgarian President Zhelyu
Zhelev attacked the opposition Union of Democratic Forces, Bulgarian
media report. He charged that the UDF has lately attempted to
create social unrest by staging anti-government rallies. His
remarks came on the same day that UDF deputies stormed out of
parliament in protest over ministerial appointments, vowing not
to participate in debates but agreeing to remain active in parliamentary
commissions. On 24 June UDF-led rallies continued, with leaders
calling for daily protests until the government is defeated.
On 24 June The Financial Times reported that rallies may not
be as well attended as UDF sources claim, noting that only a
few thousand may be participating as opposed to the alleged "hundreds
of thousands of Bulgarians." Stan Markotich

HUNGARIAN ARMY: MIG-29S, 1994 BUDGET NEEDS. Hungary and Russia
have signed in Moscow the agreement under which Budapest is to
receive 28 MiG-29 interceptor aircraft, six of them two-seat
training planes, Defense Minister Lajos Fur told MTI and Radio
Budapest on 23 June. The planes are worth $760 million or about
one-half of the former USSR's trade debt with Hungary; Fur categorically
denied that Hungary intended to sell the planes to a third country
then buy US planes with the proceeds. Fur said Hungary's army
will need 75-billion forint next year to remain operational but
expects to get only 66.5 billion, two billion more than this
year. At the same time, living conditions in the army keep deteriorating
and reserves have been exhausted. According to Army Commander
Col. General Kalman Lorincz, the reduced defense budget would
negatively affect the training of pilots; the development of
airborne battalions and of a peace-keeping company; middle school
military education; and reservists' training. -Alfred Reisch


EXPANDED RADIO PROGRAMS FOR HUNGARY'S MINORITIES. Starting 1
July 1993, Hungarian Radio's Szeged station will broadcast daily
90-minute regional nationality programs in the Romanian and Slovak
languages, radio Vice President Laszlo Csucs announced on 23
June. According to MTI, the radio will also expand the German,
Croatian, and Serbian language programs of its station in Pecs
and is planning a Ukrainian language program. The broadcasts
reportedly will enjoy complete professional independence with
the officially stated aim of helping Hungary's national and ethnic
minorities preserve their identity and to promote cultural cooperation
between the nations of the region. -Alfred Reisch

ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT REJECTS PROPOSAL TO LET FOREIGNERS TO BUY
LAND. During a joint session on 23 June, the Parliament's two
houses rejected by a 213-174 vote an amendment to the foreign
investment law designed to enable foreign investors to own land
if they registered their companies in Romania. The proposal was
strongly opposed by representatives of nationalists parties whose
support is essential for the survival of the current left-wing
minority cabinet. Its rejection is seen by the opposition as
a setback in Romania's policy to attract more foreign capital
to revamp its battered economy. -Dan Ionescu

GREEKS TO TAKE CHARGE OF ROMANIAN SHIPPING FIRM. The Greek Forum
Maritime S.A. Company, based in Piraeus, reportedly purchased
a 51% stake in the Romanian state shipping company Petromin for
$335 million. A Greek delegation discussed the deal on 23-June
with Vacaroiu and other Romanian officials. Petromin has more
than 4,000 employees and a fleet of 106 vessels. The deal, described
as one of the biggest cash injections in Eastern Europe since
the fall of communism, is meant to underscore Romania's determination
to speed up its sluggish and controversial privatization program.
At a 24 June press conference, Iliescu said that the deal was
necessary to avoid bankruptcy. -Dan Ionescu

ISRAELI DELEGATION IN LITHUANIA. Israeli Knesset member Dan Meridor,
Wiesenthal Center director Efrein Zuroff, and Jerusalem University
professor Don Levin held talks on 21-22 June on the rehabilitation
of Lithuanians suspected of being involved in the Holocaust,
the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reported on 23-June. The legislation,
rehabilitating persons sentenced by Soviet courts or "troikas"
for anti-Soviet activities, specifically excluded people involved
in crimes against humanity and a small number of rehabilitations
were reversed. The delegation and President Algirdas Brazauskas
agreed to form by September a joint Lithuanian-Israeli committee
to review the rehabilitation files. Saulius Girnius

NATO DELEGATION IN LITHUANIA. On 24 June a NATO Political Committee
delegation, headed by deputy secretary general for political
affairs John Kreindler, held talks with President Algirdas Brazauskas,
officials of the foreign affairs and national defence ministries,
and parliament deputies, Radio Lithuania reports. Brazauskas
spoke about the country's political and economic situation and
asked for NATO's support in helping Lithuania become a member
of the EC. He hoped that the decision to halve taxes on foreign
investments for five years would help increase such investments.
The delegation departed for Estonia after its two-day visit.
-Saulius Girnius

MOLDOVAN-RUSSIAN TROOP TALKS DEADLOCKED. A sixth round of negotiations
on the future of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova was held on 22
and 23 June in Chisinau, Moldovan media reported on the 24th.
The Russian side rejected Moldova's proposal to invite the head
of CSCE's mission in Chisinau to observe the session (the mission
is mandated to facilitate the troops' withdrawal); declined to
discuss a calendar for withdrawal; and reaffirmed the linkage
between troop withdrawal and the determination of Transdniester's
political status. The Moldovan side, which had previously seemed
to accepted that linkage, now announced that it "expressed more
clearly its position" in refusing political conditions; called
for the troops to withdraw in the second half of 1994; reiterated
its rejection of Yeltsin's recent proposal to establish Russian
military bases in Moldova and other newly independent states;
and again offered to help build housing in Russia for the 14th
Army. The negotiations were adjourned until "late August or early
September." -Vladimir Socor

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Stephen Foye and Patrick Moore





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