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No. 104, 03 June 1993
RUSSIA VOLSKY SUPPORTS PRESIDENT'S DRAFT CONSTITUTION. Arkadii Volsky, president of the Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, a member of the centrist Civic Union political bloc, has praised President Boris Yeltsin's draft of a new Constitution, saying that it will make a move towards "political detente." Volsky's remarks made to Russian and Japanese businessmen in Moscow, were reported by Russian Television on 2-June, and contrast sharply with the criticism leveled at Yeltsin's draft constitution by Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, also a leader of the Civic Union. -Wendy Slater GOVERNMENT MEMBERS NAMED FOR CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko was quoted at a press conference on 2-June by Russian agencies as saying that twenty-five-members of the government would participate in the constitutional assembly scheduled to open on 5-June. Among them will be Shumeiko himself, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, and Deputy Prime Ministers Sergei Shakhrai and Yurii Yarov, who will all act as coordinators for the various sections of the assembly. Echoing Yeltsin's remarks made on 1 June, Shumeiko refused to exclude the possibility that the Congress of People's Deputies might adopt the new constitution, and said that the Congress would "rehabilitate itself historically" if it adopted the draft as a whole. -Wendy Slater CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL EXPECTED. Shumeiko also told journalists on 2 June that Yeltsin is expected to sign a decree within the next few days creating a presidential council for personnel policy. The council would be headed by two close Yeltsin allies: Shumeiko himself and Sergei Filatov, the head of the president's administration. Shumeiko said that the system of government appointments had become chaotic, but that in future "no appointment to a top or middle-ranking official post will be made in this country without endorsement by the council," Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. Shumeiko also said that the question of whether former Prime Minister Egor Gaidar would return to government was "hanging in the balance." Gaidar himself, however, said at a separate briefing on 2 June that he did not foresee such a possibility under the present circumstances. -Wendy Slater CENTRIST FORCES WIDEN POLITICAL BASE; INTERNAL DISAGREEMENTS. Two of the parties in the centrist Civic Union, Rutskoi's People's Party of Free Russia and the All-Russia Union Renewal formally opened a coalition agreement to other political parties and organizations on 2 June, ITAR-TASS reported. Another founding member of the Civic Union, the Democratic Party of Russia, considering the initiative to be a future election bloc in support of Rutskoi, refused to participate. However, internal disagreements were already apparent when the leader of "Renewal," Aleksandr Vladislavlev, criticised Rutskoi's anti-government speech of 1 June, saying that if it did not adopt a more centrist position, the coalition would risk drifting "towards extremist forces." Among those signing the coalition agreement on 2 June were the Socialist Party of Working People, the Party of Labor, and the parliamentary faction Smena-novaya politika. -Wendy Slater INGUSH PRESIDENT MAY NOT ATTEND CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. Ruslan Aushev, president of Ingushetia, told ITAR-TASS on 2 June that he would not take part in the constitutional assembly and any other measures linked to the adoption of a new Russian constitution if the Russian leadership did not adopt a decision guaranteeing the start of the return of Ingush refugees to their homes on the territory of North Ossetia. Aushev said that Russia's leadership was so occupied with the struggle for power that it had forgotten about solving the Ingush-Ossetian conflict and the explosive situation in the Caucasus in general. If not action was taken, he would be forced to appeal to the people and take a decision about the future fate of his republic. -Ann Sheehy KHASBULATOV, OTHER RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DEPUTIES DEPRIVED OF CHECHEN CITIZENSHIP. Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev issued a decree on 2 June depriving deputies from the former Chechen-Ingush ASSR to the Russian parliament of their citizenship, ITAR-TASS reported. The deputies include Ruslan Khasbulatov, chairman of the Russian parliament, Dokku Zavgaev, former chairman of the Chechen-Ingush parliament, and Aslambek Aslakhanov, chairman of one of the Russian parliament's committees. The decree said the deputies has allied themselves with reactionary forces with the aim of overthrowing constitutional power and recovering their former positions. At the end of May Khasbulatov issued an appeal to the Chechen people to vote against Dudaev in the referendum on the future of the presidency which the Chechen opposition intends to hold on 5 June and called on Dudaev himself to resign. -Ann Sheehy REPUBLICS AND CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. There is little sign that the republics are taking a more favorable view of the presidential draft constitution as the constitutional assembly nears. True, the North Ossetian parliament voted nearly unanimously on 2-June that the presidential draft should serve as the basis of discussion, but the chairman of the North Ossetian parliament Akhsarbek Galazov said the federal treaty must permeate the constitution from the first to the last article, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 June. The Karelian parliament said that neither the presidential not the parliamentary draft could serve as the basis for the new constitution; the federal treaty should form the basis, Russian television reported on 1 June. Vladimir Shjtygashev, chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Khakassia, said in Megapolis-Ekspress of 2 June that Khakassia would not be sending any representatives to the assembly. The parliament was tired of holding emergency sessions at Moscow's whim, and in any case he did not see the need for the assembly. -Ann Sheehy COUNCILS OF SUBJECTS OF FEDERATION TO BE CREATED IN MAIN FEDERAL MINISTRIES. The Russian government has adopted a decision to create in the main federal ministries and departments councils in which representatives of the executive power of the subjects of the federation will participate, Radio Rossii reported on 1 June. The creation of the councils is an attempt to improve regional policy in accordance with the federal treaty. It will potentially give the republics and regions some say in the functioning of the ministries but also involve them in responsibility for their decisions. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN FAILS TO HONOR PRE-REFERENDUM PROMISES TO STUDENTS. Russia's students are threatening action in protest against the government's failure to implement the presidential decree on raising grants and other social measures for students, according to Russian television on 1 June. This decree was one of Yeltsin's many pre-referendum promises which, in the post-referendum period, are proving difficult to finance. The student grant was to be raised to over 7,000 rubles a month, but in many higher education establishments students still receive less than 2,000 rubles. Students living away from home were also promised free travel home for the holidays, but there is as yet no provision for this. -Sheila Marnie LATEST FIGURES ON CRIME. Goskomstat has released the latest statistics on growth in crime, according to a report in Rabochaya tribuna on 2 June. 371,000 criminals were arrested from January to April 1993, 12% more than in the corresponding period in 1992. 120,000 of these were homeless, and 11,000 were unemployed. A total of 904,000 criminal acts were registered, 7% more than in 1992. On average, 608 crimes were committed for every 100,000 inhabitants. One in five crimes were serious, and 8,700 involved the use of firearms. 37,500 crimes were committed against the individual; there were 77,000 cases of assault and robbery, 520,000 cases of theft of state, public and personal property, and 41,600 economic crimes. Minors were involved in 68,00 criminal acts, 8% more than in 1992. "Group" criminal acts numbered 95,000, an increase of 23%. 46% of all crimes were solved. -Sheila Marnie EXPORT LICENSES WITHDRAWN. The Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations has revoked the right of 94-Russian enterprises and joint ventures to acquire licenses for exporting so-called strategic goods, Kommersant-Daily reported on 2 June. Export licensing is the chief tool Russia uses to control the flow of strategic goods-e.g. energy products and metals- out of the country. Those on the Ministry's penalty list which include some very large Russian companies will not be eligible for such export licenses until next year. The action was taken when the companies failed to present the necessary financial documentation after repeated requests by the Ministry. -Erik Whitlock ARMS EXPORT LICENSE GRANTED TO KALASHNIKOV FACTORY. According to an AFP report of 2-June, a factory in Udmurtia which produces AK-47 Kalashnikov automatic rifles has become the first defense plant to receive an arms export license. The plant reportedly has up to $150 million in foreign orders pending. -John Lepingwell COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES CIS COORDINATING COMMITTEE MEETS. The recently created Consultative-Coordinating Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States held its first meeting in Minsk on 1-June, various Russian and Bela-russian news agencies reported. The committee elected Russian deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin to be its first chairman and discussed other organizational questions, and, according to an RFE/RL correspondent, set the date of 30-June for considering a first draft of the treaty on economic union that was called for by the heads of the CIS states on 15 May. Russian radio reported that Georgia's vice premier Avtandil Margiani confirmed his country's intention to participate in the economic union. Georgia is not formally a member of the Commonwealth. -Erik Whitlock TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIK REBEL ATTACK IMMINENT? VARIOUS REPORTS INDICATE THAT A JOINT TAJIK-AFGHAN REBEL ATTACK, LAUNCHED FROM AFGHAN TERRITORY, MAY BE IMMINENT. Western agencies reported on 1 June that Tajikistan's Foreign Ministry spokesman had told the press of a rebel field commanders' meeting in Afghanistan to plan the attack; representatives of the Russian border guard units, while not reporting any major crossings so far, are said to be prepared for a rebel offensive in the coming days. In a separate report, the Far Eastern Economic Review of 3-June reports that 2,000 Tajik rebels are being trained by Afghan mujaheddin leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's forces in Kunduz, near the Tajik border and are poised to launch an offensive in coordination with other Tajik and Afghan groups. The article notes that former Afghan Defense Minister Ahmed Shah Masud, an ethnic Tajik, is also training several hundred Tajik militants; Masud had formerly held a neutral position in the conflict. Leaders of the Tajik Islamic Renaissance Party, including the former Tajik mufti, Ali Akhbar Turadzhonzoda, are reportedly in Jalalabad to coordinate the efforts of the various groups. In the past, there has not been any substantial coordination of efforts between the rebel groups. -Keith Martin KAZAKH AND GEORGIAN LEADERS MEET. Georgia's Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze and Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev were due to conclude three days of meetings in Alma-Ata on 2-June, ITAR-TASS reported. On 1 June, the two leaders signed a general bilateral agreement and about twenty specific agreements on various issues. Nazarbayev is reportedly very interested in the possibility of using Georgian Black Sea ports for the export of oil from Kazakhstan. Shevardnadze was due to continue on to China for an official visit on 2 June. -Keith Martin CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE COSIC BLASTS MILOSEVIC, SESELJ, OPPOSITION. In a lengthy statement carried by Tanjug on 2 June and covered on independent Studio B TV and Radio B92, ousted federal Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic speculated on the causes for his dismissal. He spared no sharp words in criticizing his political opponents. During his year-long tenure as president, he said, he was subjected to "vulgar attacks by nationalist extremists, specifically the Radical Party [of Vojislav Seselj]." He also complained of "deceitful intolerance" on the part of the ruling Socialists, and said that on a daily basis he was obstructed in everything he tried to do, especially by the opposition leaders and the tabloid press. Cosic directly blamed Slobodan Milosevic for orchestrating his ouster using the parliament in what he called "a state coup." Milosevic, whom Cosic called "an ideological student of Stalin and Lenin," can no longer "tolerate my opposition to his policies and to his tyrannical will." Cosic also denied discussing preparations for a military coup with the Yugoslav army command. On the question of whether or not he violated the Constitution, Cosic noted, "I did more than what the Constitution required." -Milan Andrejevich KOSOVAR WRITERS ON HUNGER STRIKE. A group of 26 leading ethnic Albanian writers and journalists have entered the tenth day of their hunger strike, a Kosovar spokesperson told RFE/RL on 3 June. The protest is led by Adem Demaqi, who holds the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize and is also known as "the Nelson Mandela of Kosovo." The writers want an end to Serbian-imposed censorship in the province, which is over 90% Albanian in population but ruled from Belgrade with an iron hand. The protesters also seek reforms at Panorama (formerly called Relindja), Kosovo's leading publishing house, where new regulations make it difficult if not impossible for Albanian writers' works to appear. -Patrick Moore POLISH PRIME MINISTER COMPLAINS ABOUT EC FOOT-DRAGGING. On 2 June Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka sent a letter to all European Community member-countries in which she called for the speedy opening of negotiations on Poland's full integration into the EC and the expansion of trade through opening of EC markets to Polish products. In the letter, made public by PAP on 3 June, Suchocka said the June EC summit in Copenhagen "should propose procedural steps effectively preparing [Central European countries] for full membership in the EC." She said that such negotiations should start in 1996. In addition, Suchocka emphasized that the EC has until now benefited from trade with Poland and other Central European countries and that this should change in accordance with the 1991 association agreements, which stipulated that Polish products would have an easier access to EC markets. She suggested, moreover, that the EC change its role in aid for Central Europe (the PHARE program) from one of advising on technological problems (through the use of Western experts) to direct involvement in investment and support for small and medium size enterprises. In a commentary on the letter made public by PAP on 3-June, Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski added that "we ask that the EC [concentrate its efforts on] creating European unity rather than building in Western Europe a fortress of rich and well organized countries." -Jan de Weydenthal POLISH-VATICAN CONCORDAT. On 1 June the Polish government accepted the text of the concordat between Poland and the Vatican. The agreement was reported by PAP as having accepted that relations between the state and the Catholic Church in Poland are rooted in the principles of mutual independence and autonomy. The state agrees to recognize religious marriages as legally valid and accept teaching of religion in schools according to programs prepared by the Church. The two sides will set up a special commission to regulate the Church's financial status in the new economic system. After the agreement is signed by Poland's minister of foreign affairs, it must be ratified by the president acting with the approval of the parliament. -Jan de Weydenthal HUNGARY PASSES OMBUDSMAN LAW. On 1 June parliament accepted with a two-thirds majority a bill to establish the institution of ombudsman in Hungary, MTI reports. The ombudsman is to be elected for a six-year term, extendible one time, by a two-thirds majority of parliament and will function independently from all other branches of power. He must be highly qualified and cannot hold other jobs while in office. It will be the ombudsman's duty to investigate complaints about the constitutionality of procedures against individuals. -Judith Pataki MIGS FOR BUDAPEST. The press office of the Hungarian Defense Ministry issued a statement saying that Hungary will receive MiG-29 interceptor aircraft from Russia as was agreed upon last November. MTI reported on 2 June that, the agreement calls for Russia to supply about $800 million worth of military equipment in partial payment of its $1.6 billion debt to Hungary. The ministry said that the draft of the present agreement on the delivery of the planes would soon be submitted to the government for approval. The ministry took pains to emphasize that, with these new aircraft, Hungary will have acquired the same type and kinds of equipment that all other neighboring countries (with the exception of Austria) already possessed during the time of the Warsaw Pact. -Judith Pataki HIGH AIDS FIGURES FOR ROMANIA DENIED. On 2-June the Health Ministry denied reports in Western media that there are 3 million HIV-positive cases in Romania. In a statement broadcast by Radio Bucharest, the ministry expressed "indignation" over what it described as an "act of disinformation" aiming at "discrediting [Romania] in the eyes of the whole world." The report originally appeared in a Danish daily and was picked up by the Frankfurter Rundschau in its 2 June issue. Rompres has said that no statistics are available on the number of HIV-positive cases in Romania, but says 2,235 people already suffer from AIDS-of these 2,100 are children under 13. -Dan Ionescu VAN DER STOEL IN ROMANIA. CSCE High Commissioner for Minorities Max van der Stoel arrived on 2 June in Bucharest for a one-week visit. Van der Stoel is scheduled to meet President Ion Iliescu and Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and other officials. On his first day in Bucharest, he held talks with Romania's Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. The CSCE official told Radio Bucharest that his visit aims at investigating the situation of ethnic minorities in Romania. -Dan Ionescu HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN ROMANIA, BULGARIA. The US President's annual report to Congress on implementation of the Helsinki Final Act and other CSCE documents says respect for human rights has improved significantly in Romania over the period 1-April 1992-31 March 1993. The report, released on 2-June, describes last September's presidential and parliamentary elections as fair and praises freedom of speech and the press in Romania. According to an RFE/RL correspondent in Washington, the report also lauds cautious progress toward a market economy but says that civil control over the Romanian Intelligence Service has not been clearly established and that significant problems remain in the treatment of ethnic minorities, notably Hungarians and Gypsies. The report calls the human rights situation in Bulgaria "very good" and is especially positive about efforts to restore all rights to the country's ethnic Turks, who between 1984 and 1989 were subject to an government-sponsored assimilation campaign. The report nonetheless criticizes a Bulgarian constitutional ban on parties with an ethnic and religious character, as well as "de facto discrimination" against Gypsies. -Dan Ionescu and Kjell Engelbrekt CIA DIRECTOR IN SOFIA. James Woolsey, head of the Central Intelligence Agency, is on a discreet visit to Bulgaria. After photos of Woolsey appeared in the daily Trud, the US Embassy on 2 June confirmed his arrival. Whereas BTA reports that Woolsey has held talks with President Zhelyu Zhelev, Trud says he also spoke to Prime Minister Lyuben Berov, Defense Minister Valentin Aleksandrov, Interior Minister Viktor Mihaylov, as well as counterintelligence chief Brigo Asparuhov. Trud speculates that the visit, the first of a CIA Director to Bulgaria, means that the US might want Sofia to play a more active role in solving the Yugoslav crisis. Western agencies say Woolsey also paid a low-visibility visit to Poland before arriving in Bulgaria. -Kjell Engelbrekt "DNIESTER REPUBLIC" DEMANDS ROLLBACK OF MOLDOVAN INDEPENDENCE. At a meeting between the respective commissions of the Moldovan parliament and the "Dniester republic" Supreme Soviet to negotiate a settlement of the conflict, the Dniester side presented new positions, seemingly unrelated to the conflict, on top of the now-standard demand to turn Moldova into a confederation of three states (Moldova, Dniester, and Gagauz). As reported by Basapress on 1-and 2 June, Tiraspol now also demands that Moldova rescind parts of its 1991 declaration of independence, join the CIS (which Moldova has declined to do except for economic arrangements), and renounce its army. The breakaway republic's newly appointed chief delegate to the talks is Supreme Soviet vice-chairman Anna Volkova, a settler from Russia and former lecturer on scientific socialism known for her vocal opposition to Gorbachev's and Yeltsin's reforms. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT CRISIS. None of the four proposals presented to parliament on 2-June to resolve the constitutional crisis received the two-thirds majority necessary for their passage. The crisis began when Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma offered to resign after parliament did not extend his extraordinary powers to press economic reform. President Leonid Kravchuk proposed taking control of the government and eliminating the post of prime minister. Many deputies have accused Kravchuk of seeking too much personal power, but meanwhile the government is largely powerless. Parliament Chairman Ivan Plyushch is quoted by Reuters as saying, "There is no crisis of power in Ukraine; the president and government are acting within the constitution." -Ustina Markus UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT BEGINS START DEBATE. Debate has begun on the ratification of START-1; Ukrainian Radio began broadcasting the proceedings live on 3 June. The debate opened with a report from Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko and the head of a parliamentary group dealing with the formulation of Ukraine's policy on nuclear weapons. US Secretary of Defense Les Aspin is expected in Kiev next week to confer on the issue. -Bohdan Nahaylo CZECH DEPUTIES IN KIEV. A delegation of Czech parliament deputies, headed by its chairman Milan Uhde, arrived in Kiev on 31 May for talks with members of the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet, Czech media report. The parliamentarians from the two countries discussed the possibility of a Central European security zone with President Leonid Kravchuk on 2 June. Delegation member Jiri Payne was quoted as saying before departure that the Czech Republic aims to establish or renew contacts with key countries and that Ukraine holds a special importance not only as a transit territory for the exchange of goods and energy between East and West, but also as an important trade partner in its own right. A bilateral treaty between the Czech Republic and Ukraine is also almost ready for signing. -Jan Obrman and Charles Trumbull SHUSHKEVICH ON CIS COLLECTIVE SECURITY PACT. In a letter dated 28 May Belarus Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich clarified the republic's position on the CIS collective security pact, Nika and Radiefakt reported on 1-2 June. The letter stated that the use of Belarusian troops beyond the country's borders is only permissible through a decision by the republic's Supreme Soviet. Furthermore, Belarus has the right to discontinue its participation in the collective security system from the moment all Russian military and strategic forces have been withdrawn from its territory within the parameters of its international agreements and obligations. -Ustina Markus LATVIANS, RUSSIANS SIGN ACCORDS. Ten accords related to the pullout of Russian troops from Latvia were signed in Moscow on 2 June. Agreement was not reached, however, on the completion date of the troop withdrawals or on the future of Russian strategic facilities in Latvia. One agreement permits the resumption of Russian oil exports transported across Latvian territory via the Samara-Ventspils oil pipeline. Interestingly, the Latvian Supreme Council's rejection of a bilateral accord signed in mid-May concerning the conversion of Russian military plants did not cause the talks to break down as some had feared. Nonetheless, chief Russian negotiator Sergei Zotov said that his country may present the issue of Latvia having rejected a bilateral accord for international arbitration. -Dzintra Bungs MORE AUTHORITY FOR RUSSIA'S BALTIC NEGOTIATORS. In order to make negotiations more effective, Russian President Boris Yeltsin has extended the authority of Russian negotiators such that delegation heads now may sign, rather than initial, agreements with Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and may advise the Russian Foreign Ministry on issues raised at the negotiations, Baltic media reported on 2 June. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIAN HOUSING FOR RUSSIAN TROOPS. Difficulties have cropped up in financing the construction of housing for Russian military personnel leaving Estonia, Baltic media reported on 2 June. Following a meeting in Tallinn with Estonian officials, Col. Valerii Nikitin, head of the construction department of the Baltic Fleet, charged that Estonia is apparently not ready to move on its promise. The Russians came to Tallinn bearing blueprints and documents for housing projects in St. Petersburg, Novgorod, Pskov, Ostrov, and Ust Lug. The Estonian Foreign Ministry replied that Estonia has not changed its decision to help with the construction, but progress is being blocked by insufficient funds. The commander of Russia's Baltic Fleet, Adm. Vladimir Egorov said 1,500 apartments are needed for the departing Russian military. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA DECIDES ON PLATFORM OIL TERMINAL. On 2-June the government decided not to build a land-based oil terminal, but one built on a floating platform, Radio Lithuania reports. The platform terminal will be considerably less expensive, costing about $90-million, and can be built in about a year and a half while one on land would have cost more than $300-million and taken three to four years. The site for the terminal will be determined at a later cabinet meeting. The site at Karklininkai was rejected for ecological reasons, leaving only Butinge and Melnrage as possibilities. -Saulius Girnius ENERGY PRICE INCREASE IN LITHUANIA. On 2 June Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius announced that the price for a kilowatt/hour of electric energy would rise from 6.5 to 8-coupons (Lithuania's provisional currency), Radio Lithuania reports. The higher rate was prompted by an increase in the costs of atomic fuel cassettes for the nuclear power plant at Ignalina. A cassette that had been purchased for 11.5 million rubles ($20,000) will now have to be paid in hard currency ($60,000). -Saulius Girnius FOOD PRICES DECLINE IN LITHUANIA. Prices for food decreased by 3-5% in May, BNS reported on 1-June. The drop was prompted by the decision not to apply the 18% value-added tax to cheese and some meat products. The tax is now not applied to any food products. Increased agricultural production, especially dairy, and greater stockpiles in meat processing plants also helped lower prices. Filomena Jaseviciene, deputy economics minister and head of the Price and Competition Board, predicted that food prices will rise in the fall and approach world market prices as Lithuania introduces its currency, the litas. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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