|No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear. - Edmund Burke|
No. 108, 09 June 1993
RUSSIA TEMPORARY "CONSTITUTIONAL LAW" PROPOSED. A group of delegates at the Constituent Assembly suggested that the assembly should work out a temporary "constitutional law" that would define presidential and parliamentary powers and initiate new parliamentary elections, Reuters reported on 9 June. The new parliament would then adopt the new constitution, the final draft of which is to be prepared by the Constituent Assembly. The agency quoted presidential political advisor Sergei Stankevich as saying the idea was supported by all five working groups at the assembly. He said President Boris Yeltsin is also in favor of the proposal. In turn, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai called the proposal "a minimum compromise in the current situation." Even Sergei Baburin, a hard-line deputy of the Russian parliament, said that it would be "reasonable" to draw up such legislation. He added, however, that the existing Congress of People's Deputies should still have the final say on the constitution. -Vera Tolz REPUBLICS AND CONSTITUTION. The meeting between the heads of sixteen republics and Yeltsin on 8-June seems to have been chiefly concerned with trying to ensure that Yeltsin and parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov should work together to produce the new constitution, Russian and Western media reported. Shakhrai, who is one of the chairmen of working group of subjects of the federation, said that both the presidential and parliamentary drafts were being taken for the basis of discussion in this group. He reiterated that the question of equal status for all subjects of the federation was the most complicated issue, but thought a compromise was possible by equalizing the rights of the krays and oblasts with those of the republics in most but not all respects. Other working groups, however, have come out in favor of full equality for all the subjects of the federation. The working group of parties and social organizations has in addition decided that the text of the federal treaty should not be included in the constitution, as the republics and regions insist, because it would mean making a step from a federation to a confederation, Russian television reported. -Ann Sheehy KHASBULATOV ATTACKED BY PARLIAMENTARY PRESIDIUM MEMBERS. Eight members of the 32strong parliamentary presidium have attacked their chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov for his "voluntaristic, authoritarian leadership style," AFP reported on 8 June citing Interfax. Chairman of the parliament's International Affairs Committee Yevgenii Ambartsumov said that Khasbulatov's behavior had stymied participation by the parliament early on in the constitutional process, but pledged to rectify this by encouraging deputies to make a constructive contribution to the debate over Russia's new constitution. The deputy parliamentary speaker Nikolai Ryabov told ITAR-TASS on 8 June that he believed a law should be passed defining the functions of the parliamentary presidium and chairman, as the current constitutional provisions on this issue were too vague. -Wendy Slater DEMOCRATIC PARTY RECALLS REPRESENTATIVES FROM CIVIC UNION. The Democratic Party, one of Russia's strongest political parties, has recalled its representatives from the ruling bodies of the Civic Union because it considers that the latter has "moved towards the socialist camp," ITAR-TASS reported on 7-June. The decision was taken at the 5-June meeting of the DPR's leadership, and was prompted by the Civic Union's recent offer of a coalition agreement with a broader range of parties than currently have membership [see 3-June RFE/RL Daily Report]. Among the parties which accepted the offer were the Socialist Party of Working People and the Party of Labor. The DPR, which had been opposed to the coalition initiative from the start, said that it considered the Civic Union to have exhausted itself as a centrist election bloc. -Wendy Slater ZORKIN'S DEPUTY URGES HIS RESIGNATION. The deputy Chairman of Russia's Constitutional Court, Nikolai Vitruk, called on the court's Chairman Valerii Zorkin to resign, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 9 June. Vitruk said that most judges of the Constitutional Court disapproved of Zorkin's "political activities." Zorkin was one of the Constitutional Assembly delegates to quit the session on 5 June in protest at President Yeltsin's refusal to allow parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov to speak. Vitruk also voiced his concern over the future of the court, in particular whether it would retain judicial independence or become "an instrument in the hands of one or other branch of power." -Wendy Slater AMBARTSUMOV ON FOREIGN POLICY PROBLEMS. The influential head of the Russian parliamentary Committee for International Affairs and Foreign Economic Relations told reporters on 8 June that, although his committee and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs continued to have some "serious disagreements" on issues that included ties with other former Soviet republics and sanctions against Serbia, in general relations between the two bodies had warmed considerably, ITAR-TASS reported. Evgenii Ambartsumov praised in particular the Foreign Ministry's initiatives on regulating the conflict in the former Yugoslavia and its abandonment of what he characterized as its formerly "excessive Pro-American" orientation in the broader conduct of foreign policy. Turning to particulars, Ambartsumov criticized a US-Russian agreement governing American aid for the storage, transport and elimination of nuclear weapons; he also suggested that Russia should not let the dispute over ownership of Crimea undermine Russian-Ukrainian relations. -Stephen Foye MONTHLY INFLATION RATE PICKS UP. The rate of inflation in May rose slightly to 19%, bringing the increase for the first five months to 164%, ITAR-TASS reported on 8 June. The monthly rates so far in 1993 are reported to have been 27%, 25%, 17%, 16%, and 19%. -Keith Bush GOVERNMENT SHY TO FREE COAL PRICES. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov is having mixed success pushing through his recent proposals to reduce government spending. The cabinet of ministers did not approve of his plan to free coal prices in order to cut subsidies to coal mines, the Financial Times reported on 4 June. The cabinet did, however, agree to large increases in coal prices and decide to cut import subsidies significantly. It also voted to restrict the Russian Federation's Pricing Committee's tasks to forecasting and combating unfair pricing practices. The Pricing Committee on 3 June proposed that price controls be reintroduced on a wide variety of products. -Erik Whitlock CRITIQUE OF ARMS TRADE. An informative but very critical appraisal of the former Soviet Union's and Russia's arms exports appeared in Novoye vremya, no.-17, 1993. It lists the recipients of Soviet and Russian weapons and equipment during the 1980s and 1990s. The nominal value of such sales amounted to over $121-billion, but only one-tenth of this sum "went into the state treasury." A large percentage of the deliveries were in the form of "fraternal aid," or financed by long-term and preferential credit, "payments for which we have not managed to collect up to now." The critique highlights the lack of coordination in the arms trade, competition among sellers, and the continuing secrecy. -Keith Bush COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES SEVASTOPOL NOT FOR RENT. The Ukrainian Ministry of Defense has issued a statement saying that press reports about the possible leasing of the Black Sea port of Sevastopol to Russia "cannot be taken seriously," Ukrainian TV reported on 8 June. The Ministry says that renting out Sevastopol would not be in Ukraine's security interests and is therefore unacceptable. It also maintains that the Ministry has never considered such a possibility. The division of Ukrainian land, says the statement, or the leasing of Ukrainian cities "is impossible." -Roman Solchanyk TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJANI LEADERSHIP BEGINS NEGOTIATIONS WITH REBELS. Addressing a meeting of Azerbaijan's National Assembly (the rump parliament) on 8-June, Azerbaijan's President Abulfaz Elchibey ruled out the use of force to end the uprising in Gyandzha and stated that negotiations have begun with military commander Surat Huseinov, Western agencies reported. Parliament speaker Isa Gambar, whose resignation, along with that of Prime Minister Panakh Guseinov and Elchibey, has been demanded by the rebels, told the Turan News Agency that the revolt had been provoked by "outside forces" with the aim of restoring a pro-Russian regime in Azerbaijan, according to AFP. Nakhichevan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev, rumored to be in line to become the new prime minister, was expected to travel to Baku. On 8 June Tehran Radio condemned Huseinov's seizure of Gyandzha and called on Azerbaijanis to join forces to drive the occupying Armenian troops out of Azerbaijan, Reuters reported. -Liz Fuller KOZYREV TO GEORGIA. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev is scheduled to travel today to Tbilisi, Gudauta, and Sukhumi to seek a resolution of the conflict in Abkhazia, ITAR-TASS reported 7 June citing a highly-placed Russian diplomat. The visit follows a series of violations by both sides of a 20 May ceasefire which resulted from a 14 May meeting between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Georgian Parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze. Speaking in Sukhumi on 6-June while Abkhaz forces shelled the city, Shevardnadze raised the possibility of Georgian troops' taking offensive measures to end the conflict, according to ITAR-TASS. Also on 6 June, unknown forces fired on a Russian helicopter carrying humanitarian cargo near Tkvarcheli. Abkhazia and Georgia both deny responsibility for the attack. In response to these events, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 7 June called on both sides to end hostilities and to create the conditions necessary for the delivery of humanitarian aid. Rounds of firing, resulting in casualties, continued through 8-June, prompting a Georgian official to call on Russia and other neighboring states to help mediate an end to the conflict, according to ITAR-TASS. -Catherine Dale KAZAKHSTAN TO DEVELOP OIL RESERVES. A consortium of one domestic and seven foreign oil firms are to sign an agreement on 9 June, to develop a vast oilfield in the Caspian Sea, an RI analyst reports from Alma-Ata. Kazakhstan has already signed similar agreements with Elf and Chevron for other fields; on 9 June The New York Times writes that Chevron has begun producing oil, five years after exploration began. RI's analyst and The New York Times note that there are several obstacles facing potential investors: the local bureaucracy, political risk, unsettled border questions in the Caspian Sea, and Kazakhstan's requirement that foreign firms train local specialists. Nonetheless, most oil companies seem to believe that allowing their competitors greater access to one of the potentially largest oil fields in the world constitutes an even graver risk. -Bess Brown and Keith Martin CSCE UNVEILS NEW KARABAKH PEACE PROPOSAL. Delegates to last week's CSCE Minsk Group meeting in Rome drew up a new peace plan for Nagorno-Karabakh that was submitted to the leaders of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh on 7 June, according RFE/RL's Washington correspondent. The plans takes as the basis for a settlement UN Resolution 822, which has been endorsed by Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh but not by Azerbaijan, and replaces the tripartite US-Russian-Turkish initiative rejected by the Nagorno-Karabakh leadership in May. The new plan provides for the withdrawal of Armenian forces from Kelbadzhar, a ceasefire, the lifting of blockades and a return to normal communications, and international monitoring of the truce. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TRAVNIK CHRONICLE. On 8-9 June the BBC's Serbian and Croatian Services report on the flight of thousands of Croat soldiers and civilians before a Muslim offensive around Travnik. The Muslims are apparently trying to push through the valley toward Zenica. British observers rescued one group of 170 Croats, and elsewhere found "strong evidence of atrocities." Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban claims that Croat soldiers are being tortured and killed by Muslims, but foreign peacekeepers have no independent confirmation of Boban's charges against his erstwhile allies. British witnesses nonetheless saw Muslim troops fire on Croatian civilians trying to flee the onslaught. The Croats who made it out alive surrendered to the Serbs, who said that civilians will be free to go wherever they choose. About 750 Croat soldiers and other men, however, were taken to the former detention camp at Manjaca, where the Serbs said they will be under Red Cross supervision. No independent observers have confirmed that the men are safe or under what conditions they are being held. Meanwhile, after months of blaming alleged Serb agents among the Muslims for Muslim attacks on Croats, the Croatian media as of 8-June had not reported that the Croats had actually surrendered to the Serbs. The Serbian media, however, gave wide publicity to the development. Borba of 9-June, moreover, quotes Croatian President Franjo Tudjman as saying that the Croat-Muslim alliance nonetheless is not dead. Tudjman, who is on a week-long visit to China, also told his Chinese hosts that Marco Polo was a Croat. -Patrick Moore KRAJINA SERBS WARN OF TOTAL WAR. The prime minister of the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina, Djordje Bjegovic, warned that the Serb-held region of Croatia stands on the verge of total war. In an interview with Vecernje novosti on 8 June, Bjegovic explained that the Vance peace plan for Croatia is "dead" and, lacking an alternative plan, Serbs had been "forced to seek new ways" of resolving the situation. On 5 June the "Assembly of the Republic of Serbian Krajina" announced a referendum on unification with the self-styled Serb Republic in Bosnia-Herzegovina with balloting scheduled for 19-20 June. The Croatian government condemned the move. Bjegovic remarked that Croatia's army views the referendum as a "new challenge" and has mobilized 200,000 troops and placed Scud missile units on alert. He predicted war will return to the region "in a matter of days." Radio Serbia reports on 8 June that Krajina Serb military officials have ordered a general mobilization. -Milan Andrejevich SHAKEUP IN THE BOSNIAN MILITARY. The BBC and Radio Bosnia-Herzegovina report that on 8 June the Bosnian government took a series of steps aimed at "bringing the army and the police under political control." An orderly system of ranks will be introduced to help combat warlordism, and both the defense and interior ministers have been replaced. Outgoing Defense Minister Sefer Halilovic was blamed by many for the Bosnian army's poor performance in recent months, and, as a native of the Sandzak, was regarded by some Bosnians as an outsider. His replacement is Rasim Delic, who has been in charge of strategic planning. The new appointees both come from top-level jobs, and the outgoing men will take on important assignments. -Patrick Moore SECOND YUGOSLAV SOLDIER RUNS AMOK. Radio Serbia reports on 8 June that an army private Nandor Kis, an ethnic Hungarian, killed a fellow soldier and then committed suicide at an army barracks in Sabac in western Serbia. It is the second such incident in less than a week-on 3 June a soldier murdered seven fellow soldiers before committing suicide at an army base near Vranje in southeastern Serbia. No motive for either attack was given. The army has established a commission to investigate the incidents. Radio B92 suggests that the incidents point to ethnic tensions within the military. Many Albanians, Hungarians, and Muslims in Serbia-Montenegro have sought to avoid conscription by claiming discrimination by Serbs. -Milan Andrejevich HUNGARY: UN HELP NEEDED TO REOPEN PIPELINE. Gabor Jozsef, head of the Hungarian state oil company, said that UN help is needed to reopen the Adria Pipeline that connects Hungary with the Adriatic Sea, MTI reports. The pipeline, which crosses Serb-held Croat territory, was closed in September 1991 due to the fighting. Since then Hungary has had to rely entirely on oil delivered through the Friendship Pipeline from Russia via Ukraine. Hungary formerly received about 40% of its total oil import through the Adria Pipeline. -Karoly Okolicsanyi BULGARIAN ECONOMIC NEWS. Bulgaria's prime interest rate is being lowered, BTA reported on 31 May. In accordance with a decision of the Bulgarian National Bank, on 4 June the prime rate was adjusted from 51% to 48%. The BNB says the move is a response to a decrease in domestic inflationary pressure over the last months, as well as to a general drop in interest rates on international money markets. Meanwhile, on 1 June the new telecommunications charges went into force. A local phone call now costs 40% more than previously, whereas businesses need to pay four times more than private households. The increase had initially been announced for 1 May. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIA, RUSSIA SIGN ECONOMIC ACCORDS. Following a two-day session of a top-level joint trade commission, on 8 June Russian Deputy Premier and Finance Minister Boris Fedorov and Bulgarian Finance Minister Stoyan Aleksandrov finalized agreements on avoidance of double taxation and protection of investments and another outlining bilateral cooperation in the machine-building sector. More importantly, the two agreed that Russia will continue to supply natural gas to Bulgaria until 1997. Fedorov indicated that some progress was made toward solving the problem of mutual indebtedness, and Bulgarian Deputy Prime Minister Valentin Karabashev told BTA that a comprehensive trade protocol is likely to be concluded within 10 days. -Kjell Engelbrekt ROMANIA OPENS BIDDING FOR HIGHWAY PROJECT. On 8 June bidding opened for local and foreign construction companies for a project to modernize Romania's highways, Western agencies report. The $381-million project will be funded by the government and foreign creditors, including the EBRD. The first roads to be modernized will be those linking Bucharest with the Hungarian border and Constanta, the main Black Sea port. -Michael Shafir CZECH REACTOR MAY HAVE TO BE SHUT DOWN. Two of four reactors at the Moravian Dukovany nuclear power plant may have to be shut down if its operators carry out resignation notices they gave last week, Mlada Fronta dnes reported on 8 June. The daily quotes Ivan Cestr, a board member of the Czech Energy Company CEZ, as saying that 51 of the 105-staff members at the station handed in their resignations on 31 May, citing poor management practices. Cestr said that the operators were still on the job but that if talks fail, parts of the power plant may have to be closed down. The energy loss would have to be compensated by coal-fired plants. -Jan Obrman POLAND, BELARUS REACH ECONOMIC AGREEMENTS. On 8 June a series of economic agreements designed to bring the two countries closer together was signed in Warsaw. According to PAP reports, the agreements foster exchange of information between the two statistical agencies, streamlining trade, and promoting civil aviation. The two sides have also pledged to cooperate in building of a major international road linking Berlin with Warsaw, Minsk, and Moscow. -Jan de Weydenthal WORKERS STRIKE IN UKRAINE, BELARUS. Workers in both countries have gone on strike over price increases introduced over the weekend, various agencies reported on 8 June. Both the Ukrainian and Belarus governments blamed the increases on the raised price of fuel imported from Russia. Unions in Kiev and Minsk threatened to order general strikes unless the price hikes were rescinded. Rents have been raised as much as 10 times, and the cost of other commodities has gone up two to five times. In Ukraine's Donbass region in Ukraine, 8,000 miners were reportedly on strike along with construction workers, bus drivers and pensioners. They called for a referendum on a vote of confidence in the president, prime minister and parliament. -Ustina Markus UKRAINE CONTINUES START DEBATE. Shifting his position on Ukraine's nuclear status, Parliament Speaker Ivan Plyusch supported leading politicians in calling for Ukraine to be proclaimed a nuclear state, at least temporarily. He predicted that START-1 will be ratified-with conditions-during the current session. In his view Ukraine should refrain from joining the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, which is being debated alongside the START agreement, as the country "cannot simply walk away from the nuclear club" under the present situation, Reuters reported on 8 June. The debate took a new twist last week after Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma openly suggested that Ukraine keep 46-of its SS-24 missiles for some time. Earlier this week President Leonid Kravchuk assured visiting US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin that ratification will take place, but the parliament, not the president, will decide the issue. Kravchuk has frequently offered assurances of imminent ratification to Washington, only to have the debate and ratification delayed. This has underscored the split between parliament and the president over the treaty. As a result of his Kiev visit Aspin said he understands Ukrainian concerns better, although the he finds the parliamentary politics perplexing. -Ustina Markus WORLD BANK APPROVES LOAN TO UKRAINE. The World Bank has approved a loan totaling $27 million for economic reforms, its first loan to Ukraine. The funds are intended to provide advisory services, training, and equipment for promoting private sector development, to build up a private banking system, and to help manage public finance. According to the bank, Ukraine holds promise but its progress in economic reform has been hampered by "an acute shortage of professionals and institutions capable of guiding the country out of 70-years of central planning," an RFE/RL correspondent reports from Kiev on 8 June. -Ustina Markus BELARUS NATIONAL BANK CREDIT POLICY EXAMINED. On 8 June the Supreme Soviet received a list of credit transactions for 1992 submitted by National Bank Chairman Stanislau Bahdankevich and began debating the bank's credit policy, Radiefakt reports. This is one of the most important issues on the agenda for this session, and the debate is expected to be protracted. The Supreme Soviet will probably seek to limit the bank's liberal credit policies. -Ustina Markus WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN TROOPS FROM LITHUANIA. Col. Stasys Knezys, the chief of staff of the National Defense Ministry, said that the withdrawal of Russian troops from Lithuania should be completed on schedule by 1 September, BNS reported on 8 June. By 1 June the troops had been reduced to 9,000. Knezys noted, however, that Lithuania will not receive any Russian compensation for ecological damages, since no joint working group has been set up and no funds have been made available for this task. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS: MORE PROBLEMS THAN SOLUTIONS. The 12th round of Estonian-Russian talks ended inconclusively on 8 June in Nakhabino, near Moscow. Russian delegation head Vasilii Svirin was unhappy over the lack of results, while his Estonian counterpart Juri Luik considered the talks fruitful, BNS reports. They initialed an agreement on trade and economic relations, and then continued the discussions started during previous interstate talks about borders between Estonia and Russia, which Svirin called a painful question. The two sides also discussed Russia's pullout of its military forces from Estonia. Luik said that a draft treaty on basic principles of the troop withdrawal was almost ready for consideration by the two sides. -Dzintra Bungs LAAR ON SECURITY PROBLEMS, BALTIC SOLIDARITY. Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar told parliament on 8 June that his government does not expect to attain its goal of having the approximately 7,000 Russian troops out of the country by 1 August. He expects that the deadline will have to be moved to 31-December 1993, BNS reports. Laar noted that a protest note would be sent to Moscow concerning intelligence-gathering operations at the Russian base in Juri. He proposed the creation of a single front for Baltic States' cooperation on security matters and to facilitate the departure of Russian troops. -Dzintra Bungs EXPANDED NATO EXERCISES IN BALTIC SEA. On 8-June, continuing a tradition of more than 20 years, NATO began its annual naval exercises in the Baltic Sea, Western and Baltic media report. The first phase of the exercises involving noncombat operations such as communications training, sea rescues, refueling, and coast guard tasks are expanded to include for the first time ships from neutral Sweden and Finland as well as from Poland and Lithuania. A Russian ship was expected to participate, but due to a lack of funds for docking fees had not arrived for the start. Latvia and Estonia did not send any ships, but are participating as observers. The second phase involving training in antiaircraft, ship, and submarine warfare will be limited to NATO ships. -Saulius Girnius NEW DIRECTOR NAMED AT CTK. On 8 June a Czech parliament committee appointed journalist Milan Stribal as director of the CTK news agency, Czech newspapers report on 9-June. Stribal replaces Tomas Kopriva, a member of Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party. Kopriva was criticized for allegedly promoting government policies and for some of his personnel decisions. Some 70 CTK employees earlier threatened to quit. Stribal has worked for CTK for the past 21 years but has no party affiliation. He was chosen from a list of 17 candidates. -Jan Obrman BULGARIAN LABOR CAMP OFFICIALS ON TRIAL. On 8 June a trial opened against four Bulgarians-former Deputy Interior Minister Mircho Spasov and three prison officers-charged with premeditated murder between 1959 and 1962, Western and Bulgarian media report. Prosecutor-General Ivan Tatarchev, who has personally led the investigation, accused the four of being directly responsible for the death of at least 14-inmates in the Lovech and Skravena labor camps over 30 years ago. Tatarchev demanded that the defendants be sentenced to death in accordance with Article-116 of the criminal code. The seven-judge panel accepted the prosecution's argument that an indictment was impossible before the collapse of communism and therefore agreed to disregard the fact that the 20-year statute of limitations expired in the early 1980s. A government commission in 1990 established that 147 of the 1,235 prisoners died from brutal treatment while serving sentences in the camps. -Kjell Engelbrekt FORMER ROMANIAN DISSIDENT TO BE UN AMBASSADOR? MIHAI BOTEZ, A PROMINENT DISSIDENT UNDER CEAUSESCU, WHO RECEIVED POLITICAL ASYLUM IN THE USA, HAS BEEN NOMINATED BY PRESIDENT ILIESCU TO BE AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS. Botez, whose name was mentioned as a candidate for the premiership last year, said in an interview with RFE/RL on 8 June he is ready to take up the post. Confirmation hearings for both Botez and another nominee, career diplomat Constantin Ene, are scheduled in parliament for 9 June -Michael Shafir NOTICE The RFE/RL Daily Report will not appear tomorrow, 10 June. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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