|We have to understand the world can only be grasped by action, not by comtemplation. The hand is more important than the eye....The hand is the cutting edge of the mind. - J. Bronowski|
No. 118, 24 June 1993
RUSSIA A NEW CENTRIST BLOC EMERGING? THE CO-LEADER OF THE DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA MOVEMENT, LEV PONOMAREV, TOLD OTKRYTOE RADIO "INTERVIEW" ON 21 JUNE THAT THE FORMER CENTRIST CIVIC UNION BLOC HAS FALLEN APART. As reasons for that he cited: first, the departure of Nikolai Travkin's Democratic Party; second, the rejection by the People's Party of Free Russia's of the hardline position of its leader, Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi; third, the pro-Yeltsin position taken by the industrialists' organizations, led by Aleksandr Vladislavlev and Arkadii Volsky. Ponomarev said that a new centrist bloc is emerging with a new group of leaders that includes the head of the Movement for Democratic Reform, Gavriil Popov, economist Grigorii Yavlinsky, the head of the Republican Party Vyacheslav Shostakovsky, and Vladislavlev. -Alexander Rahr NUCLEAR WEAPONS SCIENTISTS THREATEN STRIKE. Scientists at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapons facility have threatened to go on strike and halt the process of dismantling nuclear weapons, according to reports in Rossiiskaya gazeta and Reuters on 23 June. The scientists have warned that they cannot guarantee the safety of the nuclear weapons dismantling process and have hinted at the possibility of a "catastrophe" because of the declining support for both personnel and facilities. The primary problem is one of pay: Rossiiskaya gazeta reports that the salary for scientific workers is only about 10,000 rubles per month and that pay has often been delayed for up to two months. Support for research facilities has also been declining, and is reportedly to be cut even further. Last year scientists in the nuclear weapons complex issued a similar warning and threat that resulted in their being given special status and promised increased benefits, but these promises have apparently not been fulfilled. On 24 June Radio Rossii and Reuters reported that President Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin had signed decrees providing for additional funding for nuclear weapons centers in an attempt to avert the strike. -John Lepingwell MORE CORRUPTION CHARGES AGAINST RUSSIAN MILITARY. The issue of corruption within the Russian military is being exploited by both conservative and liberal forces. In a Radio Rossii interview broadcast on 21 June, Rutskoi repeated his corruption charges against the military high command, and the Western Group of Forces in particular. On 23 June, Krasnaya zvezda published a report that attempted to refute many of Rutskoi's charges. Nevertheless, similar charges were made on 23 June by members of the Army Reform deputies' group, headed by Viktor Urazhtsev. The Army Reform group statement repeated earlier charges that both Shaposhnikov and Grachev had bought expensive dachas at discounted prices and that other officers had illegally sold military property. Urazhtsev also claimed that over 16,000 young officers had resigned in the first months of 1993 and that there were over 50,000 drug addicts in the armed forces. He also claimed that despite Grachev's commitment to reduce the high number of generals in the military that over 300 promotions to the rank of general had been made in 1993, a rate comparable to that in the larger Soviet military of the past. -John Lepingwell SPECIAL FUND TO BE SET UP TO SUPPORT THE COAL INDUSTRY. The coal industry has been the subject of two pieces of legislation issued this week, ITAR-TASS reported on 23-June. One is a government resolution signed on 20 June, which envisages the creation of a special fund to provide financial support for the coal industry. This will take effect from 1-July, will be administered by the Ministry of Finances, and will be financed from a 3% value-added tax on goods and services. The resolution also calls for a program for the closure of non-profitable mines to be drawn up within the coming 3 months. On 21 June, President Yeltsin issued a decree announcing the liberalization of coal prices from 1 July. The coal mining and processing industries will no longer be obliged to hand over part of their hard currency earnings from coal exports. Both the resolution and the decree are aimed at drastically reducing state subsidies to the industry. In the meantime the Rostov miners protesting outside government buildings in Moscow have been joined by miners from the Kuzbass and other major mining areas. The miners are insisting that the government honor its previous pledges of subsidies. -Sheila Marnie WESTERN AID FOR RUSSIAN PRIVATIZATION TO BE SCALED BACK. A fund proposed by the US in April aimed at supporting the privatization process in Russia is to be scaled back from the $4 billion originally envisaged to $1 billion, according to Reuters on 23 June. The US surprised its western allies by proposing the fund at a meeting of foreign and finance ministers in Tokyo last April. The plan is due to be discussed further at the G7 summit in Tokyo on 7-9 July. G-7 members are expected to contribute $500 million, and international financial institutions are to be asked to provide another $500-million. Many of the donor countries are said to be facing financial constraints which prevent them from making larger contributions. This fund would be separate from the $28 billion already pledged by the west to help Russia's economic reform, and would take the form of grants rather than loans and credits. The US has also committed itself to providing $1.8 billion in bilateral assistance. -Sheila Marnie RUSSIAN STANCE ON BOSNIA. On 23 June Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin unveiled a seven-point declaration outlining considerations that should be taken into account in talks on Bosnia. Russia rejects the "legalization" of land taken by force or by ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, and Russia demands that the external border of Bosnia-Herzegovina be preserved, according to the declaration. Churkin told reporters that Bosnian Serbs had assured him that they were prepared to hand back "a significant percentage" of the land conquered to reach agreement on a confederation, Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow RISING CRIME LINKED TO PRIVATIZATION. The Ministry of the Interior has been issuing statements on the increasing incidence of economic crimes since the beginning of the privatization program, Krim-Press reported on 22 June. Police recorded 2,590 economic crimes related to the privatization of municipal and federal property in the first five months of 1993, but the actual number of such crimes is thought to be much greater. Bribery cases alone have increased by 42.5% compared to the corresponding period in 1992. The main crimes include the bribing of state officials to get insider prices on private property, working out deals with tax officials to avoid paying taxes, and misappropriation of privatization vouchers. A presidential decree has been issued to give greater powers to the "interdepartmental commission for fighting crime and corruption," which was headed by Vice President Rutskoi, but since May has been headed by President Yeltsin himself. -Sheila Marnie KOZYREV CALLS FOR EXTENSION OF NUCLEAR TEST MORATORIUM. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev on 23 June called for a further extension of the moratorium on nuclear testing being observed by Russia, France, the UK, and the USA, according to ITAR-TASS. He noted that Russia would not be the first country to resume tests and called for negotiations to make the ban permanent. The UK government has also called for the extension of the moratorium, ITAR-TASS reported on 22-June. AFP reported on 24 June that the French government is expected to announce that it will soon resume testing in order to support its arsenal modernization program. According to a 23 June report from an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington, President Clinton must inform Congress of his intention to either resume testing or continue the moratorium by 1-July. -John Lepingwell PESSIMISM ON CHERNOMYRDIN VISIT TO US. An Izvestiya commentary on 24 June speculated that an unresolved conflict between Moscow and Washington over the planned sale of rocket technology by Russia to India could hinder the signing of agreements on space cooperation and other issues during a planned visit by Prime Minister Chernomyrdin to Washington. The newspaper claimed that Vice Premier Aleksandr Shokhin, who just returned to Moscow from Washington, had been unable to resolve differences between the two sides in preparation for Chernomyrdin's arrival, scheduled for 27 June. The New York Times on 23-June had reported that the dispute involved Washington's displeasure over a broad array of military technologies offered for sale by Russia. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ELCHIBEY AGREES TO REFERENDUM; HUSEINOV REFUSES TO NEGOTIATE. The Azerbaijan National Assembly continued on 23 June to try to resolve the political crisis as rebel forces and regular army troops together patrolled the streets of Baku. President Elchibey agreed to comply with requests to return to Baku and resume his duties on condition that Surat Huseinov's forces withdraw from the city; Huseinov, in an irate fax message to the National Assembly, refused pointblank to negotiate with Elchibey, whose resignation he continues to demand, Western agencies reported. Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov, who on 22 June traveled to Nakhichevan for talks with Elchibey, told the National Assembly that Elchibey had agreed to submit to a nation-wide vote of confidence, ITAR-TASS reported. Radio Rossii on 23 June quoted ex-president Ayaz Mutalibov as denying media reports that he is allied with Huseinov. Radio Rossii also reported that Geidar Aliev, whose New Azerbaijan party theoretically supports equal rights for Azerbaijan's ethnic minorities, has condemned the proclamation by Aliakram Gumbatov of a Talysh Mugan republic centered on Lenkoran, adjoining the Azerbaijan-Iranian border. -Liz Fuller SHEVARDNADZE IN BRUSSELS. Georgian Parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze paid a one day visit to Brussels on 23 June and then traveled to Bonn. Shevardnadze held talks with Belgian government officials on expanding bilateral ties and ties with the EC, ITAR-TASS reported. In talks at NATO HQ with Secretary-General Manfred Woerner, Shevardnadze professed to be "encouraged" by Woerner's response to his request that NATO play a greater role in helping to resolve the conflict in Abkhazia, including supplying peacekeeping troops -Liz Fuller FORMER UZBEK VICE-PRESIDENT SENTENCED; PARDONED. Uzbekistan's former Vice-President Shukrulla Mirsaidov confirmed to RFE/RL on 23 June that he had been sentenced to a three-year jail term and then pardoned; the verdict was handed down on 18 June. While Mirsaidov was found guilty of signing contracts selling cotton to insolvent foreign companies without proper authorization, Mirsaidov and many Western observers believe that the trial was an effort by President Islam Karimov to eliminate a potential rival. -Keith Martin TAJIK PARLIAMENT BEGINS MEETING. Tajikistan's parliament began a three-day session under tight security in Dushanbe on 23 June, Western and Russian agencies reported. It is the first meeting of the parliament in the capital since the beginning of the civil war over one year ago. The Tajik parliament, elected in 1990, was already dominated by Communist Party legislators before the civil war; it appears that no opposition legislators, whose parties were banned this week, will attempt to attend the session. The legislature is devoting itself to questions of the economy and agriculture, both of which were devastated during the civil conflict; no politically sensitive issues are on the agenda. -Keith Martin COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES RUSSIA PUSHING KAZAKHSTAN OUT OF RUBLE ZONE? KAZAKH PRIME MINISTER SERGEI TERESHCHENKO TOLD A MEETING OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND ENTERPRISE MANAGERS IN ALMA ALTA ON 22 JUNE THAT TRADE RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA HAD "SHARPLY DETERIORATED" RECENTLY, ITAR-TASS AND IZVESTIYA REPORTED. He said that in the latest round of bilateral trade negotiations, Russia insisted that the trade deficit Kazakhstan runs with Russia be transformed into sovereign debt with conditions analogous to standard Western loans. Because the Kazakhs were not prepared to do this, an agreement on financing the Kazakh deficit in 1993 could not be reached. He also accused Russia of being inflexible on resolving the issue of the multibillion ruble overdue payments between Kazakh and Russian enterprises. Tereshchenko claimed that Russia's tough stance in the negotiations are clearly intended to push Kazakhstan out of the ruble zone and that Russian negotiators even explicitly suggested Kazakhstan introduce its own currency. -Erik Whitlock CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SITUATION REMAINS A RIDDLE. International media on 24 June report that the previous day's peace talks in Geneva ended without much being cleared up. The New York Times quotes Lord Owen as saying that he is "disappointed" with the lack of details made available by the project's authors, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and his Croatian counterpart, Franjo Tudjman, both of whom have since left Geneva. The plan contains some of the seemingly less practical aspects of the Vance-Owen draft, such as demilitarization of Bosnia and the posting of human rights monitors, but the key question of boundaries was not discussed and no map was offered. Elsewhere, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic said that the Serbs would "let" the Muslims keep Sarajevo in return for the surrender of the embattled Muslim enclaves in eastern Bosnia. -Patrick Moore ETHNIC CLEANSING STEPPED UP IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. The BBC on 24 June reports that mass movements of Croats and Muslims are under way as civilians are driven out of their villages by armed units seeking to consolidate their respective holdings. In particular, some 15,000 Croats from the mountainous region north of Kakanj have arrived at the small industrial town of Vares. Reuters quotes the local police chief as saying that "the pressure on the town is so intense that I have no word for it." Elsewhere, the International Herald Tribune says that French General Philippe Morillon is about to be replaced as UN commander in Bosnia, while another French general will take over the UN forces leadership for all of the former Yugoslavia. -Patrick Moore FINAL RESULTS OF KRAJINA SERB VOTE. On 23-June delegates of the self-declared Assembly of the Republic of Serb Krajina unanimously adopted the results of last weekend's referendum on Krajina's sovereignty and its unification with the "Serb Republic" in Bosnia and "other Serb lands." Croatia has slammed the vote, calling it illegal. An assembly committee report said the referendum was held in a "seldom-witnessed, democratic, and dignified atmosphere." According to official figures 301,592 persons, or 95.6% of the electorate living in Croatia's Krajina and Eastern Slavonia regions voted: 297,425 or 98.6% favored union while 2,341-persons (0.72%) opposed it. The remaining ballots cast were declared invalid. Another 79,000 votes were cast by Krajina residents living in 40 cities worldwide and 99.93% voted in favor of sovereignty and unification. Milovan Milanovic, vice president of the Bosnian Serb Republic's National Assembly proposed that the joint session of the assemblies of the two republics scheduled for 28 June (St. Vitus' Day) be postponed. Milanovic explained that "every move should now be made wisely and courageously, step by step, until final unification." The Assembly approved Milanovic's proposal and appointed a commission to draw up of a constitution of the new Serb state west of the Drina River by the end of July. Radios Serbia and Croatia carried the report. -Milan Andrejevich KUCHMA PROPOSES EMERGENCY PLAN. On 23-June Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma proposed emergency measures to prevent the economy from collapsing, Reuters reported. Among the measures were tougher restrictions on the growth of the money supply, faster privatization, tax advantages for industry, and incentives to attract foreign investment. He also called for closing loss-making factories, negotiating a moratorium on fuel price increases with Russia, and campaigning for foreign credit for energy purchases. At the same parliamentary session the First Deputy Prime Minister, Viktor Pynzenyk, said the government did not have the money to pay for the concessions made to striking miners in the Donbass. These included pay rises and industrial subsidies which would cost the government 20 to 60 trillion karbovantsy ($5-15 billion). Some 40 mines are still not working pending the implementation of the agreements. It was also reported that some factories in Kharkiv were planning to strike on 24 June and railway workers have threatened to walk off the job. -Ustina Markus RUSSIA SHARPENS RHETORIC AGAINST ESTONIA. The dispute over Estonia's law on aliens continued on 23 June as Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev made the claim that the Council of Europe had given an "indulgence for the continuation of the practice" of violation of human rights by admitting Estonia as its member; he added: "Now we would like the Council of Europe to think once again about the existing situation. One of its new members is embarking on the path, I am not afraid to exaggerate, of Apartheid, as a third of the population is proclaimed foreigners, and of ethnic cleansing, as the third is facing the threat of being driven out of the country," ITAR-TASS reported. Yeltsin's adviser Sergei Stankevich claimed that a war had been declared on the Russian diaspora in Estonia, and by extension, a cold war on Russia itself. On a calmer note, the Russian Foreign Ministry announced that Alexei Glukhov, director of its European Department is to go to Tallinn on 24-June for talks with the Estonian authorities. -Dzintra Bungs RESPONSE FROM ESTONIAN AMBASSADOR. Juri Kahn, Estonia's envoy to Moscow, told the press on 23-June that Russia's latest statements against Estonia go beyond the framework of normal relations and could be qualified as interference in Estonia's internal affairs. He interpreted the comments as stemming from Estonia's admission as a full member of the Council of Europe, a move that Russia had vigorously opposed. Kahn also claimed that Moscow's politicians are criticizing Estonia primarily because of domestic tensions in Russia, Radio Tallinn reported. -Dzintra Bungs BULGARIA HAS NEW MINISTERS . . . On 23 June Prime Minister Lyuben Berov named five new ministers and received parliamentary approval by a vote of 126-to 84. According to Reuters, the changes were made to strengthen the government against opposition calls for its ouster. Each of the new ministers is a trained professional with technical qualifications for his portfolio, according to BTA. -Stan Markotich . . . AND OPPOSITION RESPONSES. According to Reuters, opposition members of Bulgaria's Parliament were so dissatisfied with the government changes that they walked out a government session shortly after the new cabinet members were named. The leader of the UDF opposition in Parliament, Stefan Savov, stated that the changes amount to little more than an effort to put the government back under the control of the communists. As deputies filed out of session, they hurled verbal insults at the government side. A representative of the ethnic Turks' Movement for Rights and Freedoms said, however, that the appointments will give the government a new lease on life and enable it to "stay in power for at least another year." Stan Markotich POLISH ELECTION CAMPAIGN ROUNDUP. After a meeting of leaders of the parties making up the governing coalition, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka's press secretary, Zdobyslaw Milewski, said that a grand coalition was no longer feasible after the Christian National Union had concluded its own election agreement with the Peasant Alliance. That party recently abandoned the coalition. Milewski also said that none of the remaining parties had excluded the possibility of forming an electoral bloc and that talks would be continued on 24-June, according to an RFE/RL Polish Service report on 23 June. The hard core of such a bloc would likely be formed by the Democratic Union, its former right wing, the Polish Convention, and the Liberal Democratic Congress. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka PRICE CONTROLS IN POLAND AHEAD OF VAT. Government regulations aimed at preventing "unjustified" price rises made under cover of VAT took effect as of 23 June and will be in force until the end of September by which time the government expects the situation to have stabilized, RFE/RL's Polish Service reports. The tax, which replaces the turnover tax, will be introduced on 5 July. The government has also initiated a "Watch Those Prices" campaign, encouraging shopkeepers and the public to monitor prices. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka KLAUS ON VISIT TO POLAND. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus left for a two-day official visit to Poland, CTK reports on 24 June. He is scheduled to meet with President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister Suchocka. The Czech prime minister is expected to sign agreements on dual taxation, income and property, and protection of investments. -Jan Obrman CZECHS TIGHTEN VISA REGULATIONS. Prime Minister Klaus announced new regulations making visas obligatory for citizens of some former Yugoslav republics and some successor states of the Soviet Union, CTK reported on 23 June. Klaus told reporters that visitors from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia-Herzegovina would require visas from 1 July if they want to enter the Czech Republic. He said the decision was necessary to deal with the threat of mass migration. Klaus stressed that the country has become one of the main transit routes for those fleeing wars or economic deprivation to seek asylum in the West. On 1 July tighter asylum laws come into force in Germany. -Jan Obrman CZECH CITIZENSHIP TO SLOVAKS. Interior Ministry spokeswoman Katerina Guluskinova said that about 22,000 Slovaks have been granted citizenship since 1-January 1993, Czech TV reported on 23 June. She said a total of about 46,000 Slovaks have applied so far. Guluskinova also said that about 53% of the 314,000 Slovaks officially known to be currently living on Czech territory already are Czech citizens. She made it clear, however, that many Slovaks permanently residing in the Czech Republic still do not realize that they must apply for citizenship. Jan Obrman DOLGOS RESIGNS FROM SLOVAKIA'S RULING PARTY. Lubomir Dolgos, who resigned his position as Slovak privatization minister after losing a no-confidence vote at a 12 June meeting of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, announced on 23 June at an MDS press conference that he has resigned from the party and his post as its deputy chairman. TASR quoted Dolgos as saying that since the president accepted his resignation as minister, he "did not see any reason to stay." Dolgos also took responsibility for the present state of privatization in Slovakia, which has been criticized by many as extremely slow. It is uncertain whether Dolgos will form his own political party or join former Foreign Minister Milan Knazko's new party, the Alliance of Democrats. -Sharon Fisher MECIAR THE MOST TRUSTED POLITICIAN IN SLOVAKIA. On 23 June, additional results of the Slovak Statistical Office's May poll were released, showing that 25% of respondents trust Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar the most, 4% more than in the April poll. Falling into second place was President Michal Kovac with 22%, followed by Peter Weiss, Chairman of the Party of the Democratic Left, with 20%. Further behind were Parliament Chairman Ivan Gasparovic with 7%, Deputy Premier Roman Kovac and Slovak National Party Chairman Ludovit Cernak with 6%, Chairman of the Democratic Alliance Party Milan Knazko with 5%, and Christian Democratic Party Chairman Jan Carnogursky with 4%. A high 37% of respondents said they do not trust any politician, Slovak media sources said. -Sharon Fisher HUNGARIAN PREMIER IN BONN. Prime Minister Jozsef Antall and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl held talks on bilateral and international issues on 23-June, Radio Budapest announced. Kohl said Germany understood Hungary's security concerns as a result of the Yugoslav conflict and would mention them at the next NATO summit. Antall asked for Germany's continued support in gaining admission into the EC and in developing bilateral economic relations; Germany ranks first among Hungary's trading partners and second among foreign investors in Hungary. --Alfred Reisch MACEDONIA ADOPTS NEW CURRENCY RESTRICTIONS. In an effort to control the amount of foreign currency leaving the country and to hamper illegal currency trading, MILS reports that the Macedonian government has imposed restrictions on travellers entering and leaving the country. All citizens travelling abroad can take up to 1000 DM in cash provided they have a receipt from a bank or other official exchange office. Foreign citizens will have declare any amounts over 300 DM when entering or leaving the country. -Robert Austin ROMANIAN NATIONALIST PARTY CALLS FOR GOVERNMENT RESHUFFLE. On 23 June President Ion Iliescu received a delegation of the Party of Romanian National Unity, headed by the controversial party chairman and mayor of Cluj, Gheorghe Funar. In an interview with Radio Bucharest after the meeting, Funar said that his party urged a reshuffle of Nicolae Vacaroiu's cabinet before parliament's summer break. Among the ministers targeted by the PRNU, there are Misu Negritoiu, head of the Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy and Reform, as well as the agriculture, environment and tourism ministers. The PRNU also demanded that Romania's National Bank governor Mugur Isarescu and a number of prefects be replaced, and that ethnic Romanian deputy prefects be appointed in the counties of Harghita and Covasna, where Hungarians are in majority. -Dan Ionescu NEW LITHUANIAN CURRENCY. On 23 June the rules for converting the coupons (Lithuania's temporary currency) into the new currency, the litas, were published, Radio Lithuania reports. The conversion process will begin on 25 June at a rate of 100 coupons to 1 litas. The coupons will remain valid until 20 July and only people who had been out of the country or in hospitals will be able to convert their coupons to litas after that. Conversions exceeding 50,000 coupons will be registered. Bank of Lithuania chairman Romualdas Visokavicius said that he will consider the currency reform successful if the value of the litas to the US dollar remains in the 4 to 5 litas per dollar range at the end of the year. The bank hopes to have an exchange rate of 430-447 coupons to the dollar at the time of the litas introduction. Saulius Girnius "DNIESTER" FIGHTERS IN ABKHAZIA. Interviewed in Segodnia no. 27 of 22 June, "Dniester republic" Supreme Soviet chairman Grigorii Marakutsa denied that his would-be republic as such had sent fighters to join the Abkhaz forces against Georgia, but added: "We do not deny that volunteers from Tiraspol may be in Abkhazia unofficially. But they went there on their own free will, and the authorities in Tiraspol have no connection with them." Russian TV had reported on 2-June the landing of a detachment of Dniester fighters in military cargo planes at the Russian-controlled military airport in Gudauta and the arrival of another unit in Tkvarcheli, where they raised the Dniester republic flag alongside that of the Abkhaz forces; and Basapress reported from Tiraspol the takeoff of another detachment of fighters bound for Abkhazia on 4 June, organized by the Dniester security authorities. -Vladimir Socor [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Patrick Moore THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.