|If you wish to make an apple pie truly from scratch, you must first invent the universe. - Carl Sagan|
No. 112, 16 June 1993
RUSSIA CIS JOINT COMMAND ABOLISHED. CIS Defense Ministers meeting in Moscow on 15 June abruptly decided to discontinue efforts aimed at maintaining a unified defense structure on the territory of the CIS and dissolved the CIS joint military command. According to Russian and Western news agency reports, it was decided to replace the existing CIS command on a temporary basis with a downgraded body called the "joint staff for coordinating military cooperation between the states of the Commonwealth." Col. Gen. Viktor Samsonov, who had been serving as chief of the CIS main staff, was named chief of the joint staff, apparently pending confirmation by the CIS Council of Heads of State. If approved, he is slated to serve until the end of this year. Samsonov told ITAR-TASS that his first priority would be to strengthen contacts between CIS Defense Ministries. He also said that there would be no major changes in the structure of the existing joint armed forces staff. The CIS joint command had been the direct successor to the USSR Defense Ministry, and its dissolution, less than two years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself, appears to mark the final burial of that institution. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA BEHIND THE BREAK-UP? FOLLOWING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CIS JOINT ARMED FORCES IN DECEMBER OF 1991 THE CIS MILITARY COMMAND AND RUSSIA'S POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERSHIP HAD BEEN GENERALLY UNITED IN THEIR EFFORTS TO USE THE CIS AS A MEANS OF MAINTAINING DEFENSE TIES ON THE TERRITORY OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. That situation began to change significantly in early 1993, however, as the Russian Defense Ministry moved both to widen its control over strategic forces and to push increasingly for bi-lateral security relationships with other CIS states. The tension that emerged between the Russian and CIS military commands also appears to have been a result of Moscow's increasing unwillingness to shoulder the financial burden for a CIS command structure that it viewed as ineffectual. Moscow's decision to end support for the CIS joint command was foreshadowed by the announcement on 11 June that CIS Commander-in-Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov had been named Secretary of the Russian Security Council. Meanwhile, rumors continued to circulate in Moscow that Russian Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov, who appears to have been Russia's point man in discussions on restructuring the CIS command, would eventually emerge with greater responsibilities for Russia's security policy vis-a-vis other CIS states. -Stephen Foye KOZYREV SPEAKS AT VIENNA CONFERENCE. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev spoke at the UN conference on human rights in Vienna on 15 June and outlined Russia's priorities for international humanitarian cooperation, ITAR-TASS reported. Among other things, Kozyrev called for the creation of an emergency mechanism to be at the UN's disposal to look into "gross and massive" violations of human rights. Kozyrev also said it is necessary to develop a means to protect the victims of armed conflict. These ideas elaborate on themes Moscow has been diligently pursuing for a few months at the UN. -Suzanne Crow HOW NEW CONSTITUTION IS TO BE ADOPTED. Among the most difficult issues still not agreed upon by the Constitutional Assembly is how a final text of a new constitution is to be adopted. In a letter addressed to President Yeltsin and parliamentary speaker Khasbulatov, the secretary of the parliamentary constitutional commission Oleg Rumyantsev called on the two branches of power to "overcome their differences" and set up a joint group which will work out the adoption procedure. ITAR-TASS quoted Rumyantsev as saying on 15 June that the proposed group should elaborate its plan by 15 July. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN MEETS HEADS OF REPUBLICS AND ADMINISTRATIONS. Yeltsin discussed the next steps in drawing up a new constitution with the heads of administration of the krais and oblasts and at a sitting of the Council of Heads of Republics on 15 June, ITAR-TASS reported. The representatives of the krais and oblasts insisted that the declaration to be presented to the plenary session of the constitutional assembly on 16 June be changed to take note of the compromise agreement they had already reached with the republics to upgrade the latter to sovereign states and the krais and oblasts to state-territorial formations. The amendment also states that Russia's state structure "ensures its unity, decentralization of state power and the right of a people to self-determination within the Russian Federation." The head of administration of Bryansk Oblast Yurii Lodkin said that the majority of heads of administration also insisted on equal representation for all subjects of the federation in the upper chamber of the new parliament, instead of the presidential draft's allocation of half the seats to the republics. -Ann Sheehy BABURIN QUITS COMMITTEE POST. Sergei Baburin, the coordinator of the opposition parliamentary faction, Rossiya, resigned from the parliamentary Committee on Legislation on 15 June, Russian agencies reported. His letter of resignation was read out at the presidium meeting that day by parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, who said that he was saddened by Baburin's action. Baburin said he had resigned following the committee's recent decision at a meeting on 15 June with the Human Rights and Defense and Security Committees to work with President Yeltsin's Constitutional Assembly. Baburin termed this "a blow at the parliamentary structures of the political system." Chairman of the Legislation Committee Mikhail Mityukov said at the presidium meeting that Baburin had done virtually no work on the committee over the last three years. -Wendy Slater TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA HEIDAR ALIEV ELECTED AZERBAIJAN SUPREME SOVIET CHAIRMAN. After a ninety minute heated debate, on 15 June the Azerbaijan National Assembly (the rump parliament) voted by 37 votes to 3 to elect Nakhichevan parliament speaker Heidar Aliev as chairman of the country's Supreme Soviet, which was suspended in May, 1992, after the advent to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front, Azertadzh and TASS reported. Meanwhile rebel troops under Colonel Surat Huseinov continued their advance on Baku after Huseinov's deadline for the resignation of Azerbaijan's President Abulfaz Elchibey elapsed. There are contradictory reports concerning the degree of resistance Huseinov is encountering in his advance on Baku. Elchibey was quoted by Azertadzh as affirming that as democratically-elected president he can be removed from power only by a national referendum. On 15 June a spokesman for Russian President Boris Yeltsin expressed approval of Aliev's election as Supreme Soviet chairman, characterizing Aliev as "an experienced and authoritative politician" whose advent to power would help improve Russian-Azerbaijani relations, according to Russian Television. -Liz Fuller TAJIK OPPOSITION FORCES DRIVEN FROM GORNO-BADAKHSHON. ITAR-TASS' correspondent in Dushanbe reported on 13 June that local self-defense forces in the self-declared Gorno-Badakhshon Autonomous Republic drove 400-600 Tajik rebels from the region, and into the adjoining districts of Garm and Komsomolabad. There is a tacit agreement between the government in Dushanbe and authorities in Khorog, Gorno-Badakshon's capital, that the region will not harbor or support pro-Islamic rebels; in return, the central government has said it will not send its own troops into the region. Despite the agreement and the deployment of large numbers of CIS border guards, hundreds of rebels, as well as some Afghan supporters, have slipped into Gorno-Badakhshon's mountainous terrain from Afghanistan. The situation in the region remains difficult: an embargo has just been lifted and the Khorog-Dushanbe highway reopened, but the fate of an estimated 70,000 refugees is uncertain, as they fear persecution if they return to their villages. The region's Pamiri population is predominantly Ismaili, and fought alongside the pro-democratic, pro-Islamic forces in last year's civil war. -Keith Martin HUMANITARIAN AID MISSION TO ABKHAZIA UPDATE. Russia began on 15 June a large-scale mission to deliver humanitarian aid to, and evacuate refugees from, the besieged Abkhaz cities of Sukhumi and Tkvarcheli, ITAR-TASS reported. According to an agreement between the presidents of Russia and Ukraine, barges from the Black Sea Fleet will transport buses and trucks filled with food to Sukhumi, and will carry refugees back to Sochi. The land vehicles will convey aid on to Tkvarcheli and will evacuate the approximately 5,000 citizens of that city who have signed up to leave. The first barge sailed from Sochi late on the evening of 15 June and is expected to arrive in Sukhumi by this afternoon. The entire operation is scheduled to take 72 hours, according to ITAR-TASS. On 14 June, Russian government spokesperson Valentin Sergeev expressed concern over potential difficulties from continuing artillery fire from both sides, and mines and destroyed bridges along the road between Sukhumi and Tkvarcheli. -Catherine Dale UZBEKS CUT GAS SUPPLY TO KAZAKHSTAN? WESTERN NEWS AGENCIES, QUOTING AN ANONYMOUS GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL, REPORTED THAT UZBEKISTAN HAD APPARENTLY CUT ITS SUPPLY OF NATURAL GAS TO KAZAKHSTAN'S CHIMKENT REGION BY MORE THAN 50% BECAUSE OF UNPAID DEBTS OF 8-BILLION RUBLES (CA. $7.3 million). Uzbekistan, the CIS's third-largest producer of natural gas, had also cut supplies to Kyrgyzstan last month when that republic left the ruble zone; supplies were resumed after talks between Uzbekistan's president Islam Karimov and Kyrgyzstan's president Askar Akayev. -Keith Martin UPDATE ON KYRGYZSTAN'S NEW CURRENCY. Kyrgyzstan left the ruble zone and introduced its own currency, the som, one month ago; the som is still not available in some regions of the country, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 June. Students and university lecturers received their first som only last Friday, after they threatened to take to the streets in protest. Many enterprises have also still not received the new currency. The som is slipping against both the dollar and the ruble. The introduction of the new currency continues to paralyze economic links between Kyrgyzstan and its neighbors. In the meantime Reuters reports that three more of the Central Asian countries, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, are also preparing to introduce their own currencies. -Sheila Marnie COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES RUSSIA SETS CONDITIONS FOR BELARUS TO CONTINUE GETTING RUBLES. According to Belapan on 15 June, the chairman of the Russian State Committee on Economic Relations with the CIS, Vladimir Mashits, sent a telegram to the Belarus Central Bank in which he stated the terms under which Belarus could continue to receive Russian rubles after 1 July: the ruble be the only legal currency in Belarus, the Russian Central Bank have the power to regulate credit and cash, Belarus's banking laws match Russia's, Russian laws be used to regulate commercial banks and hard currency operations, Belarus join Russia's inter-banking system, and Russian bodies assume control over the implementation of agreements. The acceptance of the conditions will allow Belarus to continue receiving rubles until 1-October. The Council of Ministers will decide next week. Belapan reports that the spokesman for the Belarus National Bank, Aleksander Makouski, said the conditions were unacceptable. The Russians have tried for some time to unify monetary policy in the ruble zone, but it is not clear why such an action would have been taken so suddenly and apparently only against Belarus. -Erik Whitlock and Ustina Markus CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE "BOSNIA IS EVERYTHING THAT HUMAN RIGHTS ARE NOT." These were the words of Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic at the Vienna UN Human Rights Conference on 15 June. As hand-to-hand fighting in Gorazde continued, Silajdzic pleaded: "I demand . . . on behalf of humanity, because this is a crime against humanity, to take all measures to stop the genocide in at least the one town of Gorazde." Silajdzic received a five-minute ovation, which was a record for any single speaker at the meeting, and he was the first to break the rule against discussing specific human rights abuses, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. The 16 June Los Angeles Times adds that Silajdzic's remarks "had the effect of yanking [the conference] back to reality." Meanwhile, Hina quotes international peace negotiator Lord Owen as saying on 15-June that no political settlement will be imposed on the Muslims. On 16 June meetings are taking place in Geneva that are expected to bring together, in various combinations, the presidents of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia; the Bosnian Serb and Croat leaders; and representatives of the Croatian government and the Krajina Serb leaders. -Patrick Moore VIENNA CONFERENCE ALSO HEARS KOZYREV ON BALTICS . . . Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev supported US and other Western nations' calls to set up a high commission on human rights to help combat abuses worldwide. Speaking at the UN conference, Kozyrev again blasted "aggressive nationalism" and criticized the Baltic States for what he termed discriminatory practices toward Russians and other ethnic minorities: "The lack of attention to the rights of national minorities carries the risk of damaging the Baltic region and turning Europe into a zone of special--although lower and double, rather than higher--standards, "Western media reported on 15 June. In a related development, Latvian Foreign Minister Georgs Andrejevs was elected one of the vice chairman of the conference. -Dzintra Bungs . . . AND ILIESCU ON ROMANIA. Addressing the conference on 15 June, Romanian President Ion Iliescu touted his country's progress in the field of human rights since December 1989. Iliescu claimed that freedom of the press is complete and that a sweeping legal reform is under way. He further pointed to the setting up of a council for national minorities in Romania. Iliescu admitted, however, that much remains to be achieved before basic human rights are fully respected in Romania. Iliescu dwelt upon the rights of ethnic minorities, saying that constructive approaches must be found. -Dan Ionescu UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT CRISIS. On 15 May parliament failed to agree on any of the draft resolutions, including one proposed by President Leonid Kravchuk, to resolve the political and economic crisis in the country that has been exacerbated by striking miners and industrial workers in eastern Ukraine. Instead, according to ITAR-TASS and Western agencies, lawmakers gave the government until 16 June to produce an emergency economic recovery plan. Prime Minister Kuchma told parliament that he supports a referendum, but not on the issue of confidence in the president and parliament. Instead, voters should decide "what kind of society we are building." Kuchma also harshly criticized Russia, calling its policies with regard to Ukraine as unfriendly. "We are being robbed because of our weakness," he asserted. In the meantime, striking workers, said to number about two million, continue to press their political demands. The parliament is currently debating a way out of the crisis. -Roman Solchanyk BULGARIAN PROTESTS CONTINUE. Demonstrations aimed at toppling President Zhelyu Zhelev continued on 16 June, Western and Bulgarian media report. In Sofia for the second evening thousands of protesters gathered outside the presidential office, urging Zhelev's immediate resignation. Leaders of the Union of Democratic Forces--the opposition alliance that has organized the demonstration--said they plan to come back each evening this week. Foreign correspondents nevertheless noted that many more people attended the first evening's demonstrations. In the meantime, Zhelev's position is being supported by extraparliamentary parties and the Bulgarian Socialist Party. BSP leader Jean Videnov said he would stand by Zhelev and the government "against anarchy." The UDF accuses Zhelev, its one-time leader, of collaborating with the former communists. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN ECONOMY SUFFERS WITHOUT EC AGREEMENT. On 15 June the government called on the European Community to ratify the association agreement reached on 8 March. Prime Minister Lyuben Berov has suggested that the delays in approving the association agreement are hurting the Bulgarian economy by depriving his country of badly needed trade opportunities. The economy, reeling under the effects of the embargo imposed against rump Yugoslavia, has recorded a high deficit during the early part of 1993. According to Reuters, Bulgaria maintained a surplus of $102 million in the first three months of 1992 but is struggling with a deficit of $260.5 million accumulated during the first three months of this year. -Stan Markotich BELGRADE DEBATES SANCTIONS. According to Radio Serbia and B92 on 15 June, debate in both chambers of the rump Yugoslav Federal Assembly has been focusing on how acceptance of the Vance-Owen plan might bring about the lifting of UN sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro. Slobodan Raketic of the opposition DEPOS said signing the plan should be no condition for lifting sanctions--rather "the complete cessation of the war [in Bosnia] is." Another deputy suggested offering to allow the stationing of UN observers on both sides of the border between Yugoslavia and Bosnia-Herzegovina as one possible quid pro quo for lifting the sanctions. Federal Foreign Minister Vladislav Jovanovic, who is a leading candidate to succeed ousted Dobrica Cosic as federal president, replied that the Vance-Owen plan never envisioned observers on the Yugoslav side of the border and added that "there is no need for us to offer something that we were not asked to do." Opposition deputies from Serbia and Montenegro made it clear that they consider the grave internal situation is not exclusively due to the effects of international pressures. It is more the result of the federation's "catastrophic" policy, said Rade Bojovic of the Socialist Party of Montenegro, suggesting that Montenegro might have to "save its people from the abyss by means of a policy of its own." The session was also marred by exchanges of insults. Democratic Party deputy Desimir Tosic provided evidence that various Serb paramilitary formations have been sent into Bosnia, Vojvodina, and Kosovo. Radical Party head Vojislav Seselj, who has publicly boasted of sending "volunteers" into these areas, reacted by calling Tosic "devious, a liar, and a foreign agent." -Milan Andrejevich CROATIAN UPDATE. Hina reports on 16 June that Serbs the previous day shelled the Biograd and Zadar areas. Exchanges of prisoners and civilians are nonetheless continuing between Serbs and Croats, and the International Herald Tribune notes that the Croats have handed suspected Muslim war criminals over to the Serbs. Finally, Vecernji list on 15 June ran a poll that suggests that Croats are becoming increasingly pessimistic about their own personal economic situations and about the chances for an early improvement in them. -Patrick Moore WALESA TO SET UP A NEW POLITICAL GROUP. Polish President Lech Walesa confirmed in an interview with PAP on 15 June his intention to set up a new political group to present candidates in the forthcoming parliamentary election. The group is to be called the Nonparty Bloc to Support Reforms and will consist of four task-oriented subgroups: employees, employers, farmers, and local administrators. If elected, the deputies from the bloc are to concentrate on legislation in their areas of competence and promote reforms there. Walesa said that he will explain the organization and the electoral role of the bloc in a nationwide address. The concept is similar to an arrangement used by the Polish authorities in the 1930s, an arrangement that has been frequently regarded as authoritarian and undemocratic. -Jan de Weydenthal POLAND, LITHUANIA SIGN MILITARY AGREEMENT. On 15 June in Vilnius the Polish and Lithuanian ministers of national defense, Janusz Onyszkiewicz and Audrius Butkevicius, signed an agreement on bilateral military cooperation. PAP reports that the agreement concerns cooperation between military institutions, particularly in maintaining control over the air space and the area of the Baltic Sea. In addition the agreement envisages the expansion of contacts between military establishments of the two countries, periodic consultations and exchanges of visits, and joint social meetings. Poland has similar agreements with all other neighboring countries. -Jan de Weydenthal POLISH ECONOMY IMPROVES. The Polish government announced on 15 June that the number of unemployed in May dropped by 0.7% in comparison with April: there were 2,624,000 unemployed or 14.2% of the total work force. During the five months of 1993 prices for consumer goods and services rose by 38.1% in comparison with the comparable period of 1992. In the first quarter of 1993 the number of private companies with both foreign and domestic capital increased by several thousand, while that of state-owned enterprises diminished from 7,344 at the end of 1992 to 6,838 at the end of the quarter. -Jan de Weydenthal EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT PRESIDENT IN SLOVAKIA. Egon Klepsch arrived in Slovakia on 14 June for an official visit. TASR reports that he met with Parliament Chairman Ivan Gasparovic, President Michal Kovac, and Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar. On 15 June Klepsch told the parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee that an association agreement between the European Community and Slovakia will be initialed on 23 June and could be signed by 1 July. He also said that the European Parliament could ratify the agreement at its September session. -Jiri Pehe GERMANY, SLOVAKIA PLAN CLOSER MILITARY TIES. German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe and his Slovak counterpart, Imrich Andrejcak, agreed in Bonn on 15 June to intensify cooperation between the two countries in the military field. German media report that the two ministers also discussed the security situation in Europe, the situation in the former Yugoslavia, and the problems in shaping a new European military structure. Andrejcak, Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik, and Parliament Deputy Chairman Peter Weiss are in Bonn to participate in the opening of the new Slovak Embassy. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK PRIVATIZATION MINISTER RESIGNS. TASR reported on 15 June that Lubomir Dolgos has resigned. Dolgos says that his resignation is a reaction to the 12 June vote of no-confidence in him by the leadership of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. Dolgos is a high-ranking official of the party. He has repeatedly criticized the Meciar government for slowing down or blocking important privatization projects. It is expected that his position will be offered to the Slovak National Party, with whom the MDS plans to form a formal coalition. -Jiri Pehe $90-MILLION IMF GRANT FOR SLOVAKIA. Emanuel Zervoudakis, the head of an International Monetary Fund delegation that just concluded its trip to Slovakia, told journalists in Bratislava on 15 June that an agreement was signed to provide Slovakia with $90 million in loans. The IMF has also decided to establish a permanent mission in Bratislava; Andreas Georgiu has been named the head of the mission. Asked whether Slovakia will devalue its currency in an effort to boost its hard currency reserves, Zervoudakis said that "Slovakia itself will chose means to meet IMF conditions." He revealed that his delegation sanctioned the Slovak government's plans to introduce import duties on a temporary basis. -Jiri Pehe MILITARY SERVICE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC CUT. The Czech parliament approved a government proposal on 15 June to shorten mandatory military service from 18 to 12-months. CTK reports that some 20,000 conscripts who have already served 12 months will be discharged on 29 July, when the new law takes effect. The move is part of plans to cut the army from more than 100,000 troops to some 65,000 by 1996. -Jiri Pehe IRANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN HUNGARY. Ali Akbar Velayati is paying a two-day official visit to Hungary, MTI reports. He met with President Arpad Goncz, Parliament Speaker Gyorgy Szabad, and Minister of International Economic Relations Bela Kadar. Steady growth of trade between the two countries was noted. Velayati said that mutual support by the two countries in the international scene is important. -Karoly Okolicsanyi VISEGRAD COUNTRIES TEST STAND-ALONE ENERGY SYSTEM. MTI reported that the Visegrad countries--Poland, Hungary, and the Czech and Slovak Republics--tested their independent electric energy system recently. The ten-day test was prompted by a cutoff of energy supplies from the CIS. One of the CIS lines was under repair while the other experienced operational difficulties. The test was originally scheduled only for September. The Visegrad countries are planning to join the West European energy system, UCPTE, by 1996. -Karoly Okolicsanyi STRIKE HAMPERS RAIL TRAFFIC IN ROMANIA. A railway strike continued to affect traffic for a second consecutive day. Transport Minister Paul Teodoru said in an interview with Radio Bucharest on 15 June that only 25% of the passenger trains and 20% of the freight lines are running. International trains are also affected. The strike, which started on 14 June, was staged by unions representing engine drivers and maintenance staff pressing for an increase of the monthly wage. The government accepted negotiations with the unions in the town of Brasov. A spokesman for the transport ministry put the costs of a single strike day at 18-20 billion lei ($27-30 million). -Dan Ionescu BELARUS GOVERNMENT COMPROMISES WITH TRADE UNIONS. ITAR-TASS reported on 15 June that negotiations between the government and the Federation of Trade Unions of Belarus ended on 14 June with the government apparently acquiescing to union demands on mitigating the effects of the price hikes introduced earlier this month. The price increases, which were attributed to Russia's increased fuel prices, sparked a series of protest strikes and demonstrations. The government has agreed to take measures to insure enterprises and individuals against the effects of increased prices and taxes on rents and fuel, restructure unproductive enterprises, protect workers jobs, and assign the enterprises appropriate taxes and credits. It was also agreed that in the September Supreme Soviet session legislation to lower taxes for enterprises involved in economic development will be placed on the agenda. In addition, the government agreed to establish a fund for the needy and work out a minimum wage system indexed to inflation. -Ustina Markus FINLAND POSTPONES TRANSFER OF BOATS TO ESTONIA. Baltic media reported on 11-15 June that Finland has postponed the ceremonial transfer of patrol boats to the Estonian border guard "for technical reasons" apparently related to internal Estonian developments involving the border guard and the interior ministry. Andrus Oovel, general director of the Border Guard Department, was dismissed from his post last week, and Minister of Internal Affairs Lagle Parek is currently under heavy criticism in parliament. The Estonian border guard has been under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIA POSTPONES MILITARY EXERCISES IN LATVIA. Responding to Latvian protests, the leadership of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces has decided to postpone the exercises planned for 21-25 June, Radio Riga reports. The Latvian side objected in particular to the timing of the exercises, since they would fall during midsummer celebrations, when most Latvians go to the countryside. Though the Latvians wanted the exercises to be cancelled, the NWGF says it will hold them sometime in July. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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