|Men stumble over the truth from time to time, but most pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing happened. - Sir Winston Churchill|
No. 114, 18 June 1993
CIS YELTSIN, KRAVCHUK AGREE ON SPLITTING BLACK SEA FLEET. Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk signed an agreement to speed up the division of the Black Sea Fleet. Under the terms of the agreement, published by ITAR-TASS on 17-June, Ukraine will begin forming its own national navy in September; that navy will use as its basis the Ukrainian share of the Black Sea Fleet which will be divided within the time specified by the 1992 agreement in Yalta. Until its division, the existing base system will continue to be used by the fleet; until that time, the fleet will be financed by both sides, each paying half of the costs. During the transition period all servicemen in the fleet will be dual citizens. The agreement will not come into force until it is ratified by the parliaments of both countries. Ustina Markus UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN SUMMIT. In addition to the accord on the Black Sea Fleet, the two sides also committed themselves to intensify work on a comprehensive political treaty between the two countries; accelerate the process of reaching an agreement on dual citizenship; cooperate in solving fuel and energy questions on mutually beneficial terms; and draft an agreement on jointly selling off shares in Ukrainian and Russian enterprises. Yeltsin also confirmed Russia's readiness to give Ukraine security guarantees that would come into force after the Ukrainian parliament ratifies START-1 and adheres to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Speaking to reporters afterwards, Kravchuk said that a new stage in relations between Ukraine and Russia seemed to have been initiated. -Roman Solchanyk RUSSIA RUTSKOI HITS YELTSIN ON STATE OF ARMY. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi on 16-June charged that the Russian armed forces were in a disastrous state and suggested that President Boris Yeltsin was more interested in buying off the military leadership with promotions than with addressing the army's real problems. According to reports published in Rossiiskaya gazeta and Sovetskaya Rossiya on 17 June, Rutskoi criticized laudatory remarks made by Yeltsin on 11 June to a gathering of the high command, and said that the number of generals in the Russian army now exceeded those in the former Soviet armed forces (Yeltsin promoted 80 officers to general and admiral on 11 June). Rutskoi also charged that Russian forces are not battle worthy, that social problems continue to mount in the army, and that the military leadership was the most corrupt part of the army. -Stephen Foye SPEECH TIED TO OPPOSITION IN PARLIAMENT. Aside from its substance, Rutskoi's speech was noteworthy because it demonstrated that the parliament continues to compete with Yeltsin for support in the armed forces. Rutskoi's appearance took place in the parliamentary center and was sponsored by "Army Reform," a group of uniformed deputies that has long criticized the Russian military leadership for what it contends is a failure to pursue serious military reform. Rutskoi called for creation of parliamentary groups to investigate conditions in the Russian Navy, Air Force, and Ground Forces; the "Reform Army" group is already investigating corruption in the armed forces. Rutskoi's direct criticism of the Russian military leadership also appears to mark a crossing of the Rubicon. His political standing had long rested on what was perceived as his popularity in the army, and he may hope to reverse his sagging political fortunes by exploiting dissatisfaction among junior and middle level officers with the current High Command, which has publicly backed Yeltsin. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN TROOPS LEAVING CUBA. Farewell ceremonies were held on 16 June for the last contingent of Russian combat troops in Cuba, according to AFP and other Western press agencies. About 500 troops and their families are scheduled to depart Cuba on 30 June. Some Russian civilians and military advisers will remain in Cuba to operate military intelligence facilities. -John Lepingwell ARMED FORCES SENT INTO REBELLIOUS DISTRICT IN CHECHNYA. About fifty law enforcement officers were sent to the Nadterechnyi district of Chechnya. The district announced independence from the Dzhakhar Dudaev government last week after its residents voted against Dudaev in a referendum. An RFE/RL correspondent quoted on 17 June President Dudaev's spokesman as saying he had no reports so far of clashes between the force that was sent to the district by Dudaev and the opposition. The Russian media reported the same day that the rebellious district had been placed under martial law. Meanwhile, the Council of Nationalities at the Russian parliament released a statement saying the Dudaev regime in Chechnya violated internationally accepted standards of human rights by using force to disperse peaceful opposition meetings, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 June. -Vera Tolz CONGRESS OF PEOPLES OF CAUCASUS AND COSSACKS. A congress of elected representatives of the peoples of the Caucasus and the Cossacks of southern Russia is to take place in Nalchik on 17-18 July, ITAR-TASS reported on 17 June. The decision was taken by an organizational committee under the chairmanship of Musa Shanibov, president of the confederation of the peoples of the Caucasus, and the ataman of the Stavropol krai Union of Cossacks, Petr Fedosov. The congress is to ratify an agreement reached between the confederation and the Cossacks about the non-use of force or the threat of force in solving disputes. Representatives of all the North Caucasian republics, including Chechnya, and also Abkhazia, Kalmykia, and the Don, Kuban, Stavropol, and Terek Cossacks signed the agreement. Upstaging the official authorities, Shanibov took the initiative to approach the Cossacks after Yeltsin issued his decree on the rehabilitation of the Cossacks of southern Russia which many saw as leading to inevitable clashes between them and the North Caucasians. -Ann Sheehy SHAKHRAI TO FORM NEW PARTY. Sergei Shakhrai, deputy prime minister and close advisor to Boris Yeltsin, told journalists at a news conference on 17-June attended by an RFE/RL correspondent that he was forming a pro-democracy party to participate in parliamentary elections, which could be held as early as the autumn. The founding congress of the new party, called the Party of Russian Unity and Accord (Russian acronym PRES), may be in July or August. Shakhrai said he wants the party's main support to come from businessmen and people from the regions. The party will promote a socially oriented market economy and federalism, and will defend the rights of Russians in other former Soviet republics. Shakhrai has been associated with the plans announced in early June to form a pro-Yeltsin political movement. [see RFE/RL Daily Report for 4 June]. Wendy Slater ZORKIN CLAIMS IMPROVED RELATIONS WITH YELTSIN. Chairman of the Constitutional Court Valerii Zorkin, who has recently shown opposition to President Yeltsin and his constitutional plans, told the press that relations with the president have improved. Zorkin described his meeting with Yeltsin on 16 June as constructive and said that further meetings between them were planned. He said that Yeltsin has agreed to meet all the members of the Constitutional Court on his return from a three-day visit to Yakutia which begins today (18 June), RFE/RL reported on 17 June. -Wendy Slater PRAVDA APOLOGIZES FOR ANTI-SEMITIC ARTICLE. The Russian daily Pravda apologized on 17 June for publishing an article on 5 May that accused Jews of ritual murder. The article was criticized by the Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and the US State Department. In the apology on page two, the newspaper said that "unsubstantiated, unjustified statements occurred in the article 'Satan's Tribe' through the author's fault... The editors are offering their apologies to the readers. At the same time, we think it necessary to underline that our newspaper, as before, stands on positions of internationalism and is opposed to inciting ethnic hatred." -Vera Tolz TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. Rebels loyal to Surat Huseinov took the town of Shemakha, 77 miles west of Baku, on 17 June, encountering no resistance, ITAR-TASS reported. Azertadzh claimed that 3,000 Armenian troops with armored vehicles had launched an attack on Agdam, just east of Nagorno-Karabakh; the Nagorno-Karabakh Information and Press Department told ITAR-TASS that Azerbaijani planes were bombing Stepanakert, but that it was not clear whether these were under the control of the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense or of Surat Huseinov. In a message to CSCE mediator Mario Raffaelli, acting Nagorno-Karabakh parliament chairman Karen Baburyan accused Azerbaijan of sabotaging the CSCE peace process by launching a new offensive against Gadrut and Mardakert. Azerbaijan President Abulfaz Elchibey dismissed the Ministers of National Security and Internal Affairs, reportedly at the insistence of National Independence Party chairman Etibar Mamedov. Azerbaijan again demanded that the UN Security Council impose sanctions on Armenia, according to ITAR-TASS. Alikram Gumbatov, who has taken control of the southeastern town of Lenkoran, is quoted by ITAR-TASS as pledging his full support for the demands made by Surat Huseinov, but denying that he is demanding secession from Azerbaijan and the creation of an independent Talysh Republic. -Liz Fuller UZBEKISTAN, KYRGYZSTAN SIGN AGREEMENTS. The prime ministers of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan signed several agreements in Tashkent on 16 June, ITAR-TASS reported. The economic accords are designed to relieve tension between the two states over Kyrgyzstan's surprise introduction of its own currency, the som, in May; Uzbekistan had responded by cutting off the natural gas and petroleum supplies upon which Kyrgyzstan is dependent. The most important feature of the agreements is the decision to use the dollar, not the ruble, as the basis for all inter-bank transactions between the two republics, though barter trade will remain a large component of economic exchange. In addition, Kyrgyzstan officially acknowledged that, at the time of the introduction of the som, it had a debt of $13.3 million to Uzbekistan; the Uzbek government insisted the debt be recognized before economic transactions could be normalized. -Keith Martin ELECTIONS IN TAJIKISTAN. Parliamentary by-elections were held in 19 districts of Tajikistan on 13-June to replace legislators who were killed or fled the country during last year's civil war. No opposition groups were allowed to take part and in most districts, only one Communist Party candidate's name appeared on the ballot. Among the newly elected were the Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdulladzhanov (with over 98% of the votes cast) and the Procurator General Makhmadnazar Salikhov, ITAR-TASS reported on 17-June. The Supreme Soviet, which has not met in Dushanbe since the start of the civil war one year ago, is to convene on June 24. Keith Martin GROWING OPPOSITION TO SHEVARDNADZE? GEORGIA'S PRO-SHEVARDNADZE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY CLAIMED ON 15 JUNE THAT DUE TO THE "INTRIGUES" OF RUSSIAN REACTIONARY FORCES, GEORGIAN PARLIAMENTARY AND NON-PARLIAMENTARY OPPOSITION HAVE UNITED WITH SUPPORTERS OF EX-PRESIDENT ZVIAD GAMSAKHURDIA TO OPPOSE THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT, NOVOSTI REPORTED. The statement of the NDP argued that anticipated efforts by Russian and Abkhaz troops to take Sukhumi and Ochamchira could spark anti-government protests. The NDP also stated that 200 Russian soldiers, together with Zviadist troops, currently maintain control of Zugdidi, in western Georgia. Maj. Gen. Iurii Boguevskii, Chief of Staff of the Russian Forces in the Transcaucasus, denies this. The NDP announcement was a response to a call for Shevardnadze's resignation issued on 14 June by Iraklii Tsereteli, leader of the National Independence Party, together with other opposition parties. They accused Shevardnadze of responsibility for the current political crisis sparked by 10 months of fighting in Abkhazia. -Catherine Dale ABKHAZ UPDATE. ITAR-TASS reported that a convoy of 30 Russian trucks, guarded by Russian light tanks and both Russian and Georgian troops, stopped in Ochamchira on 17 June on its way to deliver humanitarian aid to the besieged city of Tkvarcheli, from where approximately 5,000 refugees will be evacuated. Most of the refugees are Abkhaz or ethnic Russians. Also on 17 June, refugees from Sukhumi boarded ships to sail to Sochi. -Catherine Dale CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IS VANCE-OWEN PLAN ALIVE?. The plan is dead, say international media on 18 June, as does Lord Owen himself, according to the Los Angeles Times. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman said on 17 June that the plan drafted by him and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic "brought all sides closer to some solution which promises to lessen the number of victims and which is closer to peace." He also blamed inaction by the international community for the collapse of the Vance-Owen project. Tudjman stressed that the new plan is realistic, and Lord Owen noted that "we have to live with what has happened on the ground." Milosevic too endorsed the Croat-Serb proposal, but Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic slammed it, saying: "we are all intermingled there. You cannot draw lines between us unless you are ready to make a new round of ethnic cleansing." Meanwhile, Tudjman denied that the project is a Serb-Croat plot to partition Bosnia, saying that it requires the Serbs to give up some conquered territories and grants the Muslims areas of prime cultural and economic importance. Finally, the 18 June Borba notes that "intensive contacts" are under way between Zagreb and Belgrade. -Patrick Moore OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE YUGOSLAV AREA. Reuters on 17 June says that a Serbian court magistrate ordered that opposition leader Vuk Draskovic be sent from the court to an outside clinic. It is not clear where Draskovic, who was badly beaten by police after his arrest at a protest on 2 June, actually is. The brutality of the treatment of Draskovic and his wife, together with the violation of his parliamentary immunity, have attracted international attention. France has repeated its call for his release, and many other Western nations have expressed similar demands. Meanwhile in Croatia, Vjesnik of 17 June says that lower house speaker Stipe Mesic, who leads the liberal wing of the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ), attended a meeting of journalists calling for freedom of the press. He urged journalists to improve their professional standards, but, most importantly, he demanded that "the government and political parties get out of the media." Many observers predict that the HDZ is likely to split into a liberal and a rather smaller conservative faction, and Mesic has been staking out positions on a variety of issues that put him at odds with Tudjman. -Patrick Moore SUCHOCKA PUSHES ON. At a press conference on 17-June, the Polish prime minister said it would be "unacceptable" simply to "administer" the country until new elections. She pledged to push ahead with the implementation of "previously accepted" programs, especially efforts to fight unemployment. She did not rule out certain "extraordinary measures" to compensate for the absence of the parliament. This was Suchocka's second major press conference since the parliament was dissolved; she has pledged to inform the public regularly of the government's actions, on the assumption that it now answers directly to the nation. Suchocka also announced she will run for a seat in the Sejm. She expressed "understanding" for President Lech Walesa's attempt to form a Non-Party Bloc to Support Reform (BBWR). Electoral blocs, she said, are more appropriate for the coming elections than individual parties running separately. The coalition parties supporting Suchocka's government met on 17 June in a second attempt to hammer out a joint strategy for the elections. Given the difficulty in forming a single electoral coalition that would include both secular liberals and conservative Catholics, Suchocka proposed that the ruling parties enter the elections in two blocs-a national-Catholic bloc and a liberal-centrist one-joined by a "non-aggression pact." The coalition is to reach a final decision on 23 June. -Louisa Vinton CATCH-22 FOR PRIVATE POLISH BROADCASTERS. The chairman of Poland's national broadcasting council told reporters on 17 June that all private radio and TV stations broadcasting without a license will face prosecution as of 1 July. This requirement, included in the law on radio and television approved earlier this year, will require the shut-down not only of "pirate" stations broadcasting without official permission, but also of stations broadcasting on the basis of temporary permits, including Warsaw's private giant, Radio Zet. Only stations operated by the Catholic Church are exempt. The problem here is that there is no way for private stations now operating to legalize their status without closing down operations for several months. Due to delays in the passage of the radio and television law, the broadcasting council will only begin accepting applications for licenses at the end of June, and licenses will only be issued in October. The council has said all applicants should have an equal chance at a license. Private broadcasters expressed shock that the broadcasting council had not attempted to postpone the 1 July deadline, especially as Poland is entering an election campaign. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that there are 56-private radio stations and 20 private TV stations now broadcasting in Poland. -Louisa Vinton POLISH PRODUCTION CONTINUES TO CLIMB. Industrial production in May 1993 was 14% higher than in the same month a year ago, the state statistical office reported on 17 June. Construction was up by a full 18.8%. Average industrial production for the first five months of 1993 was 8.8% higher than in the comparable period of 1992, PAP reported. -Louisa Vinton CZECH HEALTH CARE MINISTER TO BE RECALLED. Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus announced on 17 June that the leadership of the ruling Civic Democratic Party, has recommended that Czech Health Care Minister Petr Lom be replaced. Lom is a member of the CDP. Klaus said that among the reasons for Lom's replacement are both specific problems in the health care system and Lom's inability to defend the ongoing large-scale restructuring of the health care system. (An ambitious program to privatize the health-care system was launched at the beginning of 1993.) The prime minister also revealed that Zdenek Rubas, a CDP parliamentary deputy and physician by profession, is likely to replace Lom. Rubas would become the fourth minister in the last three years to preside over the troubled ministry. -Jiri Pehe MECIAR MAY BE FORCED TO SACK MORE MINISTERS. In order to guarantee a coalition between the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia of Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar and the Slovak National Party (SNS), Meciar may be obliged to give up more cabinet posts from his one-party government. Although Meciar has already sacked two ministers, on 17 June Reuters reported that SNS Vice Chairman Anton Hrnko said the party is looking to gain five cabinet posts in order to have a "balanced coalition government." Hrnko specified that the SNS aims to capture the economics and privatization ministries and possibly education and health as well, in addition to the new Ministry of Trade and Tourism. In a separate interview with CTK, SNS Chairman Ludovit Cernak claimed that Hrnko broke "a gentlemen's agreement" by releasing information being discussed privately between the SNS and the MDS. A coalition with SNS is necessary to provide MDS with a slim majority in parliament. -Sharon Fisher CARTER VISITS SLOVAKIA. Former US President Jimmy Carter is in Slovakia for a two-day unofficial visit beginning on 17 June. The first day of the visit included talks with Premier Vladimir Meciar and a meeting with Parliament Chairman Ivan Gasparovic. Carter and Meciar discussed increased cooperation in privatization, tourism, and trade, as well as closer ties between the US Democratic Party and the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. In an interview with TASR, Carter said that the Slovak constitution "guarantees democracy and protects human rights." -Sharon Fisher CSURKA ON LIST OF AGENTS? HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC FORUM PRESIDIUM MEMBER ISTVAN CSURKA, WHOSE FORMAL EXPULSION FROM THE PARTY IS IN PROCESS, TOLD MAGYAR NEMZET OF 16 JUNE THAT HIS NAME MIGHT APPEAR ON A LIST OF AGENTS OF THE NOTORIOUS DEPARTMENT III/III OF THE SECURITY SERVICE, WHICH WAS IN CHARGE OF DOMESTIC SURVEILLANCE UNDER COMMUNISM. Csurka said that he had signed many statements during his internment following the 1956 revolution but he denied that he ever worked for the department. He predicted that as the campaign for the 1994 national elections gets under way "new data" will emerge against him in an attempt to undermine his credibility. The 29-member Hungarian Truth national political group in parliament, of which Csurka is a member, has recently asked Prime Minister Jozsef Antall to screen its members for ties to the III/III department. The request came in response to a statement by Antall that former III/III agents might be in the group. -Edith Oltay MIGS FOR BUDAPEST. The Hungarian government has authorized the Minister of Defense to sign an agreement with Russia under which Russia would deliver to Hungary 28 MiG-29 interceptor aircraft in return for partial cancellation of former Soviet debts, MTI reports. Under the deal, Russia is also to deliver parts and ammunition, pay for delivery of aircraft to the Hungarian-Ukrainian border, and train Hungarian pilots. The $800-million deal erases almost half of Russia's total debt, excluding interest. Defense Ministry State Secretary Laszlo Szendrei said that Hungary feels that it is safer to accept arms deliveries from Russia than to wait for eventual cash repayment of former Soviet debts. The MiG-29s will replace aging MiG-21s. Even with the new aircraft Hungary remains below levels allowed by the European Conventional Arms Limitation Agreement. -Edith Oltay ROMANIAN OPPOSITION CLOSES RANKS. Romania's main parliamentary opposition groups decided on 17-June to forge an alliance aimed at winning power. According to Radio Bucharest, the parties involved are the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic, the Social Democratic Party of Romania, the Party of Civic Alliance, the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, the Liberal Party and the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front. The first five groups belong to the centrist Democratic Convention of Romania. A protocol released by the new alliance says that its aim is to pave the way for a governing pact able to pull the country out of the present crisis. The move comes amidst speculations that President Ion Iliescu may replace the current cabinet, dominated by his Democratic National Salvation Front, with a stopgap coalition sometime this autumn. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIAN NUCLEAR PLANT TO BE UPDATED. Western agencies report that Bulgaria is slated to receive a grant of approximately $29 million from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Much of the money will be used to update the Kozloduy nuclear power facility. In addition, a portion of the funds will be used to phase out four Soviet reactors at the facility deemed hazardous and obsolete by Western standards. -Stan Markotich BULGARIA, TURKEY SIGN ACCORDS. During a visit by Bulgarian Deputy Prime Minister Neycho Neev to Turkey, protocols on bilateral cooperation in the fields of science and technology were signed, BTA reported on 17 June. Neev told journalists that agreements on avoidance of double taxation and mutual protection of investments are also in preparation. On 16 June an accord by which both countries will provide each other with most-favored-nation trade status was initialed. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIA TO CHAIR BLACK SEA COUNCIL. On 17-June Bulgaria became the new chair of the Foreign Ministers' Council of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Council, taking over from Turkey. The term will be for six months. According to Reuters, the meeting of the foreign ministers of 11 Black Sea nations in Istanbul reached general consensus on the organization of an international secretariat to foster economic activity among the membership, which includes Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Turkey, and six former Soviet republics. No agreement could be reached on where to base BSEC's regional bank, since Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and Turkey have each submitted bids to base the bank in their countries. -Stan Markotich SPEAKER OF ISRAELI PARLIAMENT APPLAUDS UKRAINIAN DEMOCRACY. Shevach Weiss, the first senior Israeli official to visit post-Soviet Ukraine, praised the steps taken toward democracy in Ukraine since its independence and encouraged Ukrainian-Israeli cooperation in the realm of energy engineering, Holos Ukrainy reported on 17 June. Weiss met with President Leonid Kravchuk and Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma and addressed parliament. While he spoke openly about the atrocities perpetrated against Jews and others on the territory of Ukraine during World War-II, Weiss expressed satisfaction with the overall treatment of Jews in present-day Ukraine. However, as Reuters reported on 16 June, the visit was marred by protests for the release of Ivan Demjanjuk, a Ukrainian-born man sentenced to death in Israel for operating gas chambers during World War-II, who claims to be a victim of mistaken identity. Parliamentarians in Kiev and activists in Weiss' hometown of Boryslav, in western Ukraine, demanded Demjanjuk's release. -Susan Stewart LITHUANIA INTRODUCES ITS CURRENCY NEXT WEEK. Chairman of the Central Bank announced on 17-June that on 25 June the national currency, known as litas, will be introduced. All of the bills and coins are to be introduced all at once. Initially, one litas will equal 100 coupons, which has served as interim currency since Lithuania left the ruble zone. The changeover is expected to be completed by 20 July, Baltic media report. -Dzintra Bungs FINAL RESULTS OF LATVIAN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. The Central Election Commission disseminated the final results of the parliamentary elections in Latvia that took place on 5-6 June, Radio Riga reported on 17 June. They also announced in alphabetical order the candidates from each list who had been elected to the Saeima and how many parliamentary seats each of the eight winning organizations is to have: Latvian Way-36; National Independence Movement of Latvia-15; Ravnopravie-7; Concord for Latvia-13; Farmers' Union-12; Christian Democrats-6; For the Fatherland and Freedom-6; and Democratic Center Party-5. -Dzintra Bungs LAST RUSSIAN WARPLANE LEAVES LATVIA. Radio Riga reported on 17 June that the last Russian warplanes have left Latvia; they departed from the military airport at Lielvarde. Recent estimates suggest that there are still about 22,000 Russian troops and about 25 transport planes and helicopters, 44 tanks, 56 armored transport vehicles, and a variety of weapons and vast quantities of ammunition in Latvia. In a related development, it was reported that Latvian customs officials have discovered an attempt by Russian servicemen to smuggle some 5,000 tons of aviation fuel to Sweden. -Dzintra Bungs FIRST GENERAL FOR ESTONIA. President Lennart Meri promoted Estonian Defense Forces Commander Col. Aleksander Einseln to the rank of major general on 17 June. Einseln is Estonia's first postindependence general. He fled Estonia with his mother in 1944, joined the US Army, fought in Korea and Vietnam, and retired in 1985 with the rank of colonel. He was named commander of the Estonian Defense Forces earlier this year, although he did not receive formal permission to do so from the US administration. -Mart Laanemae [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.