|I'm going to turn on the light, and we'll be two people in a room looking at each other and wondering why on earth we were afraid of the dark. - Gale Wilhelm|
No. 107, 08 June 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN'S OPPONENTS RETURN TO CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. A number of delegates to the Constituent Assembly who left its session on 5 June returned on 7 June to participate in the assembly's work. More than fifty delegates left the session after parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov was not allowed to speak. Among those who returned to the session after the 5-June walkout were the majority of the Constitutional Court judges, including the chairman Valerii Zorkin, and a secretary of the parliament's constitutional commission Oleg Rumyantsev. The delegates agreed to resume their work in the assembly after a group of delegates, headed by the governor of Nizhnii Novgorod Boris Nemtsov, proposed to hold an extra plenary session at which President Boris Yeltsin's opponents, including Khasbulatov, would be allowed to speak. Russian Television said that Yeltsin reportedly agreed with this proposal, but First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko was quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying he doubted that Khasbulatov would agree to return to the Constituent Assembly. Vera Tolz OFFICIALS COMMENT ON CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. Shumeiko and presidential political advisor Sergei Stankevich told a press conference on 7 June that they were confident in the ability of the Constituent Assembly to complete the work on the final draft of a new Russian Constitution by 16 June, ITAR-TASS reported. Stankevich admitted, however, that the delegates were still deeply divided on three main issues of the constitution: the president's powers, the authority of the federal government versus the regions and republics, and the regions' desire for equal status with the republics. Shumeiko and Stankevich also said that it would be difficult for the assembly to decide how to adopt the new constitution. The officials suggested that Khasbulatov and other opponents of the president would try to hamper the smooth adoption of the constitution. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN MEETING HEADS OF REPUBLICS. Yeltsin will meet the heads of the republics at their request on 8 June, presidential adviser Sergei Stankevich told a press conference in Moscow on 7 June. Stankevich said that some of them were unhappy that their proposed amendments to the draft constitution had been ignored, ITAR-TASS and Reuter reported. The question of equal status for the republics and krais and oblasts will also be discussed. Stankevich said that the relationship between the federal center and the subjects of the federation, and the relationship between the subjects themselves were the thorniest problems facing the constitutional assembly. Most of the delegates favor equal rights for all the constituent parts of Russia, he added, but many of the republics wish to retain their privileged status. Thus Egor Larionov, deputy speaker of the Yakut parliament, told journalists that the claims of the krais and oblasts to statehood were unfounded, Ekho Moskvy reported on 6 June. -Ann Sheehy AUTONOMOUS OKRUGS ACQUIRE SAME RIGHTS AS KRAIS AND OBLASTS. On 2 June the Council of Nationalities passed a resolution giving the autonomous okrugs the same rights as the krais and oblasts of which they form part, Rossiiskaya gazeta reported on 3-June. The proponents of the resolution argued that it would resolve the question of the status of the okrugs, which had been existing in a legal vacuum as the 1970 law on them was hopelessly outdated. Opponents pointed to the administrative conflicts it would engender. As far as the federal treaty is concerned, the autonomous okrugs are regarded as subjects of the federation in the same way as the republics, krais, and oblasts. -Ann Sheehy FEDOROV ON REFORM, ECONOMY. Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov described the push for radical reform within the federal government as being a fight of a small group of Western-style economists against a large number of generally market-oriented, but go-slow conservatives, The New York Times reported on 4 June. Fedorov also repeated some veiled criticism of Yeltsin's populism. "Political realities force him to do some things that are not always explainable or easily accepted," Fedorov said. Another of Fedorov's current worries is the prospect of the federal government giving too much economic authority to the republics and regions, thereby losing macroeconomic control in the nation. In a subsequent interview with Trud on 6 June, however, Fedorov spoke optimistically about current trends in the Russian economy. He stated that the warnings of another interenterprise debt crisis were exaggerated, and that overdue payments totalled a mere 1.8 trillion which is quite small, relative to gross national product or total credit issued in the economy. Fedorov expressed confidence that the monthly inflation rate of 15% could be reduced to 10% or lower by the end of the year. He also cited the significant progress of the government's privatization program. -Erik Whitlock RUSSIA'S BALANCE OF PAYMENTS. The balance of payments for the Russian Federation in 1992 is set out in Ekonomika i zhizn, no. 18, 1993. Among the data supplied are the total of foreign credit procured ($13.3-billion); the total coordinated rescheduling ($7 billion); the increase in foreign debt principal ($11.4 billion); and the additional interest, including penalties, incurred ($4.8 billion). -Keith Bush G-7 MEETING COOL ON PRIVATIZATION AID. Representatives from the Group of Seven (G-7) leading industrialized nations failed to reach agreement on two US proposals to aid Russia, the Knight-Ridder Newspapers reported on 7 June, quoting the Kyodo agency. Discussions on the nuclear-dismantling fund were said to be "inconclusive," and European G-7 members were described as being "strongly opposed" to the US proposal to set up a $4-billion fund to help Russia's privatization program. -Keith Bush COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES NAZARBAEV'S NEW CONCEPT FOR CIS. In an interview in Izvestiya of 5 June, Kazakhstan's president Nursultan Nazarbaev outlined his concept of a "new stage of interstate relations in the post-Soviet space." Nazarbaev said he now realizes that the predominance of centrifugal tendencies in the period after the break-up of the Soviet Union was largely inevitable. Now that the republics feel truly independent, he argues, the process of integration can begin and is indeed beginning, but it should start, as the European Economic Community did, with cooperation in specific spheres and be free of "harsh political dependence." To flesh out his ideas he has invited the prominent economists Stanislav Shatalin, Nikolai Petrakov, Leonid Abalkin, and Grigorii Yavlinsky to Alma-Ata. -Ann Sheehy KOZYREV ON STRATEGIC WEAPONS, BLACK SEA FLEET. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said on 6 June that, so far as he knew, the Ukrainian political leadership continued officially to favor ratification of the START-1 and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaties. According to Kozyrev, both Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk and Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko had tried to dismiss remarks made several days earlier by Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma that cast doubt on Kiev's commitment to the non-proliferation treaty, saying that were made in the latter's capacity as a deputy, and not as Prime Minister. Kozyrev, just back from a visit to Ukraine, also expressed optimism that the Ukrainian and Russian Presidents would be able to resolve problems related to the Black Sea Fleet. He said that they hoped to set a date later this week for a meeting on the issue. Kozyrev's remarks were made on Russian Ostankino Television and were reported by ITAR-TASS on 7 June. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA REBELLION SPREADS IN AZERBAIJAN. Supporters of maverick military commander Surat Huseinov, whose troops have seized control of Gyandzha, have also taken control of the town of Lenkoran in south-east Azerbaijan close to the Iranian border and distributed leaflets in Evlakh and Mingechaur calling for a campaign of civil disobedience, Western agencies reported. Huseinov has called for the resignation of Azerbaijan's Prime Minister Panakh Guseinov on the grounds that the latter was responsible for the fighting in Gyandzha on 5-6 June, in which the death toll is now reported to have reached over 60. Huseinov has also demanded convening a session of parliament to discuss the Armenian occupation of Kelbadzhar. His supporters have created "parallel organs of power" in Gyandzha, according to ITAR-TASS, quoting Presidential press spokesman Arif Aliev. The Turan News Agency reported that Guseinov had offered his resignation; whether President Elchibey has accepted it is not known. Turan suggests that Nakhichevan parliament chairman Geidar Aliev, one of Elchibey's most serious challengers, may be in line to become Prime Minister. -Liz Fuller RIOTING AT BAIKONUR SPACE CENTER. The Russian military newspaper, Krasnaya Zvezda, reported in its 7 June edition on extensive rioting, looting and arson at the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan. This is at least the third such incident, and the most serious since February 1992, when three Kazakh soldiers were killed during a mutiny. While details remain sketchy on the number of injured or killed, and on the specific grievances of the Kazakh military construction unit involved in the incident, it is known that Russian soldiers at Baikonur, serving in similar positions, are paid more than seven times as much as their Kazakh counterparts. The Kazakh Defense Minister has promised that the soldiers involved in the rioting will be punished; he believes that part of the reason for the unrest was the fact that none of those involved in last year's mutiny were disciplined. -Keith Martin KAZAKHSTAN WOOS FOREIGN INVESTORS. President Nazarbayev has been holding meetings with delegations from Germany and Japan to discuss intensifying economic cooperation. Germany's Economic Development Minister, Carl-Dieter Spranger, visited Alma Ata from 3 June to 6 June, discussing Kazakhstan's need for aid. While only DM 20 million were pledged in direct aid for this year, Germany is also providing specific economic incentives to the 900,000 ethnic Germans living in Kazakhstan, in the hope that they will not make use of their right to emigrate to Germany in the near future, according to Western agency reports. At the same time, the German newspaper Handelsblatt reported in its 7 June edition that German firms are skeptical about Kazakhstan's progress toward market reforms and creating investment opportunities for foreign firms. Currently, a delegation of 67 leading Japanese corporations, headed by Mitsubishi, is in Alma Ata to make a preliminary assessment of investment possibilities; they are holding talks with Nazarbayev and other high-ranking officials. -Keith Martin CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MOROZOV CONSIDERS US PLAN ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov responded favorably to a US proposal to put the nuclear warheads in Ukraine in storage under international control, various Western agencies report on 8 June. The scheme was presented by US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin as part of a broader plan to defuse tensions between Moscow and Kiev. The plan calls for putting 1,600-1,800 warheads to be withdrawn from 130 silo-based missiles and 600-800 cruise missiles meant to be deployed on strategic bombers, into a storage facility controlled jointly by Moscow and Kiev and which the US would help supervise. After Russia and Ukraine agree on dividing the proceeds from a planned US purchase of the fissile material in each warhead, the weapons would be removed to Moscow for dismantling. Details of the storage plan have yet to be worked out. In contrast to Morozov's approval in general terms of the scheme, pending details, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev rejected the plan in his meeting with Aspin in Germany on 6 June. Western and CIS agencies report that Ukrainian officials welcomed Aspin's various proposals for improving US-Ukrainian ties and that the US representative described his visit to Kiev as "fruitful and promising." -Ustina Markus and Bohdan Nahaylo EC WARNS UKRAINE. The European Community says that a cooperation agreement with Ukraine is unlikely to be signed unless Kiev ratifies START-1, Western agencies reported on 7-June. Danish Foreign Minister Niels Helveg Petersen, whose country is current EC president, said the EC is "deeply worried" by the fact that Ukraine has not yet ratified the arms accord. Petersen made the comments after talks in Copenhagen with Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko. -Roman Solchanyk CROATS FLEE MUSLIMS, SURRENDER TO SERBS. Reuters reports from Travnik in central Bosnia on 8 June that about 1,000 Croatian soldiers and at least an additional 3,000 civilians gave themselves up to Serb forces the previous day in the wake of the Muslim assault that began on 6 June. One Croat soldier said "we would have been slaughtered like sheep had we stayed," and a Western UN officer added that "the number of dead is a matter of hundreds. We don't know the precise figure because we still can't get in to all the villages." The Serbs received the Croats hospitably, and the rupture in the Croat-Muslim alliance is a key Serbian strategic interest. Meanwhile in Sarajevo, international media reported on 7 June that the Bosnian government reluctantly approved the UN proposal to make Sarajevo, Tuzla, Bihac, Gorazde, Zepa, and Srebrenica "safe areas," but attached conditions that the Serbs are unlikely to accept. The Muslims want the areas to be connected by UN-protected corridors and made economically viable, and also urge that Serb heavy weapons be dismantled. Finally, Hina said that Muslim and Croat forces in the Konjic area near Mostar are cooperating to make sure that new aid shipments reach a number of local villages of both nationalities that have long been cut off from such help. -Patrick Moore DRASKOVIC UPDATE. Serbian Renewal Movement leader Vuk Draskovic was "beaten to pulp" by police according to his brother Rodoljub. He made the comment to reporters after visiting Draskovic in Belgrade's Central Prison. Rodoljub Draskovic said his brother sustained injuries all over his body and face and was suffering from severe heart and kidney pains. He added that Vuk has promised to quit politics and resume his work as a writer once released from prison. SPO spokesman also read a message from Vuk Draskovic asking his supporters and sympathizers not to demonstrate on his behalf for fear of violent retaliation by police. Family members also described injuries to Draskovic's wife, Danica, as serious. Thirteen opposition groups and six pacifist organizations have demanded the release of the Draskovics. Radio B92 and international media carried the report on 7 June. -Milan Andrejevich MONTENEGRIN DEMONSTRATIONS. Several thousand people demonstrated on 7 June against what they called the rise of fascism in the rump Yugoslavia, and demanded independence for Montenegro. Slavko Perovic, head of the opposition Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), said Yugoslavia has become a "monstrous state" seeking to survive by "imposing tyranny on its own people," and warned that "mercenaries" for Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic risk "spreading this tyranny to Montenegro." The head of the Movement Against Fascism, Milika Pavlovic, said "Serbia has tottered under the fascist blows" of Milosevic's regime. Pavlovic added "The only way out for Montenegro is to separate from Serbia." In a separate development, a statement by political leaders in Montenegro condemned the ouster of Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic by the Federal Assembly by describing the action as indicative of a "lack of respect for rules of conduct and dignity." The statement also condemned the police actions against demonstrators in Belgrade saying the authorities violated their human rights. Radio B92 and Radio Serbia carried the report. -Milan Andrejevich POLITICAL FIREWORKS IN CROATIA. The relations between Croats and Muslims are just one issue in a highly complex political battle shaping up between hard-core nationalists originating primarily in Herzegovina and more moderate forces, Globus reported on 4 June. On 15 May Cardinal Franjo Kuharic warned Herzegovinian Croats that they could be held accountable for war crimes against the Muslims and for bringing possible international sanctions down on Croatia. Their leader, Mate Boban, replied to the primate in what Globus called a "vulgar" letter ghost-written by two militant nationalist Franciscan fathers. It appears that behind Boban are tough hard-liners in Zagreb and Bosnia-Herzegovina, plus elements of the Franciscan order in Herzegovina, while Kuharic is backed by most mainstream politicians, the Church hierarchy, and some of the Franciscans. Globus suggested that the contest has only just begun, and that Kuharic holds the moral high ground, with President Franjo Tudjman being a potential wild card in the game. Elsewhere in Zagreb, on 4-June parliament voted to remove ultrarightist leader Dobroslav Paraga from his positions on that body's Commission for Human Rights. Paraga had just returned from a speaking tour of the United States where he sharply criticized Tudjman and his ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) as being authoritarian. Deputies from the HDZ subsequently charged Paraga with "slandering Croatia" and launched a well-orchestrated campaign against the leader of the Croatian Party of [Historic] Rights (HSP). The HDZ has used a variety of legal measures over the past year to hound the HSP, and charges of "terrorism" are still pending against Paraga, who has otherwise been protected by his parliamentary immunity. Vecernji list on 4 June and Politika on 5 June reported the story. -Patrick Moore BEROV SUPPORTS US TROOPS IN MACEDONIA. During a visit to Skopje, Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov expressed support for the idea of placing US troops in the Republic of Macedonia, Reuters reported on 7 June. Berov said the idea was useful, although he pointed out that the operation would need firm backing from governments in Macedonia as well as Kosovo, another unstable area. The first Bulgarian premier to visit Skopje since World War-II, Berov said bilateral relations have become a "factor for stability" in the region. With his counterpart Branko Crvenkovski, he signed agreements on trade, energy, education, crime-fighting, communications and transport. -Kjell Engelbrekt MACEDONIA MISCELLANY. British Foreign Minister Douglas Hurd paid his second visit to the Republic of Macedonia on 4 June, the first after Great Britain recognized the new country, MILS reports. He met with Acting Foreign Minister Stevo Crvenkovski, and President Kiro Gligorov. In a press conference Hurd, expressed the hope that matters between Greece and Macedonia would soon be resolved and noted that the new country is experiencing serious economic difficulties resulting from enforcement of the UN embargo on Serbia. Meanwhile, Crvenkovski, in a letter to NATO Secretary-General Manfred Woerner, broached the question of possible membership in that organization. Crvenkovski also requested a meeting with NATO officials concerning the deployment troops in Macedonia. President Bill Clinton is currently reviewing the possibility of sending US troops to Macedonia as well as, reportedly, civilian monitors to Kosovo. -Duncan Perry YUGOSLAV-AREA MEDIA DEVELOPMENTS. The BBC's Serbian Service on 8 June reports that the Council of Europe is making available some $3.8-million to promote media freedom in the former Yugoslavia. Targeted especially for support are Borba and three other Belgrade papers, as well as two Serbian independent radios. The Sarajevo daily Oslobodjenje is among the recipients outside Serbia. On 7 June Reuters reported from Paris that the press freedom watchdog group, Reporters sans frontiers, has compiled a list of countries that are the worst abusers of media independence. It includes states such as Iraq, China, North Korea, Cuba, and Iran, but the only two European countries on it are Serbia and Croatia. -Patrick Moore SLOVAK OPPOSITION PARTIES TO JOIN FORCES? THE SIX OPPOSITION PARTIES REPRESENTED IN THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC AGREED TO COORDINATE ACTIVITIES AND INDICATED THAT THEY MIGHT SOON REMOVE PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR MECIAR'S MINORITY GOVERNMENT, SLOVAK RADIO REPORTS ON 7 JUNE. According to the report, representatives of the excommunist Party of the Democratic Left, the Christian Democratic Movement, the Slovak National Party, the Hungarian Christian Democratic Party, Coexistence, and the Alliance of Democrats (founded recently by former Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko) held talks on 7 June in Bratislava and agreed that the creation of a broad coalition government represents a better perspective for Slovakia than early elections. The opposition parties will meet again on 14 June to discuss the details and of the creation of a government coalition. -Jan Obrman ONYSZKIEWICZ IN SLOVAKIA. Polish Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz is on an official visit in Slovakia, TASR reports on 7 June. On the first day of his three-day visit, he discussed security cooperation with his Slovak counterpart Imrich Andrejcak. According to the report, the two agreed that the level of cooperation should continue "on a higher level," and Andrejcak reportedly proposed to increase security cooperation between the two states "particularly within the framework of the Visegrad Group." Onyszkiewicz and Andrejcak also discussed several concrete proposals like a joint training camp for UN peace-keeping forces and UNPROFOR units; cooperation in arms production; and the use of military repair facilities by both armies. -Jan Obrman VISEGRAD GROUP APPEALS FOR EC MEMBERSHIP. The Visegrad Group of four Central European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia appealed on 7 June to the European Community to open negotiations on membership. The appeal was made during a joint press conference of the group's representatives in Paris, who were reported by PAP to have expressed hope that at its forthcoming summit in Copenhagen the EC "would set the date and define conditions for [the group's] full membership in the community." -Jan de Weydenthal NATO WORKSHOP IN BUDAPEST. NATO's 10th workshop on military security policy was held behind closed doors on 3-6 June with the participation of high-ranking military and political officials, MTI and Radio Budapest report. In their addresses, Hungary's Premier Jozsef Antall and Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky both said NATO is and should remain the most important guarantor of security in East Central Europe and advocated a more intensive preventive foreign policy on the part of the West. In an interview in the 7 June issue of Magyar hirlap, Hungarian State Secretary for Defense Rudolf Joo called the workshop a success in that it managed to discuss theoretically such issues as the reformulation of NATO's role in peace maintenance and crisis management, and the possibility of observer or associate status for East European countries in NATO. In the short term, however, NATO will not be able to solve the region's security problems because the offer of guarantees to some states could create tension with others and awake sensitivities and concerns in Russia. According to Joo, NATO has no reservations about Central Europe also developing ties with the Western European Union as the two organizations complement each other. In a 6 June interview in Nepszabadsag, WEU Secretary-General Willem van Eekelen confirmed that the Central European states could not at present count on formal security guarantees. Calling for "patience," he referred to the existence of many "practical steps" leading in that direction. -Alfred Reisch ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN HOLLAND. On 7 June in the Hague Teodor Melescanu discussed bilateral ties with his Dutch counterpart, Peter Kooijmans, including a future accord to protect mutual investments, the situation in former Yugoslavia, and Romania's efforts to join Western European political and economic structures. He is scheduled to meet Premier Ruud Lubbers on 8 June. Melescanu spoke about his 5-6 June visit to Budapest in an interview with Radio Bucharest, noting that he had met with Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, which was not on the official agenda -Dan Ionescu OBSERVERS ON LATVIAN ELECTIONS. Approximately 60 observers from 11 countries and 8 organizations (BNS reports 55 observers from 16 countries and 12 organizations) observed the parliamentary elections in Latvia. Dividing themselves up into 30 groups, they visited polling stations throughout the country, Radio Riga reported on 7 June. The general assessment was that the elections were free, democratic, and well-organized. According to unofficial election results, Latvia's Way is the front runner with about 32% of the votes and will, therefore, have to act together with other groups in order to form a government. Official election results are expected on 9 or 10 June. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN PREMIER IN FINLAND. On 6 June Adolfas Slezevicius, accompanied by the transportation and agriculture ministers, traveled to Finland on his first official foreign visit. On 7 June he held talks with Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho on increased economic cooperation with special attention to Finnish assistance in the building of an oil terminal, the reconstruction of the oil refinery at Mazeikiai, the construction of Via Baltica, and cooperation in the timber and food industries. Radio Lithuania reports that the level of trade between the two states is low (less than 1% of total trade on each side). -Saulius Girnius BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES STATUS OF KGB. At its 12th session, the Belarusian Supreme Soviet considered changing the title of the KGB to the Ministry of State Security, but the motion did not pass. The session also debated whether the KGB should be subordinated to the Supreme Soviet or to the Council of Ministers. Neither option had backing from a majority in parliament and a decision has been deferred while a working commission examines the problem, Belarusian TV reported on 3 June. -Ustina Markus CREANGA ON TROOP ISSUE. Interviewed in the Foreign Ministry's journal Moldova i mir (2/1993), Moldovan Defense Minister Lt.-Gen. Pavel Creanga confirmed that Russia is presenting political conditions in the negotiations on the future of the 14th Army based in Moldova. "The Russian side's intention to resolve the whole range of military issues unilaterally," he declared, "is a serious flaw, reflecting contempt toward a small state and an erroneous assessment of the real situation in Moldova. Russia is of course a great state" he continued, "but this does not entitle her to abuse her power and unilaterally resolve issues affecting this or that other state." -Vladimir Socor RUSSIAN TROOPS CONTINUE TO LEAVE POLAND. According to Polish government officials, at the beginning of June there were 2,600 Russian soldiers and 1,500 civilian dependents and officials still stationed in Poland. PAP reports that they are stationed in 11-garrisons and localities, but the number of facilities is diminishing rapidly; during this month alone Russian soldiers are scheduled to move out of Wroclaw and Poznan. All Russian troops are scheduled to leave Poland by November. In April 1991, when the first withdrawals took place, there were about 60,000 troops and about 90,000 dependents in Poland. Jan de Weydenthal [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.