|The road uphill and the road downhill are one and the same. - Heraclitus|
No. 117, 23 June 1993
RUSSIA RIGHTS OF SUBJECTS OF FEDERATION RECOGNIZED? SERGEI FILATOV, THE HEAD OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S ADMINISTRATION, TOLD A PRESS CONFERENCE IN MOSCOW ON 22-JUNE THAT THE WORKING GROUP TRYING TO PRODUCE AN AGREED DRAFT OF THE CONSTITUTION HAD COME UP WITH THE FORMULA: "THE REPUBLICS ARE SOVEREIGN STATES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION; THE KRAIS AND OBLASTS ARE TERRITORIAL-STATE FORMATIONS. All the subjects of the Federation enjoy identical rights in matters of the economy and politics and in their relations with the federal bodies of power." ITAR-TASS quoted Filatov as saying that, if this wording was approved, the chances of the constitution being adopted would be much better. The republics and regions had strongly objected when Yeltsin suggested that similar wording on their status be dropped from the statement of progress on the draft constitution. -Ann Sheehy TATARSTAN STILL INSISTING ON ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF ITS SPECIAL STATUS. Tatarstan prime minister Mukhammat Sabirov told a press conference in Kazan on 22 June that Tatarstan was still insisting that the constitutional-treaty nature of Tatarstan's relationship with Russia be acknowledged in the Russian constitution, ITAR-TASS reported. He suggested this could be done in the form of a special annotation to the list of the subjects of the federation. Three further agreements between Russia and Tatarstan were signed in Kazan on 22 June as part of Russian prime minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's visit to Tatarstan. They were an agreement on property which divides it into federal, joint, and republican; on customs service, which states that the unified system of tariffs and dues of the Russian Federation will operate on Tatarstan territory; and on the military-industrial complex. It is hoped that the all-important treaty on political relations will be signed in July. -Ann Sheehy COMMUNISTS PRESENT THEIR OWN DRAFT CONSTITUTION. At a press conference organized in Moscow on 22 June by the parliamentary faction "Communists of Russia," leaders of several Communist organizations handed over to journalists the text of "the main principles" of the "Soviet Constitution," which they have prepared. The "Soviet Constitution" abolishes the presidency and proclaims the parliament to be the center of supreme power in Russia. According to ITAR-TASS, the draft says that Russia should continue to develop as a "socialist country." Participants of the press conference asked members of the Congress of People's Deputies who do not belong to the "Communist of Russia" faction for assistance in publicizing the draft. This draft is not being taken into account by the Constitutional Assembly. -Vera Tolz POPOV AGAINST JOINING NEW PRO-YELTSIN BLOC. The head of the Russian Movement for Democratic Reform, Gavriil Popov, was quoted by Radio Rossii "Novosti" on 19 June as saying that his movement will not join the pre-election bloc of Reformist Forces created recently by supporters of President Yeltsin. Popov suggested that the new organization lacks a clear political and economic platform. He stressed that since the defection of Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi and parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov from Yeltsin's camp, he has become suspicious of promises given by democratic politicians. Meanwhile, the Russian Republican Party has announced that it intends to set up its own liberal pre-election bloc, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 June. -Alexander Rahr MINERS PROTEST GOVERNMENT DECISION TO FREE COAL PRICES. Russian miners oppose the presidential decree announced earlier this week, which envisages the freeing of coal prices from 1 July, according to Reuters on 22 June. A group of 115 miners from the Rostov region have been picketing government buildings in Moscow and demanding a meeting with President Yeltsin and Prime Minister Chernomyrdin. They were originally protesting against the government's failure to come up with the money owed to the mines for salaries and subsidies. According to an agreement signed with the government in February, they are now owed 200 billion rubles in subsidies. The miners fear that price liberalization will not help cover the industry's losses and could lead to the closure of more than half of the country's mines and to rising unemployment. Russian Radio reported a statement by the Minister for Fuel and Energy, Yurii Shafranik, on 21 June, according to whom it is planned to close 40 mines, which account for half of all state subsidies to the coal industry. -Sheila Marnie GRACHEV ON MILITARY EXERCISES. Radio Rossii reported on 22 June that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev stated that the Russian military will begin a series of command and staff exercises on 23 June, with a number of subsequent strategic exercises to be held during the summer. Grachev also expressed his opinion that a global war was an unlikely contingency, and that the military is able to defend Russia in any local conflicts. The latter statements are likely an echo of the new emphasis on small-scale conflicts in the revised draft military doctrine, which has yet to be published. -John Lepingwell US TRIES TO BLOCK MISSILE FUEL SALES. The New York Times reported on 23 June that the Clinton Administration has warned Russia against the planned sale of rocket-fuel ingredients to Libya. According to the report, the sale is the latest in a string of exports that have caused concern in Washington, prompting the US President to send a letter to his Russian counterpart that threatens sanctions unless Moscow halts such deals. As an inducement, the US administration has proposed that Russian companies might share in work on the multi-billion dollar US space station and launch US satellites. Although Russia has not joined the missile technology control regime, Moscow insists that it is observing the controls. According to one US expert, however, defense industrial enterprises in Russia (and Ukraine) find themselves in dire economic straits, leading them increasingly to "authorize export of sensitive, dual-use space-launch, chemical, and biological technologies." -Stephen Foye CHINESE AND RUSSIAN EXPERTS DEMARCATING BORDER. The first meeting of Chinese and Russian experts dedicated to border demarcation ended on 21-June, ITAR-TASS reported the next day. The two sides are in the process of delineating their 4,000+ km boundary on the basis of agreements dating back to 1987. The latest talks dealt not only with drawing the frontier lines but with the wider questions of border controls. Over 1,000 experts from the Russian side alone are working on the demarcation project, which began this spring. According to the Border Guard representative of the Russian Federation, Yurii Neshumov, the process is likely to take at least three to four years. While Neshumov stressed the friendly relations between the PRC and Russia, he said that the demarcation has been complicated by illegal cross border traffic, which he hopes will stop once the boundaries are definitively drawn and the border guards stationed accordingly. -Ustina Markus GERMANS IN RUSSIA WANT A REPUBLIC ON THE BALTIC SEA. Freiheit, an organization of Germans living in Russia, has proposed establishing a "German Republic of the Baltic" in the Kaliningrad (formerly Koenigsberg) region, BNS reported on 22 June. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai and Kaliningrad official Gennadii Polishchuk indicated that Moscow is unwilling to discuss the idea at this time, however. -Dzintra Bungs TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN STANDOFF CONTINUES. Troops loyal to rebel colonel Surat Huseinov strolled the Baku streets on 22 June, encountering no resistance from government forces, Western journalists reported. Newly elected parliament chairman Geidar Aliev telephoned President Elchibey several times urging him to return to Baku; Turkish President Suleyman Demirel and acting Prime Minister Erdal Inonu both affirmed Turkey's support for the democratic process in Azerbaijan and for Elchibey personally, according to Turkish Radio of 22 June. Asked by ITAR-TASS to comment on rumors that former President Mutalibov had returned to Baku and was in alliance with Huseinov, Aliev refused a straight answer; he likewise declined to confirm Interfax reports that Huseinov supporters had killed an Azerbaijan Popular Front official and two government soldiers, according to The Los Angeles Times of 22 June and The New York Times of 23 June. Azerbaijan Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov traveled to Gyandzha for talks with Huseinov and was scheduled to proceed from there to Nakhichevan to meet with Elchibey. -Liz Fuller RUSSIAN OFFICIAL DENIES PREPARATIONS FOR ATTACK ON SUKHUMI. Lt. Gen. Aleksandr Chindarov, commander of the operational group of Russian Forces stationed in Abkhazia, denied on 22 June accusations made the day before by Tamaz Nadareishvili, Georgian Parliament Chair Eduard Shevardnadze's representative in Abkhazia, that Russian troops were preparing an attack on Sukhumi, ITAR-TASS reported. Chindarov stated that Russian troops in Abkhazia continued to observe neutrality in the conflict. The accusation follows a statement made on 19 June by the Russian State Committee for Federation Affairs and Nationalities which urged Georgia to recognize the autonomy of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and to establish a federal system. Meanwhile, fighting continued through 22 June as Abkhaz forces fired missiles at Sukhumi and at a ship delivering aid, ITAR-TASS reported. -Catherine Dale KYRGYZ PRESIDENT LEAVES IRAN. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev left Iran on 23-June, after three days of talks in Tehran and Mashhad, ITAR-TASS reported. The Iranian and Kyrgyzstan delegations signed seven different cooperation treaties, ranging from scientific and cultural exchanges to economic investment. Iranian president Hashemi Rafsanjani reportedly told Akaev about his government's eagerness to expand ties with all Central Asian states. -Keith Martin UZBEK DELEGATION OBLIGED TO LEAVE US. A delegation of parliamentarians from Uzbekistan was obliged to cut short a visit to the US, according to an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington. The legislators were sent home by the US State Department after only one week of a projected two-week stay. State Department spokesman Michael McCurry said on 22-June that the US is also considering freezing other bilateral programs; he was quoted as saying, "It would be entirely inappropriate to engage in activities from which Uzbek officials would benefit." The US-Uzbek row is over an incident on 25 May in which an Uzbek working for the US embassy in Tashkent was allegedly beaten by Uzbek secret police at Tashkent airport in the presence of a US government official. The local Uzbek language newspaper Turkestan, in a 15 June article, claimed the woman in question had provoked the incident herself, and that she had not been beaten. The US is insisting on a full and fair inquiry into the incident. -Keith Martin CIS BLACK SEA FLEET OFFICERS REJECT AGREEMENT. On 23 June an assembly of officers of the Black Sea Fleet's air arm denounced the Moscow agreement signed by presidents Yeltsin and Kravchuk that would split the fleet starting in September 1993. The officers declared that they favored a unified fleet, rather than two separate ones. This position has also been advocated by the Commander of the fleet (in Krasnaya zvezda 20 May 1993) and by a gathering of all officers of the fleet (Radio Rossii, 21 June 1993). These developments suggest that the politicians' attempts to resolve the problem may be opposed, and even hindered, by the fleet's servicemen. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM EXPELS CSURKA. The ethics committee of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Party on 22 June expelled the ultranationalist writer-politician Istvan Csurka and parliamentary deputy B. Izabella Kiraly, MTI announced. On the basis of the forum's disciplinary rules, Csurka was automatically expelled for joining another party. Kiraly was expelled for domestic and foreign political views "incompatible" with those of the HDF. The case of deputies Gyula Zacsek and Gyorgy Szilasy, who are currently visiting the United States, remains open, and the ethics committee will further discuss what action to take against the other HDF deputies who joined Csurka's Hungarian Justice Party. Forum Chairman and Prime Minister Jozsef Antall said the presence in the HDF parliamentary faction of a group that had formed a separate faction and party whose views and program differed from those of the HDF is "unthinkable." -Alfred Reisch NEW RACIST VIOLENCE IN HUNGARIAN TOWN. The Roma organization Phralipe in Eger and the Alliance of Free Democrats party faction in the local government have requested a report from the police following a new wave of racist violence in the city, MTI reports. A few months' lull ended in early May when skinheads and Gypsies fought a battle with knives; this was followed by the desecration of several cemeteries, including the Jewish one, an open parade of 6 to 8-skinheads on the day marking the anniversary of the Holocaust, and the near fatal beating with a baseball bat of a Gypsy by a 17-year old skinhead last Sunday. Eger is known to have a strong concentration of skinheads. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARY'S BORDER GUARD TURNS PROFESSIONAL. According to Maj. Gen. Balazs Novaky, National Commander of Hungary's Border Guard, the number of career border guards rose from 3,000 to 7,000 in the past three years, while the number of draftees serving in the guard fell from 14,000 to 8,900, MTI reports. As a result of a reorganization begun in 1990, Hungary's 2,200 kilometers of borders are now guarded by professionals, and the same applies to passport controls at most border crossing points. The switch to professionals was needed because of a twofold increase in the number of travelers in the past three years and the even bigger rise in the number of border violators. The border guard now has 19 rapid deployment companies watching not only the country's southern border but also actively hindering border violations. Some 10,000 border violators were apprehended in the first five months of this year, 16% less than during the same period in 1992, and more than 300,000 persons were turned back for lack of proper documents. - Alfred Reisch IS THE PARTITION OF BOSNIA IMMINENT? INTERNATIONAL MEDIA ON 23 JUNE REPORT ON THE PEACE TALKS IN GENEVA SLATED FOR THAT DAY. Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and his Croat counterpart, Mate Boban, are believed to have a plan that will give the Muslims even less land than the Tudjman-Milosevic proposal leaves them. Bosnia will be represented by seven members of its collective presidency, but President Alija Izetbegovic and Vice President Ejup Ganic refuse to participate in what they regard as the destruction of their country. Izetbegovic told reporters that the seven people have no right to negotiate or to sign anything, and media reports suggest that Izetbegovic and Ganic are the two most influential men among the Bosnian Muslims and the military. Karadzic warned the Muslims to take what is offered or be left with even less in the future. Meanwhile in Croatia, speculation continues about a possible split in the ruling Croatian Democratic Community and a new realignment of political forces. Official denials have only fueled the rumors, such as the suggestion that President Franjo Tudjman has asked former Yugoslav Prime Minister Ante Markovic to head the Croatian government. -Patrick Moore KRAJINA SERB LEADER SAYS NO TO EARLY UNITY. Goran Hadzic, president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serb Krajina, told reporters in Geneva on 22-June that there are no plans for immediate unification of Serb territories in Croatia and Bosnia. He said the 19-20 June referendum on unity had been "just to test the will of the people." Serbs in Croatia's regions of Krajina and Eastern Slavonia voted overwhelmingly for unification with the self-declared Serb Republic in Bosnia. Bosnian and Krajina Serbs will hold a joint session of their assemblies on 28 June to set a timetable for unification. Hadzic said "We have no plans for unity-not so soon," adding that the outcome of negotiations on dividing Bosnia into three ethnic areas "will definitely influence" the Serbs' decision. Radio Croatia remarked that Hadzic might simply be adopting a conciliatory tone before the resumption of negotiations with Croatian officials. Talks between the two sides broke-down after Croatian troops overran a year-old UN-mediated cease-fire line in the Krajina in January. Radios Croatia and Serbia carried the report. -Milan Andrejevich UN TROOPS TO MACEDONIA. MILS reports that the arrival of the first contingent of US troops is being eagerly awaited in Skopje. Citing concerns about the potential for the spread of the Bosnian conflict, the US government has decided to dispatch some 300 US troops to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to bolster existing UN peacekeeping forces. The main focus of the enhanced force is monitoring the potentially volatile border with Serbia. Unrest in the ethnically Albanian province of Kosovo is also a major concern. Should Serbian repression there continue, many Kosovars would likely flee to Macedonia rather than to the economically paralyzed Albania. At present, with roughly 20% of its population ethnically Albanian, Macedonia would find an influx of Albanian refugees highly destabilizing. The Albanian minority there is increasingly dissatisfied with its position and continues to strive for autonomy. AFP quotes Muhamed Halili, head of the Albanian deputies in the Skopje parliament, as saying the Albanians "want their political and territorial autonomy," and added that with or without Skopje's support that end will be achieved. -Robert Austin TRADING WITH VOUCHER PRIVATIZATION SHARES BEGINS IN PRAGUE. On 22 June the long-awaited trading with shares obtained by individual investors and investment funds under the voucher privatization scheme earlier this year began at the Prague Stock Exchange. The exchange opened in March 1993. Exchange officials say only a small volume of shares in just 6 of about 620 companies whose shares were on offer was traded. Jiri Franc, the exchange's general secretary, told reporters that the small volume of trade shares was not unexpected, because "no one could expect a serious investor to place huge orders into a market he knows virtually nothing about." -Jiri Pehe NEW CZECH HEALTH CARE MINISTER. At the request of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, on 22 June President Vaclav Havel recalled Health Care Minister Petr Lom and replaced him with Ludek Rubas, a parliamentary deputy for Klaus's ruling Civic Democratic Party. Klaus told journalists in Prague that Rubas, a pediatric surgeon by profession, can be expected to restore confidence in the ministry. Lom, also a member of Klaus's party, has been criticized for not being able to defend the ambitious program of privatizing health care that his ministry launched at the beginning of 1993. -Jiri Pehe SHALIKASHVILI VISITS SLOVAKIA. Gen. John Shalikashvili, NATO Supreme Commander in Europe, arrived in Slovakia on 22 June for a two-day official visit. TASR reports that after talks with Premier Vladimir Meciar, Shalikashvili said the "failure" in Yugoslavia shows that closer cooperation between the UN and East European nations is necessary. During a meeting with Shalikashvili, President Michal Kovac repeatedly confirmed Slovakia's interest in joining NATO and said that American military presence in Europe "remains justified." Shalikashvili also met with Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak. -Sharon Fisher TEMPORARY MINISTERIAL CHANGES IN SLOVAK GOVERNMENT. On 22 June President Michal Kovac accepted the resignations of Privatization Minister Lubomir Dolgos and Education and Science Minister Matus Kucera and approved Premier Vladimir Meciar's proposal to solve the temporary personnel problems resulting from the vacancies. TASR reports that according to the plan, Meciar himself will preside over the Ministry of Privatization, while Deputy Premier Roman Kovac will hold the post of Minister of Education and Science. This arrangement is expected to last only for two to three weeks, when coalition negotiations between the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia and the Slovak National Party (SNS) should be concluded. These posts are likely to be filled by SNS members. Meanwhile, according to results of a May poll by the Slovak Statistical office released on 22-June, the MDS has the support of only 17% of the population, followed by the Party of the Democratic Left with 14% and the SNS with 9%. -Sharon Fisher POLISH ELECTION CAMPAIGN ROUNDUP. PAP reported several new developments on 22-June. President Lech Walesa presented his action plan for the Nonparty Bloc to Support Reforms (BBWR) to state radio and television employees. Four people per voivodship are to be authorized to propagate the BBWR among the four potential interest groups. Local election committees have already been set up in Cracow, Gdansk, and Czestochowa by different groups. Walesa received two business federations. One of them gave its support to the BBWR; the other expressed support for some of the president's initiatives but said it would not get involved with any political groups. Jan Olszewski, former prime minister and leader of one of the center-right opposition parties that recently formed an election coalition called Polish Union, said that the new coalition's campaign would focus on economic and social themes rather than on decommunization with which those parties have mostly become associated. Finally, the traditionally anticommunist Polish Socialist Party is caught in a struggle between its central authorities which are trying to negotiate an election pact with the former communist satellite peasant and democratic parties and a breakaway group led by former chairman Piotr Ikonowicz who is negotiating seats on the lists of the postcommunist Democratic Left Alliance. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH BANK MAKES STOCK EXCHANGE DEBUT. The Wielkopolski Credit Bank SA, the first of the nine Polish state-owned banks to be privatized, made a successful debut on Warsaw's stock exchange on 22-June. PAP said that shares closed at 350,000 zloty, three times the April issue price, and an all-time record for the Polish stock exchange. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka THREE FOREIGN MINISTERS VISIT BUCHAREST. The foreign ministers of Australia, Gareth Evans, and Thailand, Prasong Soonsiri, paid official visits to Romania on 19-22, and 20-22 June, respectively. They had talks with their Romanian counterpart Teodor Melescanu, and were received by President Ion Iliescu and Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu. On 21 June Romania and Australia signed an agreement on protecting mutual investments. Evans told journalists that the agreement would encourage Australian investments in Romania. On 22-June Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys began a three-day official visit to Bucharest. A friendship and cooperation treaty between Romania and Lithuania is expected to be initialed during the visit. -Dan Ionescu US TO SELL SUBSIDIZED WHEAT TO ROMANIA. According to an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington, the US Department of Agriculture has agreed to sell 36,600 tons of wheat to Romania at subsidized prices. The Department says it will pay a subsidy of over $24-per ton to a US exporter to sell the grain below the current world price. A former traditional exporter of cereals, Romania has had to import millions of tons over the last several years to cover shortages resulting from decades of mismanagement of agriculture. Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu recently expressed hopes that good crops will allow Romania to stop importing cereals later this year. -Dan Ionescu BANKS HALT TALKS ON BULGARIA'S DEBTS. On 22-June Juergen Haus, representing the Deutsche Bank, announced that talks on Bulgaria's debt load will not continue into the third day but have been suspended for the time being, apparently for procedural reasons. Eleven Western creditor banks are involved in the talks chaired by the Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt. Haus suggested they could continue in the near future. In March the banks agreed to slash Bulgarian debts by 38%, but, according to Bulgarian media, Sofia is presently hoping to have approximately 50% of its debts written off. -Stan Markotich UKRAINIAN DEPUTIES CRITICIZE ISRAELI OFFICIAL. More than 12 deputies have signed a statement denouncing Shevach Weiss, speaker of the Israeli parliament, for his address to the Ukrainian parliament last week, Reuters reported on 22 June. They claim that Weiss accused the Ukrainian people as a whole of collaboration with the Nazis during World War II. In a letter of response Weiss asserted that the source of the controversy was a translation error that failed to convey that he referred to the Ukrainian people "in part." Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko accepted Weiss' response and said that relations between Israel and Ukraine remain fine. Since its independence, Ukraine has gone to some lengths to cultivate good relations with Israel and encourage the development of Jewish culture in Ukraine. -Susan Stewart RUSSIA CONSIDERING SANCTIONS AGAINST ESTONIA. Deputy Russian Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin told the press on 22 June that Moscow is considering economic and political measures in response to Estonia's controversial new law on foreigners. The law requires noncitizens to apply for a residence permit within one year. Churkin claims that the law would place Estonia's Russian-speaking population in the position of "illegal immigrants," while Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar says that the law is consistent with European norms. On 22 June Laar held talks with opponents of the law in Narva, where the population is predominantly Russian, Baltic and Russian media reported. -Dzintra Bungs RUBIKS TRIAL POSTPONED AGAIN. The Latvian Supreme Court decided to adjourn the hearing of the case of former Latvian Communist Party leaders Alfreds Rubiks and Ojars Potreki until 30 June. Refusing entirely to cooperate, Rubiks claimed immunity on account of his having been elected to the Latvian parliament. Actually, his status as a deputy still has to be confirmed by the parliament when it meets on 6-July, Baltic media reported on 22 June. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN PREMIER IN US. On 21 June Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius asked US National Security advisor Anthony Lake to send observers to monitor the withdrawal of Russian troops from his country. Slezevicius also had a meeting with World Bank President Lewis Preston on receiving credits that would help Lithuania settle its debt to Russia for natural gas. On 22 June he held talks with Secretary of State Warren Christopher, who announced that the US is planning to establish a $50 million Baltic American Enterprise Fund to assist small and medium-size businesses in the three Baltic States. He also held talks with IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus and US Agriculture Secretary Michael Espy, Radio Lithuania reports. -Saulius Girnius HIGH LEVEL OF RADIOACTIVITY AT LITHUANIAN AIRPORT. The Lithuanian Environment Department announced that the average radioactivity level at the aircraft maintenance workshops of the former Russian military airport at Zokniai near Siauliai was registered at 1,000 microroentgens per hour-40 times the permissible level, Radio Lithuania reported on 22 June. Former employees said that some radioactive waste had been buried at the airport. There are three sites where the radioactivity level is 1,600 microroentgens/hour. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Stephen Foye and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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