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No. 111, 15 June 1993
RUSSIA EIGHTY OFFICERS PROMOTED TO GENERAL, ADMIRAL. In a ceremony attended by the Russian military leadership, Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 11 June conferred the rank of major general or rear admiral on eighty officers from the Russian army and navy, ITAR-TASS reported. (ITAR-TASS had reported on 9 June, apparently erroneously, that 112 officers would receive promotion to general's rank.) The promotions, which come amid charges by Defense Ministry critics that the Russian army is already overburdened with generals and admirals, suggest that Yeltsin continues to court the military leadership. Yeltsin told the assembled officers that the Russian military doctrine, which would have a defensive character, was approaching completion. -Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. DEFENSE MINISTER CONCEDES COURT CASE. A Moscow Military District Court has discontinued proceedings against Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev following an admission by Grachev himself that he had acted incorrectly in discharging Colonel Vladimir Kandalovsky from the armed forces in December of 1992. According to Rossiiskaya gazeta of 10 June, the original dishonorable discharge had come as a result of Kandalovsky's activities as chief of the Coordinating Council of the Baltic region Officers Assembly; the group had opposed the withdrawal of Russian troops from the region on the grounds that facilities had not yet been prepared for them in Russia. Kandalovsky will not rejoin the armed forces, but the status of his discharge has been changed so that he will now receive the full benefits due to an honorably discharged officer. This is the second case of this sort that Grachev has lost (the first involved the head of the nationalist Officers Union, Stanislav Terekhov) and, according to the report, a number of other officers intend to contest their discharges from the armed forces. -Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN ARMS SALES TO CHINA. A US intelligence official said at a congressional hearing on 11 June that China has become Russia's most important purchaser of arms, Reuters reported. William Grundmann of the Defense Intelligence Agency said that Beijing had received 26 SU-27 (Flanker) aircraft in 1992, and that it had signed a contract to receive the SA-10 (Grumble) air defense missile system. Other purchases are being negotiated. Grundmann said that both Russia and Ukraine faced problems in peddling their weaponry because of what is perceived as their poor performance in the Gulf War and because of concerns about the reliability of supplies coming out of the former Soviet Union. He said that Russian leaders were focusing on increasing arms sales to China, Iran, and India. -Stephen Foye, RFE/RL, Inc. OIL JOINT VENTURES ALLEGE DISCRIMINATION. At a news conference in Moscow on 8 June, the president of the Association of Joint Ventures, International Associations, and Organizations accused the state pipeline monopoly of discrimination against privately owned oil companies, ITAR-TASS reported. Lev Vainberg said that the Transneft state pipeline company halted shipments of private oil on 1 June, but continued to move state-produced oil. Transneft has attributed the halt to limited capacity. Vainberg said that the halt violates the law on foreign investments which gives joint ventures with more than 30% foreign capital the right to export all of their products. -Keith Bush, RFE/RL, Inc. GOVERNMENT POSITION ON JOINT-VENTURE OIL EXPORT BAN. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin told a news conference on 11 June that access to export pipelines was denied joint venture oil companies because they were violating government regulations, Western agencies reported on 11 June. In particular, he said there were cases of joint ventures exporting quantities of oil above what they produce and failing to provide the Energy Ministry with information on production and export activity. Illegal exports of large amounts of energy and raw materials have been a concern for the Russian government for some time now; however, it was not yet clear why the government chose to deny all joint ventures export capability instead of targeting specific companies that were violating regulations. -Erik Whitlock, RFE/RL, Inc. STATE MONOPOLY OF VODKA MARKET REINSTATED. President Yeltsin signed a decree on 11 June on the reimposition of the state monopoly on the production, storage, and sale of alcohol, ITAR-TASS reported on 12 June. The government freed prices on vodka last year, but retained its monopoly on production. Since then the market has been flooded with foreign spirits and the locally produced vodka is often reported to be diluted or impure. It is claimed that the state monopoly over storage and sales of vodka is being reintroduced because of concerns about public health: there have been increasing reports of alcohol poisoning, and it is hoped that the issuing of state licenses to producers and vendors will guarantee health and quality standards. Another concern is that the government has been losing tax revenue from the uncontrolled sale and production of spirits. -Sheila Marnie, RFE/RL, Inc. OPPOSITION FAILS TO PICKET TV CENTER. The threatened picket of the Ostankino Television center by hardline opposition groups, led by Viktor Anpilov's neo-communist "Working Russia" movement, failed to take place on 12 June because of police action, Russian agencies reported. Police not only cordoned off the television center, but also prevented the demonstrators from marching to Ostankino from their meeting point at Moscow's central exhibition grounds, thus forcing them to hold their rally there. The demonstrators were demanding daily television airtime to publicize their views, but Ostankino management refused to grant it or to negotiate with the opposition leaders. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi said on 11 June that the opposition's demand was justified, but that the planned picket was not the best way to achieve it. -Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. RUTSKOI SAYS RUSSIA IS A "MAFIA STATE." Vice President Rutskoi told foreign correspondents on 11-June that Russia had passed from the control of a communist Mafia to that of a "Democrat Mafia," Western agencies reported. He called for early presidential elections to prevent the collapse of the state, accusing Yeltsin's government of financial incompetence and repeating earlier accusations that corruption was rife at the top level of government and in the armed forces. He pledged to make public evidence to support these claims in the near future, but denied that he was aiming for power. -Wendy Slater, RFE/RL, Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TATAR OPPOSITION LEADER ON TRIAL. The trial of Zinnur Agliullin, chairman of the All-Tatar Public Center, started in Kazan on 14 June, ITAR-TASS reported. Agliullin was arrested on 10 June for the illegal possession of firearms, but the court started hearing two earlier charges first, namely that Agliullin had sent a telegram to Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev in October 1992 saying that a mass meeting in Naberezhnye Chelni had condemned him to death and that on 26 November 1992 he had led an attack on the procurator's office in the same city. Agliullin refused to accept the court documents because they were not written in Tatar. He was given until 15 June to change his mind. There has been a split in the formerly moderate All-Tatar Public Center since the radical Agliullin became chairman. -Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL, Inc. NAGORNO-KARABAKH ACCEPTS PEACE PLAN. Western and Russian news agencies reported on 14-June that the Supreme Soviet Presidium of the self-styled Nagorno-Karabakh republic had voted 6-5 to accept the CSCE peace plan; the plan has already been accepted by Azerbaijan and Armenia. The proposal calls for a renewable 60-day cease-fire, deployment of unarmed CSCE observers to supervise troop withdrawal, and resumption of peace talks. The Nagorno-Karabakh authorities asked for a one-month delay in implementation, due to the internal strife in Azerbaijan; the Armenian offensive against the Azeri city of Agdam is reported to be continuing. According to Radio Rossii of 15 June, Georgii Petrosyan resigned his position as chairman of the Nagorno-Karabakh Supreme Soviet to protest the ratification of the peace plan; he and various military authorities believe that the plan does not sufficiently protect the predominantly Armenian enclave. -Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. AZERBAIJAN UPDATE. Various Western and CIS reports on 14 and 15 June indicated that troops loyal to rebel commander Surat Husseinov are moving closer to Baku; advance detachments are said to be less than 100-km from the capital, with the bulk of the force in Hajikabul, 120 km southwest of Baku. There were no reports of resistance or bloodshed. Troops loyal to President Elchibey are reported to be preparing to defend the capital, and Elcihbey himself has threatened to use all necessary force to stop "the country from falling into the control of criminals." The Popular Front, which supports the president, has been staging demonstrations in downtown Baku, calling for swift action against Husseinov; more than 5,000 demonstrators were said to be massed in the city center. Former Azeri Communist Party boss Haidar Aliev held talks with Husseinov throughout the night of 13-14 June, but the talks ended without any sign that Husseinov was willing to compromise on his main demand, i.e. Elchibey's resignation. Upon returning to Baku late on 14 June, Aliev held talks with Elchibey; there are no signs that a solution was being considered. Meanwhile, ITAR-TASS on 14 June quoted the chief US and Turkish diplomats in Baku as saying that they supported the "lawfully-elected president." -Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. AZERBAIJAN LEAVES THE RUBLE ZONE. Following similar moves by Georgia and Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan's authorities issued a decree that, as of 15 June, the ruble will no longer be used for official transactions. The manat, which was introduced last winter as a parallel currency, is to be the sole legal tender; the ruble is to be removed from circulation by 20 June, Western agencies report. Until then, Azerbaijan's citizens can exchange any amount of rubles for manat, at the official exchange rate of 10 rubles per manat. It is unclear why the authorities have insisted on going ahead with the changeover in the midst of the civil strife gripping the republic, but the timing hardly seems auspicious. -Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL ASIAN STATES POISED TO JOIN ADB. According to The Guardian of 10 June, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has agreed to admit six former Soviet republics - the five Central Asian states and Azerbaijan - as members. The Bank, of which Japan is the prime shareholder, could provide an alternative for funding to these states, which up to now were limited to the World Bank/IMF and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for loans. There is speculation that the ADB may not be as concerned about human rights as the other lending institutions, which would increase its attractiveness for several of the Central Asian states. -Keith Martin, RFE/RL, Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KRAVCHUK SHOCKS PARLIAMENT WITH CALL FOR REFERENDUM ON PRESIDENCY. At the opening of the session on 15 June Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk delivered an unexpected and impassioned statement outlining his proposals for getting the country out of its present political and economic crisis. Instead of holding an expensive referendum on confidence in the parliament and the President-this is what the striking miners are demanding and parliament is debating-Kravchuk urged parliament promptly to pass the bill on democratic, multiparty elections that has been in preparation for some time and hold new elections. Kravchuk also proposed that, on the same day as the elections, a referendum be held on whether Ukraine should continue to have a presidency. He is tired, he said, of the endless, debilitating political confrontation resulting from the unresolved question of the division of powers among the parliament, president, and government (reflected in the long delay in adopting a new constitution) and said that it is time for the people to decide if they want a president or not. -Bohdan Nahaylo, RFE/RL, Inc. PARLIAMENT TO CONSIDER STRIKERS' DEMANDS. The day before-on 14 June-parliament had voted overwhelmingly to consider whether a referendum should be held on public confidence in President Leonid Kravchuk and the parliament, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies report. The strikers' political demands, which were read out by people's deputy Aleksandr Charodeev, also include regional autonomy for the Donbass. Rukh leader Vyacheslav Chornovil argued that not all miners favor autonomy, citing a threat to Ukraine's territorial integrity. In the meantime, the Donetsk regional parliament passed a vote of no-confidence in Kravchuk and supported the strikers' political demands. In Donetsk itself, protest meetings and demonstrations continue in the city center against the economic policies of the Kiev government. -Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL, Inc. MOROZOV MEETS FRENCH CHIEF OF STAFF. On 11-June Ukrainian Minister of Defense Konstantin Morozov met with French Chief of Staff Adm. Jacques Langsad, Ukrainian Radio reports. In the course of the official visit the two discussed the ratification of START-1, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and the Black Sea Fleet issue. Following the meeting Langsad told a press conference that Ukraine's decisions on these issues are likely to hinge on the attitudes of other nations and their commitments to security in Europe. He also stated that France hopes the two states can cooperate on military issues, including the problem of nuclear disarmament. The same day Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko met with his French counterpart Alain Juppe in Athens at a North Atlantic conference, where they discussed European security and Ukrainian ideas for an East-Central European security zone. -Ustina Markus, RFE/RL, Inc. ANTI-ZHELEV PROTESTS IN BULGARIA. On 14 June supporters of the Union of Democratic Forces, Bulgaria's main opposition party, staged protests in Sofia and in other major cities demanding the resignation of President Zhelyu Zhelev. According to Reuters, police estimate the size of the crowd in Sofia at approximately 30,000. The protesters accused Zhelev of failing to prosecute former communists for crimes they allegedly committed while in office. Zhelev, founder and one-time leader of the UDF, was also accused of attempting to undermine the democratic opposition. The demonstrations came one day after Zhelev slammed the UDF in a TV speech. -Stan Markotich, RFE/RL, Inc. BEROV CANCELS TRIP TO VIENNA. Prime Minister Lyuben Berov on 14 June told Bulgarian National Radio he has canceled a scheduled trip to the Vienna human rights conference because of the unrest at home. Berov said he does not believe that the UDF-sponsored protests pose a major threat to the government and its policies but that his presence in Bulgaria nevertheless may be required. Much as President Zhelev had done the previous day, at a press conference Berov spoke of a plan aimed at "destabilizing the state." In a televised address, Vice President Blaga Dimitrova called for new elections to restore public confidence in Bulgarian politicians, thus in effect siding with the UDF against Zhelev. -Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL, Inc. BOUTROS-GHALI WANTS 7,500 MORE PEACEKEEPERS FOR BOSNIA. International media on 15 June report that the UN secretary-general called the previous day for these additional forces to be backed by air power to protect the six UN-designated safe areas for Muslims in that embattled republic. He also called for a new international conference on the former Yugoslavia to revive peace efforts. It is difficult to see, however, where the additional military personnel can be found, and the concept of safe areas itself appears increasingly doubtful as the Serbs continue to press their attacks on Gorazde, one of those designated places and the last major Muslim center in eastern Bosnia. On 14 June the VOA reported that international negotiator Lord Owen called for "equitable political settlements" in Bosnia, reflecting his statement the previous day that negotiations must correspond to "the actual situation." This would appear to rule out reversing ethnic cleansing, and thus would mean shelving the Vance-Owen plan. -Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CONFUSING PICTURE ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA. On 14 June Serb forces continued to shell Sarajevo, while to the west of that city Croat and Muslim units battled near Kiseljak. International media also reported that the Croats and Muslims have nonetheless reached a power-sharing agreement governing their future relations in the nearly defunct Bosnian government. The BBC's Serbian Service on 15 June added that the Croats and Muslims have concluded a pact on population exchanges, whereby Croats in Muslim-controlled areas can exchange apartments and homes with Muslims in places assigned by the Vance-Owen plan to the Croats. AFP notes that the Serbs and Croats also reached an agreement on population transfers and exchanges of residencies, but it appears to be more limited in scope. It includes the exchange of 900 Croatian HVO soldiers and other males who surrendered to the Serbs near Travnik last week for some 1,000 Serb civilians from Livno and Tomislavgrad in Croatian-controlled western Herzegovina. -Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. MUSLIMS FACE UNCERTAIN FUTURE IN CROATIA. On 15 June AFP reports from Zagreb that local Muslims increasingly worry about revenge actions by Croats in the wake of Muslim attacks on Croats in central Bosnia these past two weeks. So far only minor incidents have been reported, but the atmosphere in interethnic relations has worsened. Muslims point to increasingly hostile remarks by some hard-line Croatian politicians and to the aggressive tone in the Croatian media when reporting on the Croat-Muslim conflict. On 13 June the head of the Islamic community in Croatia, Imam Sevko Omerbasic, told Vecernji list that what happened to the Croats near Travnik is terrible, and he appealed for an end to the blood-letting between the two erstwhile allies. The Croats, for their part, fear that the addition of 250,000 Muslim refugees from Bosnia to Croatia's population, together with the arrival of tens of thousands more Muslims to Croat-inhabited areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina, will lead to cultural tensions and eventual demographic changes at the Croats' expense. -Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. CROATIAN RIGHT-WING LEADER GOES ON TRIAL. On 15 June Dobroslav Paraga, president of the Croatian Party of [Historic] Rights (HSP), goes on trial for alleged terrorism. Charges against him and three others stem from the earlier activities of the party's paramilitary wing, which has since been more or less integrated with the regular Croatian army. Paraga has also been under heavy attack in recent weeks by the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) and the government-controlled media for statements he had previously made in the US that were critical of the HDZ and of President Franjo Tudjman. The HDZ seems determined to crush Paraga and the HSP as a political force through hounding and by encouraging rival organizations, even though in the August 1992 Croatian elections the HSP took only 7% of the parliamentary vote nationally while Paraga himself racked up only 5% against Tudjman's massive landslide victory. The reason for the HDZ's unease is probably that it fears that the HSP is always a potential threat to it from the political right as long as a quarter of Croatian territory is under Serb occupation and hundreds of thousands of refugees are unable to go home. Paraga's party has also shown proven voter appeal in some specific areas near the front. -Patrick Moore, RFE/RL, Inc. PLANS FOR PRIVATIZATION COUNCIL IN SLOVAKIA. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava on 14 June, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said he intends to form a special council to speed up the privatization process. Meciar argued that privatization must be accelerated in order to fit the needs of the market. Aides to Meciar explained that the privatization council intends to sell 30-40% of all state-owned companies by the end of 1993. They also revealed that the privatization process will begin by focusing on small regional businesses, rather than large firms. Meciar's announcement comes in the wake of the decision of the leadership of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia to sack Privatization Minister Lubomir Dolgos. The minister has repeatedly criticized Meciar's government for slowing down or blocking important privatization projects. The announcement also coincides with a visit to Slovakia by a delegation of the International Monetary Fund, which is to determine whether Slovakia should receive hard-currency loans. A group of IMF experts that visited in February 1993 left the country early after failing to agree with the government on an economic strategy. -Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CZECH BANK GOVERNOR SAYS INFLATION UNDER CONTROL. At a bankers' meeting in Switzerland, Jozef Tosovsky, governor of the Czech Central Bank, said inflation in the Czech Republic is under control and should stay at current levels the rest of the year, Czech Radio reports on 13 June. Tosovsky stressed that inflationary pressures have been suppressed by government moves to restrain wage increases and higher than expected payments for new taxes in the first three months of this year. He added that because of the healthy inflation picture, the Czech Central Bank cut its discount rate last week by 1.5% to 8%. -Jan Obrman, RFE/RL, Inc. HAVEL CRITICIZES UN OVER DALAI LAMA. Speaking at a press conference during a visit to northern Moravia on 14 June, Czech President Vaclav Havel said he considers the decision to ban the Dalai Lama from participating in a UN-sponsored conference in Vienna on human rights to be scandalous. Havel argued that it is absurd for representatives of large groups such as the people of Tibet to be denied access to a conference on human rights. In Havel's opinion, by taking its decision, the UN mars all discussion of the worst human rights violations. The conference opened in Vienna on 14-June. China pressured the UN to prevent the Dalai Lama from addressing the conference. Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Mock later announced that the Dalai Lama will be allowed to address a meeting of non governmental organizations taking place parallel to the UN conference. -Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL, Inc. CSURKA SETS UP NEW PARLIAMENTARY GROUP. MTI reports that Istvan Csurka, the controversial former member and vice president of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Party, has set up a new 10-member parliamentary faction, called Hungarian Justice. Many fewer deputies support Csurka's group than was expected. Csurka said that his group will neither be in opposition nor independent, but will support the government. It will, however, not support the pending 1993 supplementary budget bill. The goals of Hungarian Justice are "to keep in eye the national interest," promote a more national-oriented policy and show more sensitivity to social problems, a spokesman said. The group also wants to serve as a bridge between the HDF and "other deputies who would like to have an informal, national conservative policy." Csurka said he expects to attract more members in the future. Relations between the new faction and Csurka's Hungarian Way movement were left unclear. -Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL, Inc. ROMANIAN RAILWAYS ON STRIKE. The Free and Independent Federation of Engine Drivers went on strike on 14 June, bringing rail traffic to a virtual standstill. The indefinite strike was called to press for a rise in monthly wages from 60,000 to 69,000 lei ($89 to $102). The strike stopped almost all rail traffic, including international trains transiting Romania. Romanian rail officials have declared the strike illegal, but Transport Minister Paul Teodoru has offered to mediate. -Michael Shafir ROMANIANS REMEMBER MINERS' RAMPAGE. Thousands demonstrated in central Bucharest on 14 June to mark the third anniversary of the violent crackdown of progovernment miners against protesters in the capital's University Square. The demonstrators shouted slogans against President Ion Iliescu, anti-Communist and promonarchy slogans. In June 1990 the miners were summoned to Bucharest to save the government from what Iliescu called "a fascist-like coup attempt." Six people were killed in the violence. Emil Constantinescu, the president of the Democratic Convention of Romania, told demonstrators the 1990 rioting was "a savage attempt to use brutal force to kill democracy," Radio Bucharest said. People in the square laid flowers, lit candles and attended a mass near a wall of the university building, where a plaque was installed to commemorate the 1990 events. -Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. FINLAND BACKS ROMANIAN BID TO JOIN COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Finnish Foreign Affairs Minister Heikki Haavisto said Finland supports Romania's bid to join the Council of Europe and pledged $2.5 million in loans to support Romanian reforms. An agreement on the loan, representing Finland's share of the promised G-24 assistance, was signed following a meeting between Haavisto and Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu, Radio Bucharest said. Haavisto also met President Iliescu, Premier Vacaroiu, and opposition leaders, Radio Bucharest said. -Michael Shafir, RFE/RL, Inc. RUBIKS TRIAL POSTPONED. Baltic media report that on 14 June the Latvian Supreme Court postponed indefinitely the trial of former Latvian Communist Party leader Alfreds Rubiks and party functionary Ojars Potreki. Rubiks suffers from circulatory problems in his right leg, and the prison doctor said it would be too dangerous to transport him. Rubiks and Potreki are accused of trying to overthrow the Latvian government in January and August 1991. -Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. RUSSIAN CRITICISM OF ESTONIA, PRAISE FOR LITHUANIA. Russia's envoy to Lithuania Nikolai Oberyshev told Ekho Litvy on 12 June that during the past six months "substantial changes for the better" have taken place in Lithuanian-Russian relations and asserted that "things will move faster" at the upcoming bilateral talks in mid-June. The previous round ended inconclusively. Baltic media also reported on 14 June that Russian delegation chief Nikolai Medvedev complained that Estonia is not upholding the basic principles of relations between the two countries. The Russian delegation is on a two-day visit to Estonia that includes meetings with Estonia's top leaders and stopovers in the predominantly Russian towns of Narva and Sillamae. -Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. BALTS REMEMBER MASS DEPORTATIONS. On 14-June people throughout the Baltic States commemorated the victims of the first mass deportations to Siberia that took place in 1941. Much larger numbers were later forcibly taken to remote regions of the USSR, where most of them died, Baltic media report. Although precise figures are not known, it is estimated that in the 1940s and early 1950s about 875,000 persons were deported from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. -Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. LATVIA CONDEMNS DESECRATION OF JEWISH CEMETERY. Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs has issued an official condemnation of the desecration of the Jewish cemetery in Riga and extended apologies to the Jewish people. Gorbunovs depicted the act as a provocation related to the congress of Latvia's ethnic Jews that was taking place in Riga, Baltic and Western media reported on 13 June. -Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL, Inc. CORRECTION: IN YESTERDAY'S RFE/RL DAILY REPORT LORD LEON BRITTAN'S POSITION WAS GIVEN INCORRECTLY. He is European Community commissioner for external economic relations. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Dzintra Bungs and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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