|I'm going to turn on the light, and we'll be two people in a room looking at each other and wondering why on earth we were afraid of the dark. - Gale Wilhelm|
No. 106, 07 June 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN OPENS CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. The special assembly convened by President Boris Yeltsin to discuss the text of Russia's new constitution opened in plenary session on 5 June. 692 of the 700 invited delegates were present to hear Yeltsin's opening speech, broadcast on Ostankino TV, in which he said that the April referendum had shown that the Russian people wanted a new constitution, and that the Soviet system was incompatible with democracy and could not be reformed. He said that the new constitution should be adopted by the Congress of People's Deputies, after which new parliamentary elections should be held in October this year. Yeltsin's speech was followed by an address from Sergei Alekseev, the lawyer largely responsible for drafting the presidential draft of the new constitution. He said that over 2,000 comments had been received in reaction to the draft, and claimed that the majority had spoken in favor of a presidential republic. -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV WALKS OUT OF ASSEMBLY. The assembly collapsed in uproar, however, after the opening speeches when parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov was not allowed to reply to Yeltsin's opening address. Khasbulatov stormed out of the hall, followed by 50-100 of his supporters, many of whom represented Russia's republics and regions, after Yeltsin's supporters drowned out his attempts to speak. One delegate, communist supporter Yurii Slobodkin, was forcibly removed from the hall. A speech by Khasbulatov had not been scheduled, and, in refusing him permission to speak, Yeltsin had suggested that instead he address another plenary meeting next week. The incident was reported by Russian and Western agencies, but the televised coverage of Yeltsin's opening speech ended before Khasbulatov demanded the floor. Yeltsin described Khasbulatov's actions as "a premeditated attempt at provocation," which would not, however, disrupt the work of the assembly, while Khasbulatov accused Yeltsin of attacking democratic institutions. -Wendy Slater DELEGATES DEMAND MORE DISCUSSION. The parliamentary press service distributed a statement from participants in the constitutional assembly who had walked out in support of Khasbulatov. The statement, reported by ITAR-TASS on 6 June, said that the delegates would return to the conference on condition that the draft constitution was discussed in plenary sessions instead of the planned group discussions; that Khasbulatov and Oleg Rumyantsev, executive secretary of the parliamentary constitutional commission, be allowed to address the assembly; and that the Congress of People's Deputies be allowed to debate the recommendations of the assembly. Meanwhile, the heads of 16 of Russia's republics met Sergei Filatov, the head of Yeltsin's administration, on 5 June, and offered to mediate in the constitutional process. -Wendy Slater NSF WARNS OF DICTATORSHIP. The opposition National Salvation Front issued an appeal to Russian citizens, warning of the threat of dictatorship, Reuters reported on 6 June. The NSF made an unsubstantiated claim that 45 of the 700 delegates to the constitutional assembly had signed the appeal. The NSF had participated in a demonstration against the assembly on 5-June, together with other nationalist and communist opposition movements, which had attracted 10,000 supporters, according to RFE/RL correspondents and Western agencies. -Wendy Slater PARLIAMENT TO DISCUSS DEFENSE OF RUTSKOI. The parliament voted on 4 June to appeal to the Constitutional Court over the constitutional status of the vice president. The motion, proposed by Vladimir Isakov, coordinator of the opposition Russian Unity bloc, was prompted by Yeltsin's actions stripping Rutskoi of his privileges and duties. Deputies described this as an infringement of Rutskoi's dignity and constitutional status, Reuters reported. -Wendy Slater CHILE, RUSSIA SIGN COOPERATION DECLARATION. The Presidents of Chile and Russia signed an 11-point declaration on mutual relations and cooperation in Moscow on 3 June, ending nearly 20 years of hostility that began with the ouster of Chile's Marxist President Salvadore Allende in 1973 and his replacement by Augusto Pinochet. Reuter said the declaration included agreements on combating drug-trafficking, on cultural exchanges, and on promoting trade and economic cooperation. Cooperation in defense is also envisioned; President Yeltsin said that Defense Minister Pavel Grachev would visit Chile and that Russia could supply Chile with air defense weapons systems, including the sophisticated S-300 system. Yeltsin and Chilean President Patricio Aylwin compared their two countries' transitions from totalitarian to democratic political systems. -Stephen Foye KOZYREV REPORTS ON YUGOSLAV POLICY. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev addressed the parliament on 3 June on a number of foreign policy issues. According to Ostankino Television, Kozyrev submitted for ratification treaties on cooperative relations with Turkey and Mongolia; both treaties were ratified. Debate on Russian policy toward the former Yugoslavia was apparently sharp, however. A group of deputies accused the Foreign Minister of having ignored the parliaments wishes on the issue, and suggested holding a vote of no-confidence on those officials responsible for conducting Russian policy. According to ITAR-TASS, that motion was rejected and the deputies confined themselves to discussing the information supplied by Kozyrev. -Stephen Foye GERASHCHENKO UNYIELDING. In a television interview on 4 June reported by Reuters on 5-June, Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko appeared to be retracting at least part of the Bank's commitment to the much-touted joint financial policy statement, aimed at the IMF, that was issued by the government and the Bank on 24 May. "Economic theory calls for positive interest rates," he was quoted as saying, "but under the rate of inflation we have, this is unrealistic." Gerashchenko also pledged to continue to intervene on the foreign currency market to support the ruble. -Keith Bush G-7 MEETING COOL ON PRIVATIZATION AID. Representatives from the Group of Seven (G-7) leading industrialized nations failed to reach agreement on two US proposals to aid Russia, the Knight-Ridder Newspapers reported on 7 June, quoting the Kyodo agency. Discussions on the nuclear-dismantling fund were said to be "inconclusive," and European G-7 members were described as being "strongly opposed" to the US proposal to set up a $4-billion fund to help Russia's privatization program. -Keith Bush DUDAEV SUPPORTERS ACT TO PREVENT REFERENDUM. On 4 June military units loyal to Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev acted to prevent the holding of the referendum on the future of the presidency and the need for early elections called by the Chechen parliament for 5 June. Two buildings occupied by the opposition in Groznyi were stormed with the loss of 14-lives, Russian and Western media reported. An opposition meeting in Theater Square in progress since April was also dispersed, and ballot papers intended for the referendum were demonstratively burnt in another square. A representative of Dudaev's security forces told ITAR-TASS on 5 June that Dudaev was fully in control of the situation and that if the opposition tried to hold the referendum he would use all means at his disposal to prevent them. According to a Dudaev spokesman, cited by Reuters, some voting took place briefly in a few outlying villages but was quickly halted. -Ann Sheehy US, RUSSIA TO INCREASE MILITARY COOPERATION. The US and Russian defense ministers met in the German town of Garmisch on 5-6 June and discussed means of increasing cooperation in defense matters. Aspin told reporters at a press conference that the US Navy was changing its submarine operations so as to reduce the chance that US and Russian submarines would collide. Aspin also announced that joint US-Russian peacekeeping exercises would be held, that the two sides were preparing a program to exchange up to 100-officers per year, and that a special direct communications link for non-emergency use will be established between Grachev and Aspin's offices. Aspin and Grachev are to meet in Washington later in the month. The news conference was reported by various Western and Russian news agencies. -John Lepingwell COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES RUSSIA PROPOSES LEASING BLACK SEA FLEET PORT. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko stated on 4 June that Russia has proposed leasing part of the Sevastopol naval base for its portion of the Black Sea Fleet. Zlenko's comments, reported by AFP, were made after a news conference with his Russian counterpart, Andrei Kozyrev. The two failed to resolve the current dispute over the fleet but they did agree that a summit meeting between Presidents Kravchuk and Yeltsin would be held. The leasing proposal may not be very new, as Russia had previously been pressing for some form of base in Sevastopol, but it comes the day after Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma suggested that such an arrangement might be realistic. In the past, Ukrainian policy has been not to permit the stationing of Russian forces on its territory. -John Lepingwell CENTRAL ASIA AND TRANSCAUCASIA MILITARY REVOLT IN AZERBAIJAN. Renegade detachments of troops led by Surat Guseinov, who was dismissed from the post of commander of Azerbaijan's forces in Nagorno-Karabakh in February, attacked an Azerbaijani army base in Gyandzha on 4 June in an attempt to seize weapons, RFE/RL's Azerbaijani Service reported quoting the Azerbaijani Presidential press service. Assa-Irada reported on 5 June that an advisor to President Elchibey had left for Gyandzha to negotiate with the rebels. On 6 June Western agencies reported that the rebels had taken control of the city and were holding several high-ranking government ministers hostage, but this has not yet been confirmed by Azerbaijani sources. At least ten people have been killed in the fighting, which poses a serious threat to Elchibey's political survival. -Liz Fuller KYRGYZ ECONOMY IN "SOM TROUBLE". Reports indicate that the May introduction of the som as Kyrgyzstan's currency, replacing the ruble, has led to major disruptions in the Kyrgyz economy. Reuters on 4-June quoted the head of the Kyrgyz Union of Manufacturers and Industrialists as saying that more than half of the 3,000 companies in his union had been forced to cut production and lay off workers. The problem is twofold: Kyrgyzstan's suppliers, especially Russia, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, refuse to accept the som in payment; and Kyrgyzstan's surprise announcement of the introduction of the som did not give companies a chance to negotiate interim agreements with suppliers. While the government has tried to limit use of the ruble within Kyrgyzstan, it has also provided renewed opportunities for citizens to exchange rubles for som. Despite the problems, the som's exchange rate, which is pegged to the dollar, had risen from 200 rubles at its introduction four weeks ago, to 260-rubles in Bishkek banks on 4 June. Keith Martin SHEVARDNADZE IN CHINA. Speaking at a press conference in Beijing on June 3-the second day of his three day visit to the PRC-Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze expressed satisfaction at his talks with Chinese leaders, during which some 20-agreements on interstate relations and trade and economic cooperation were signed, ITAR-TASS reported. Shevardnadze expressed his admiration for China's economic reform program. He also disclosed that the Chinese leadership was interested in his proposal for "a new Eurasian corridor" linking China, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Ukraine. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE LATVIANS ELECT NEW PARLIAMENT. On 5-6 June citizens of Latvia voted in a new parliament, known as the Saeima. Unofficial and approximate results indicate that Latvia's Way leads the 23 other contenders with about 32% of the vote. Other organizations with representation assured in the 100-seat Saeima are: National Independence Movement-13%, Concord for Latvia-12%, Farmers' Union-11%, Equal Rights-6%; For Fatherland and Freedom-5.4%; Christian Democrats-5%; and Democratic Center-5%. About 90% of the over 1.25 million eligible voters took part in the quiet and orderly elections. Non-Latvians, who are not citizens, demonstrated peacefully in front of the Statue of Liberty. They are dissatisfied over not being able to take part in the first elections held in Latvia since it regained its independence in August 1991. Many of them voted in the previous elections in 1990, which were open to all Soviet citizens living in Latvia; those elections were won by candidates of the proindependence People's Front of Latvia, which is not among the top runners in these elections. -Dzintra Bungs CSURKA EXPELLED FROM HDF. After an all-night meeting on 6 June the national steering committee of the Democratic Forum voted 85 to 28 with 6 abstentions to recommend to the party's ethics and disciplinary committee that outspoken nationalist politician Istvan Csurka and three of his followers be expelled from the party, MTI reports. The steering committee said that Csurka, a presidium member, deviated from the HDF's program and set up a separate political organization. The committee accused Csurka and followers of attacking the program of their own party and rejecting the major direction of the HDF-led government. Csurka termed the committee's decision "a historic mistake and crime" and vowed that he will not leave voluntarily. HDF parliamentary group leader Imre Konya and Prime Minister Jozsef Antall expressed confidence that the departure of Csurka and his followers will not result in the loss of the government's parliamentary majority. Antall said that his party's vote to expel Csurka will end factional infighting and enable the HDF to focus on winning next year's elections. -Edith Oltay BUDAPEST RALLIES REMEMBER TRIANON. On 4-June some 1,000 people, mostly right-wing radicals, gathered in Budapest's Heroes and Elizabeth Squares to mourn the anniversary of the 1920 Trianon Treaty under which Hungarian territory was substantially reduced following World War I and over 3 million ethnic Hungarians were left outside the country's borders, MTI reports. At the Heroes Square demonstration Izabella B.-Kiraly called on the government to do everything in its power to "restore the original . . . unity of the Carpathian basin." Kiraly was expelled last week from the HDF parliamentary group. She and several other HDF deputies recently voted against the ratification of the friendship treaty with the Ukraine in which Hungary renounced all territorial claims on Ukraine. Several hundred people, including many skinheads, attended the Elizabeth Square gathering organized by the 1956 Anti-Bolshevist and Anti-Fascist Federation. Federation spokesman Otto Fekete claimed that the Trianon states have collapsed and that the Hungarian government should have taken steps to recover the territories lost in 1920. -Edith Oltay DEMONSTRATIONS IN POLAND. On 4 June in Warsaw, Cracow, and Katowice, radical right-wing groups demonstrated against the current authorities and commemorated the removal last year of the government headed by Jan Olszewski. While the demonstrations in Cracow and Katowice were generally peaceful, the gathering in Warsaw turned violent following an altercation between the organizers and the city council about the site of the event. The organizers announced that the demonstration would start in a historically prominent place and then continue in a march through the city center, but the city authorized the gathering in a less prominent place and allowed the march only through a section of town in which the important government buildings are located. The confusion led to repeated skirmishes between the demonstrators and the police: two police cars were damaged, two policemen injured, and 14 demonstrators were arrested. The violence was subsequently criticized by the media, and the organizers of the demonstrations held a press conference, reported by PAP on 4 June, during which they accused the police of politically motivated "provocation" designed to present the right wing groups as violence prone and undermine their political standing before the parliamentary election scheduled for September. -Jan de Weydenthal ASPIN, GRACHEV DISCUSS UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS. The most important item on the agenda for the meeting of the US and Russian defense ministers on 5-6 June was the uncertain status of the nuclear weapons in Ukraine. Aspin reportedly proposed an alternative whereby the warheads would be removed from missiles and placed in storage under international monitoring until their eventual dismantling. Any highly enriched uranium from the weapons would be returned to Ukraine as nuclear fuel. According to Western reports of the meeting, Grachev rejected the US offer to act as a mediator between Ukraine and Russia on the issue of nuclear weapons, and insisted that Ukraine return the weapons directly to Russia for dismantling. The US proposal is part of the new, more flexible, policy towards Ukraine-one which apparently is not shared by the Russian Defense Ministry. Aspin flew to Kiev on 6 June for talks with Ukrainian officials. -John Lepingwell FURTHER REACTIONS TO SERBIAN CRISIS. In the aftermath of the ouster of federal Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic and the arrest and reported mistreatment of opposition leader Vuk Draskovic by police, Serbia's opposition parties and Orthodox Church are warning that the country is on the brink of civil war. In a statement released on 5 June, the hierarchy of Serbia's Orthodox Church warned of "a fratricidal war among Serbs," and described the mistreatment of Draskovic as "not worthy of our state." The exact whereabouts of Draskovic and his wife remain unclear. According to one of Draskovic's lawyers, a Belgrade court has indicted him on charges of seeking to overthrow the state-a charge that could bring a 15year prison term-and prosecutors are seeking a ban on Draskovic's party, the Serbian Renewal Movement. In separate statements on 6 June, French President Fran¨ois Mitterrand and Greek President Constantine Mitsotakis urged Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic to release Draskovic. Radios Serbia and Croatia carried the reports. -Milan Andrejevich FIGHTING ON MANY FRONTS IN BOSNIA. The 7-June Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung says that Serbian artillery shelled Gorazde, Srebrenica, Travnik, Brcko, Gradacac, and Sarajevo over the weekend. Gorazde, Srebrenica, and Sarajevo are slated to become UN-protected safe areas, although it is not clear whether any country besides Russia is willing to provide soldiers for the 25,000-strong contingent presumed necessary to implement the plan. Meanwhile, Reuters on 6 June said that Croat and Muslim forces are clashing in Travnik, a mainly Muslim town in central Bosnia assigned, however, to the Croats by the Vance-Owen plan. British peacekeepers said that they fear a massacre of civilians on both sides. Hina on 7-June reports that the Bosnian Croatian commander is trying to set up a meeting with his Muslim counterpart to try to put an end to the latest round of fighting between the two nominal allies. -Patrick Moore KRAJINA SERBS TO HOLD UNITY REFERENDUM. On 5 June the Assembly of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina decided to hold a referendum on uniting with the self-styled Serb Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The referendum is scheduled to take place on Serb-controlled areas in Croatia on 19-20 June and ceremonies marking unification are scheduled for 28 June-the most significant and emotionally charged Serbian national holiday. Organizers say the new state could eventually unite with other Serb territory. The decision by Krajina Serbs is widely regarded as an affront to the international community's peace efforts. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman charged that the move is aimed at creating a greater Serbia and violates all UN resolutions. -Milan Andrejevich BULGARIAN BUDGET PASSES ON SECOND READING. Voting each article separately, by 4-June the National Assembly had adopted practically the entire state budget for 1993. BTA reports that only minor amendments were made between the first and the second reading, leaving a budget that foresees the deficit at about 8% of GDP-or 27,584 million leva ($1-billion). Whereas state expenditures are expected to reach 98,933 million leva, revenues will amount to 71,350 million leva. Western correspondents say that the final sections of the budget are likely to be adopted during the coming days. -Kjell Engelbrekt BULGARIAN PM VISITS REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. Lyuben Berov traveled to Skopje on 6-June for talks with president Kiro Gligorov, Prime Minister Branko Crvenkovski, and parliamentary leader Stoyan Andov. The prime ministers are expected to sign a bilateral trade and economic agreement, according to Reuters. -Duncan Perry CZECH OFFICIAL REJECTS UKRAINIAN SECURITY PROPOSAL. Czech Deputy Foreign Minister Pavel Bratinka rejected a Ukrainian proposal for a security zone composed of mostly postcommunist Central and East European states, Mlada Fronta dnes reported on 4-June. Bratinka said that the countries proposed for a such a zone are undertaking political reforms at different pace which, in turn, means that they have currently differing interests. The Ukrainian proposal, presented to a Czech parliamentary delegation in Kiev last week, envisages a zone covering Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Austria. Bratinka stressed that his country's major security goal is NATO membership. -Jan Obrman CZECH CP LEADER DENIES PLANS TO CREATE NEW PARTY. The chairman of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, Jiri Svoboda, denied reports that he plans to form a new Socialist Party, CTK reports on 6 June. Svoboda was quoted as saying that if the third CPBM congress scheduled for 26 June does not produce certain changes in the outlook of the party, he has no plans to form a new group. At the same time, however, he indicated that he will leave the political stage if it proves impossible to reform the CP. Svoboda has been increasingly isolated within the ranks of his own party in the past months and was only narrowly elected as a delegate to the party's congress. Several observers predict a split of the CPBM after the congress. -Jan Obrman KOVAC LEAVES FOR ITALY. Slovak President Michal Kovac left for a three-day official visit to Italy and the Vatican, Slovak TV reported on 6 June. Kovac's delegation includes Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik and parliamentary representatives. The Slovak president is scheduled to meet with the Italian Prime Minister Carlo Azeglio Ciampi and Pope John Paul-II. -Jan Obrman MECIAR ON WESTERN AID, GOVERNMENT STABILITY, EARLY ELECTIONS. At a public meeting of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia on 5-June in Banska Bystrica, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said that the West would cut financial aid to Slovakia should the ex-communist Party for the Democratic Left succeed in calling early elections and if they should win them, TASR reports. Meciar was quoted as saying that unidentified US politicians made it clear to him during his recent unofficial visit to Washington and New York that should the PDL win early elections, no new credits would be forthcoming from Western organizations. In an interview with Slovak Radio on the 4th, Meciar said that IMF officials consider the Slovak government to be "of superb quality" and that its efficiency "commands international respect." In a Slovak TV interview on the 6th, Meciar called on the opposition parties to form a broad coalition and overthrow his minority government "if they can," taunting them by saying, "they have nothing in common except the dislike of Meciar." -Jan Obrman ROMANIAN TRADE UNIONS MERGE. Two large trade union confederations approved a merger at separate extraordinary congresses over the weekend, Radio Bucharest reports. The National Confederation of Free Trade Unions, which claims a membership of slightly over 2-million, and Fratia, with nearly 1-million members, decided to set up a joint organization under the name Fratia National Trade Union Confederation. At least three more labor groups-the Univers Confederation and the federations Petrom and Radio Communications (both originally belonging to the Alfa Trade Union Cartel)-are expected to join the organization this week. The birth of the new superconfederation will be officially announced at a founding congress scheduled for 12 June. According to union leaders, the conglomerate will have over 3.5-million members, thus being the largest labor organization in Central and Southern Europe. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TO BUDAPEST, AMSTERDAM. On 5-6 June in Budapest Teodor Melescanu attended a NATO-sponsored international conference on post-Cold War Central Europe and discussed bilateral relations with his Hungarian counterpart, Geza Jeszensky on the 5th. He begins an official visit in Holland on 7 June. Dan Ionescu MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT PUSHES PRIVATIZATION, CRITICIZES CABINET. A decree of President Mircea Snegur, published on 3 June, establishes the Enterprise and Small Business Fund, to be financed from the proceeds of the sale of state property under the privatization program, foreign aid, and government reserve funds. Participating in a session of the Council of Ministers, reported by Moldovan media on 3 June, Snegur accused it of ineptitude and yielding to special interests in slowing down economic reforms. Similarly blaming the parliament, Snegur announced plans to request special powers to implement reforms by decree-an idea favored by the public, he said. In reply Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli defended the government's general economic performance while attacking the State Department for Privatization, the prime mover of reforms in Moldova, which Snegur had defended. Snegur's position may presage a change of government and reflects the growing influence of Moldova's Social-Democrats, who now control the presidential team of advisers and the Privatization Department. -Vladimir Socor LITHUANIAN PARLIAMENT DEPUTY CHAIRMAN RESIGNS. On 4 June Egidijus Bickauskas, a deputy chairman of the Seimas, tendered his resignation, citing problems with the "bulldozer tactics" of the ruling Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party, Radio Lithuania reports. The LDLP proposal that the Seimas have three deputy chairmen, one each from the LDLP, centrist forces, and the right-wing opposition ran into difficulties. Arguing that the Constitution provides for only one deputy chairman, the opposition refused to nominate a candidate. The other current deputy chairman, Aloyzas Sakalas, was not present at the session, but had sent a letter in which he agreed to serve as deputy chairman. The Social Democratic Party, however, not willing to be viewed as a partner of the LDLP, had allowed him to serve only on the condition that some other party did the same. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS RESUME. Another round of Estonian-Russian talks is being held on 7-8 June near Moscow. Chief Estonian negotiator Juri Luik told BNS that this session will show whether the Russian side is serious or whether it is playing a "diplomatic game meant for the West." The two sides are to discuss the dismantling of the Russian-controlled nuclear reactors at Paldiksi and issues related to army property, as well as Grachev's recent offer to withdraw Russian forces from Estonia by the end of this year. It is expected that a treaty on mutual investment security will be initialed. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Liz Fuller and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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