|This communicating of a man's self to his friend works two contrary effects; for it redoubleth joy, and cutteth griefs in half. - Francis Bacon|
No. 103, 02 June 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN EXPANDS CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. A presidential decree has expanded the special constitutional assembly due to open on 5 June, according to Russian and Western agencies of 1 June. The decree amends President Boris Yeltsin's 20 May decree convening the assembly by including four representatives from each of the republics and regions of the Russian Federation rather than two. The delegates will represent equally the legislative and executive branches of power in the republics and regions. Yeltsin also set a 12-day limit for the assembly's deliberations, saying that it must finish work on the draft constitution by 16-June. Speaking during a visit to the town of Kondrovo on 1-June, Yeltsin said that while other versions would be taken into account, the presidential draft must form the basis of the new Russian Constitution. -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV ADDRESSES DEPUTIES' CONFERENCE. Parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov addressing a meeting of some 2,000 delegates from regional soviets on 1 June warned that any move to turn the expanded constitutional assembly into a body with powers to adopt the new constitution would be "tantamount to an attempted coup," Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported. Khasbulatov stressed that people's deputies must participate in the assembly, warning that the executive branch of government had arrogated all power to itself, and calling on local soviets to intensify their supervisory functions. He said that the soviets were "in need of renewal" and criticised them for passivity and inefficiency. The delegates are due to examine the various drafts for a new constitution on 2-June. -Wendy Slater RUTSKOI CALLS FOR GOVERNMENT TO BE DISBANDED. Addressing the same conference of local soviets, Rutskoi said that the parliament should remove Yeltsin's government within three months. Accusing Yeltsin of lying over the success of reforms, he said that the government's economic policy was "an economic crime against the people," and blamed Russia's problems on Western interference in supporting "a 'great democrat' Boris Nikolaevich Yeltsin." Meanwhile, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 June that the head of Yeltsin's administration, Sergei Filatov, has raised the possibility that Rutskoi may be moved out of his offices in the Kremlin. This remark comes after Rutskoi was prevented from holding a press conference in the Kremlin last week. -Wendy Slater DEPUTIES MAY DENY CONGRESS A QUORUM. Sergei Filatov, head of Yeltsin's administration, told journalists on 1 June that a group of some 300 deputies had agreed to boycott the Congress of People's Deputies in an attempt to deny it a quorum if its leadership refused to consider Yeltsin's draft constitution. Some 340 deputies would have to abstain from the over 1,000-strong Congress to prevent it from functioning legitimately. According to Filatov, Yeltsin would not object to the Congress adopting [his] new constitution. However, if Yeltsin's opponents in the parliamentary leadership refuse to cooperate the Congress may be unable to muster a quorum. -Wendy Slater ALEKSEEV PROPOSED AS HEAD OF CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY. President Yeltsin suggested in a meeting with heads of administrations that the former head of the USSR Committee for Constitutional Control, Sergei Alekseev, should become the chairman of the Constitutional Assembly which opens on 5 June, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 May. Alekseev, together with Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, prepared the presidential draft of the Constitution. The local leaders suggested adopting the Constitution through a referendum. They passed a resolution to the effect that the implementation of the Federation Treaty and a new Constitution "are a single and interlinked process." Yeltsin proposed three ways to ratify the Constitution: through a referendum, by a newly elected parliament, or by a Constitutional Assembly. -Alexander Rahr MORE ATTACKS ON KHASBULATOV. Parliamentary speaker Khasbulatov stated that Yeltsin supporters, centrists and communists should be able to have their constitutional drafts approved by means of a referendum, ITAR-TASS reported on 28 May. He added that the communists' draft should be considered as they are gaining popular support. Khasbulatov's deputy, Boris Zolotukhin, rejected the proposal on the grounds that it was designed by Khasbulatov to deny a majority of votes to any of the three drafts and thus keep the present constitution alive. Khasbulatov clashed with other members of the parliamentary presidium, including Nikolai Ryabov, Aleksandr Pochinok and Veniamin Sokolov. Khasbulatov admitted that there exists a split in the parliamentary leadership but denied rumors that he would resign. -Alexander Rahr COMMUNISTS FOR COALITION WITH CIVIC UNION. The leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF), Gennadii Zyuganov, has offered to coalesce with the Civic Union in the next elections, ITAR-TASS reported on 31 May. He stated that new elections were the only "peaceful" way out of the crisis and said he thinks that views of communists and centrists correspond on many issues. He indicated that the CPRF is preparing its own constitutional draft, based on "socialist" and "state-patriotic" ideals, which it intends to present at the Constitutional Assembly on 5-June. Zyuganov rejected President Boris Yeltsin's presidential constitutional draft saying that "Russian society in the whole is not ripe for the adoption of a capitalist constitution." -Alexander Rahr HOMOSEXUALITY NO LONGER A CRIME. The parliament has voted to repeal article 121.1 of the criminal code, which made male homosexuality a crime, punishable with up to five years in prison or a spell in a labor camp, according to various western sources on 29 May. (Female homosexuality was never addressed by former Soviet law.) The decree repealing article 121.1 was signed by President Yeltsin on 29 April, but was published along with other changes to the criminal code in Rossiskaya gazeta only on 27 May, and went into effect from the day of publication. Homosexual acts involving violence or minors remain punishable. In 1992 about 400 homosexuals were jailed, only 25 of whom for consensual acts. According to AFP on 1 June, the Ministry of Justice has announced that all men currently serving prison terms for homosexuality (presumably those cases involving consensual acts) will be freed. It is hoped that the decriminalization of homosexuality will help the anti-AIDS campaign in Russia, since many infected homosexuals have hitherto been afraid to register with a doctor. -Sheila Marnie CHECHEN PREMIER ON MOSCOW TALKS. A Chechen government delegation headed by Yaragi Mamodaev, recently appointed prime minister by the parliament against the wishes of Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev, held talks in Moscow on 30 May with Russian vice-premier Sergei Shakhrai, first deputy chairman of the Russian parliament Yurii Voronin, and the chairman of the Council of Nationalities Ramazan Abdulatipov, Ekho Moskvy reported. On his return to Groznyi Mamodaev said that experts and representatives of Chechnya and Russia would soon start work on a treaty to normalize relations between Chechnya and Russia. The treaty would not be a federal one, as the supporters of Dudaev were trying to maintain, but "a new form of constitutional-treaty relations, . . . a sensible variant of a confederation." This is the type of treaty with Russia that Tatarstan is also trying to achieve. -Ann Sheehy ATTEMPT TO ASSASSINATE DUDAEV. Ostankino TV, citing Dudaev's press service, reported on 31-May that shots were fired at Dudaev when he got out of his car and tried to address an opposition meeting in Groznyi on the evening of 30 May. An opposition spokesman later denied this report, saying that it was a provocation by Dudaev. There are further signs that Dudaev is trying to use the Islamic factor in his standoff with the opposition. On 29 May the Council of Ulema (Muslim divines) called for an article on sharia courts to be included in the constitution and suggested that Dudaev be given the right in individual instances to transfer the functions of the executive to religious organs, ITAR-TASS reported on 30 May. -Ann Sheehy NEW REGULATIONS ON THE BUYING AND SELLING OF LAND. The government has approved a set of regulations governing the buying and selling (by Russian citizens) of plots of land, ITAR-TASS reported on 1-June. These regulations refer to plots of land within a certain size limit, which can be used for individual housing construction and gardening. The right to buy and sell such plots was granted to Russian citizens in late 1992; larger tracts of land, or land used for other purposes, can still not be sold on the market. The new regulations set out the procedures for registration of the sale, and spell out the rights of the buyer. The Ministry of Finance has been asked to prepare regulations for taxation of private land ownership and the imposition of a new tax on every sales contract. -Sheila Marnie PROJECTION OF GRAIN IMPORTS. An Eksportkhleb official told the Bulktrans '93 conference in London that Russia will need to import 25-27 million tons of grain in 1993, The Journal of Commerce reported on 28 May. (It was not made clear whether he was referring to the calendar year or marketing year). Other former Soviet republics will require about 10-million tons, he estimated, and 1994 imports would be of the same magnitude. -Keith Bush RUSSIAN GOLD AND DIAMONDS. Yevgenii Bychkov, the chairman of the Precious Metals Committee, told a Moscow news conference on 28 May that gold output in 1992 totalled 146-tons and exports 98-tons, Reuters reported. A similar level of output is expected in 1993. The committee currently holds 200.5-tons of gold in its reserves. Bychkov reckoned that the gold industry will require up to 80 billion rubles of investment each year merely to maintain its current level of output. He also said that Russia wants to renegotiate its contract with the De Beers diamond cartel in order to sell 20% of its diamonds independently. -Keith Bush FOREIGN AID FOR PRIVATIZATION. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais told a news conference on 1-June that $4 million of US financial assistance would be used in the privatization of state enterprises, according to AFP. The money reportedly will come from a package of grants totalling $700 million pledged by President Bill Clinton at the US-Russian summit in early April. Plans for much larger sums for Russian privatization are afoot, however. Reuters reported on 29 May that Clinton is lobbying the leadership of other G-7 nations to pledge contributions to a privatization fund of $2 billion, including a $500-million offer from the United States. -Erik Whitlock COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES YELTSIN AND KRAVCHUK TO MEET OVER BLACK SEA FLEET. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev will go to Kiev on 7 June to prepare a summit meeting between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk over the Black Sea Fleet dispute, ITAR-Tass reported on 1 June. Three more ships were reported to have raised the Russian St.-Andrew's flag on 1 June. In an interview with Narodna Armiia Ukraine's Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov said Kiev would not pay wages to crews of Black Sea Fleet ships flying the Russian flags. On the same day Ukrainian Radio reported that Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma proposed leasing the naval base in Sevastopol to Russia. He said it would be a long time before Russia left the base so it would be better to take money from them for it than use the nation's own. Such proposals had previously been dismissed by nationalists within the Ukrainian parliament. Reuters reported on 1 June, however, that Rukh's leader Vyacheslav Chornovil said a short-term-lease could be workable. -Ustina Markus CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE ANGRY REACTIONS TO COSIC'S OUSTER. Several thousand demonstrators took to the streets in front of the federal assembly building in Belgrade to protest the ouster of federal president Dobrica Cosic on 31-May by the ultranationalist Radical Party and ruling Socialists. The violence was triggered after opposition Radical Party deputy Branislav Vakic, a former professional boxer, punched Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) deputy Mihailo Markovic unconscious in the assembly lobby. Markovic had verbally attacked Seselj during a debate in which questions were raised about Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj's communist past and ethnic origins. "Seselj sat there amused and Vakic later took care of the rest" according to radio B92. SPO leader Vuk Draskovic, his wife, a group of SPO deputies, and about 30 journalists were later arrested for having incited the riot, according to Studio B TV and Borba on 2 June. Draskovic told the protesters earlier, "Belgrade wake up tonight-tomorrow will be too late." -Milan Andrejevich CONSEQUENCES AND IMPLICATIONS. Nearly all political parties in Belgrade agree that president Cosic's removal was hastened by his meeting with military leaders on 27-May. The Radicals claim that Cosic violated the Constitution because he failed to consult the assembly and Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic about the meeting. Ironically, Cosic is nominal head of the armed forces. Borba, citing an unconfirmed report, says that only the dire economic situation of the armed forces was discussed at the meeting and that the Radicals and Socialists have refused to release the minutes of the session to the media. Neither has there been any explanation of how Cosic may have violated the Constitution, a decision that would normally be made by the Constitutional Court. Most opposition parties believe that the Radicals and hard-line Socialists feared Cosic might have come to some kind of agreement with the military "to stabilize" the situation in Serbia-Montenegro. Political leaders from Montenegro who supported Cosic are expressing concern that his ouster may seriously affect that republic's federation with Serbia. In Belgrade the Radicals are likely further strengthened, the democratic opposition weakened, and-some Western reports notwithstanding-Cosic's ouster is not likely to end the political rift between Milosevic and Seselj over how Serbian interests should be advanced in the Balkans or how to resolve the political and economic crisis. -Milan Andrejevich IZETBEGOVIC AGAIN CALLS FOR ARMS. Inter- national media reported on 1 June that the Bosnian president renewed his appeal for the lifting of the weapons embargo on his embattled republic. In a letter to the UN Security Council he wrote: "The enemy is destroying everything in front of him and he can do that because you have tied our hands." Meanwhile at the UN, the nonaligned countries are planning to offer their own plan for Bosnia, which would allow any UN member state to aid the Muslims. The proposal has little chance of passing, but its sponsors may be in a position to hinder the French plan that sets up safe havens, unless it makes clear that the safe areas are not an end in themselves but part of a larger political settlement. In Bosnia itself, Serbs shelled a UN relief convoy near Maglaj in northern Bosnia, killing two Danes and wounding two more. On 30 May soldiers wearing Muslim uniforms killed three Italian aid workers. Finally, on 1 June two Serbian shells hit an improvised soccer field in a Muslim suburb of Sarajevo, killing eleven and wounding 50. The BBC described the scene as "carnage," calling it the worst civilian slaughter in the Bosnian capital since the explosion in a bread line in 1992. The soccer game was held to mark the Muslim holiday of Kurban Bajram, and local residents told the BBC that they "refuse to live like animals, in cellars." -Patrick Moore MILOSEVIC WANTS UN TROOPS OUT OF MACEDONIA. International news agencies said on 1-June that during his one-day surprise visit the Serbian president asked his Macedonian counterpart Kiro Gligorov to tell the 700 peace-keepers stationed on the Macedonian-Serbian border to leave Macedonia. Milosevic reportedly promised as a quid pro quo to help Skopje settle its dispute with Athens. Macedonian Radio said that Gligorov turned down the offer, adding that "Macedonia alone will determine whether the presence of foreign soldiers is needed or not." -Patrick Moore HDF CAUCUS EXPELS SIX DEPUTIES. During a late-night meeting on 1 June, the parliamentary caucus of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum expelled six parliamentary deputies of the populist national and liberal wings, MTI reports. With an overwhelming majority, the deputies voted to expel Istvan Csurka, Gyula Zacsek, Izabella B. Kiraly, Istvan Balas, Jozsef Debreczeni, and Istvan Elek. The two liberals, Debreczeni and Elek, suspended their memberships in the party before the voting, complaining in a letter to HDF Chairman Jozsef Antall that the mood in the party has turned against them. Csurka remains a party member and still serves on the HDF Presidium. Interim HDF Executive Chairman Sandor Lezsak told reporters that he is saddened and said he feels that many people in Hungary sympathize with Csurka's criticisms of the party. He also expressed hope that HDF members belonging to Csurka's Hungarian Path circles will not quit the party. In a statement issued by the caucus following the expulsions, the deputies stressed that they support the government and the resolutions accepted by the Sixth National HDF Congress last January. -Judith Pataki WALESA'S PRESS CONFERENCE. Speaking at a press conference on 1 June reported by PAP, President Lech Walesa spoke of a new date for parliamentary elections and pledged to nominate a prime minister from the party that gets the most votes. Walesa noted that he "wishes the center to win, but if the nation chooses the left wing, then I will have to respect that." He promised to consult with Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka before making any changes in the composition of the government. Walesa first proposed 12-September as the date for the elections, but early on 2-June after consulting with the State Electoral Commission, he advanced the date one week, to the 19th. -Jan de Weydenthal CZECH COALITION AGREES ON DIALOGUE WITH SUDETEN GERMANS. The leaders of the ruling coalition parties agreed to "low-level talks" with ethnic Germans on the sensitive issues of resettlement and compensation rights for those expelled from Czech territory after 1945, Czech media report on 1-2 June. While the Prague government will not be directly involved in the talks, the four coalition parties will set up a working group to negotiate with the Germans. Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said in an interview with Rude pravo that there is "a need to negotiate and not to leave questions unasked." At the same time he stressed that the dialogue with the Sudeten Germans will be "purely unofficial." President Vaclav Havel released a statement welcoming the decision. Several opposition parties, most notably the Communists, the Social Democrats, and the extreme-right Republicans have expressed their categorical opposition to any dialogue with the Sudeten Germans. -Jan Obrman EX-COMMUNISTS DEMAND EARLY ELECTIONS IN SLOVAKIA. The deputy chairman of the ex-communist Party of the Democratic Left, Pavol Kanis, is calling for early elections, CTK reported on 1 June. At a press conference in Bratislava Kanis said that there is a need for a "new distribution of power" in Slovakia. The PDL, currently the second strongest party in the National Council of the Slovak Republic, has been supporting Meciar's minority government so far, but the willingness to continue with this practice may be evaporating. According to most recent opinion polls, the PDL would win if parliamentary elections were held now. At the same time, however, many analysts believe that none of the opposition parties, including the PDL, is overly eager to take over responsibility for Slovakia at this point. -Jan Obrman BRITISH FOREIGN MINISTER IN BUCHAREST. On 1-June Douglas Hurd began an official visit to Bucharest as part of a diplomatic tour that also includes Bulgaria and Macedonia. Radio Bucharest, says that talks scheduled for 2 June with Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu are expected to focus on international sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro and related economic losses for Romania. Hurd will meet with President Iliescu, Premier Vacaroiu, and parliamentary and opposition leaders. -Dan Ionescu BSP REFORMISTS DEFECTING? FIFTEEN REFORMIST LEGISLATORS OF THE BULGARIAN SOCIALIST PARTY, ALONG WITH OTHER LEFT-WING POLITICIANS AND INTELLECTUALS, HAVE FORMED A CIVIC ALLIANCE FOR THE REPUBLIC. At a meeting on 1 June, a prominent BSP parliamentarian and former deputy prime minister, Aleksandar Tomov, and former UDF deputy, Slavyan Saparev, were elected cochairmen of the CAR. Tomov, who is also the chief initiator of the organization, told BTA that it is premature to judge whether the CAR will form a separate party or parliamentary faction. In a platform presented to journalists, the CAR pledged to improve the social and political climate in Bulgaria by putting an end to confrontation. In their first comments, BSP and UDF leaders expressed skepticism about the viability of the new group. -Kjell Engelbrekt GOVERNMENT CRISIS IN UKRAINE. Parliament resumed its session on 1 June with the government crisis at the head of the agenda. Two weeks ago Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma offered his resignation and President Leonid Kravchuk said that he was prepared to take control of the government. Both proposals were rejected by the lawmakers. In his address to parliament on 1 June, Kuchma, again offered to resign. Lawmakers today are debating changes in the constitution with a view toward granting Kravchuk additional powers to deal with the economic crisis in the country. -Roman Solchanyk UKRAINE TO POSTPONE START-1 VOTE UNTIL AUTUMN. Parliament will not hold a formal ratification vote on the START-1 and nonproliferation treaties until at least early autumn, according to deputies interviewed by Reuters on 1 June. Debate on the treaties was originally planned for 2 June, even though parliamentary committees had not completed what were expected to be months of extensive hearings on the treaty. If today's debate takes place, it will likely give some indication of the likelihood of ratification. The ongoing political crisis in Ukraine has left the government unable to push forward on what has become an increasingly controversial policy of nuclear disarmament. -John Lepingwell US INTELLIGENCE CONCERNED OVER UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS CONTROL. A report in the Washington Post of 31 May quotes US intelligence sources as warning that Ukraine could obtain full control of the ICBMs and nuclear warheads on its territory in 12-18 months. An editorial in the 1 June New York Times by nuclear weapons expert Bruce Blair estimates that it would take Ukraine only "a matter of months." Full control would entail the ability to retarget the missiles, arm the nuclear warheads, and launch them. At present the codes enabling missile launch are possessed only by two people, the CIS commander and the Russian president, although the Ukrainian president must agree to any launch decision. The warning that Ukraine is seeking the ability to take full control over the weapons echoes recent statements by Russian parliamentarian Sergei Stepashin, who claimed that such control could be achieved in less than a year. While such a control capability may be under development, no political decision to implement it has been made. -John Lepingwell UKRAINE ON DNIESTER CONFLICT. A spokesman at the newly opened embassy in Moldova told journalists on 28 May, as cited by Basapress, that Ukraine stands for a negotiated resolution of the Dniester conflict, based on "Moldova's territorial integrity and sovereignty and on noninterference in Moldova's internal affairs;" internationalization of the negotiations with the active involvement of the CSCE and other organizations; withdrawal of Russia's army from Moldova; the principle that "the status to be granted the Transdniester is to be determined solely by Moldova;" observance of the rights of ethnic groups in accordance with existing international norms; and self-determination of Transdniester if Moldova unites with Romania. Ukraine's position on all points closely parallels Moldova's, while on the second, third, and fourth points it runs counter to the position of Russia. -Vladimir Socor BELARUSIAN POPULAR FRONT SETS UP PARTY, CALLS FOR REGIONAL GROUPING. With a parliamentary election expected in the near future, the Belarusian Popular Front has decided to establish a political party. The founding congress of the party was held on 30 May in Minsk in conjunction with the Third Congress of the BPF. Among the invited guests were Vyacheslav Chornovil, leader of Ukraine's Rukh, former Lithuanian president Vytautas Landsbergis, and a member of the Polish Sejm, all of whom took part in discussions of an initiative to create a regional union linking Belarus, Ukraine, the Baltic States, and other East European countries. Chornovil was expected to acquaint Belarusian leader Stanislau Shushkevich with the so-called "Baltic to Black Sea" proposal in a meeting scheduled for 2-June. -Kathy Mihalisko RUSSIAN SERVICEMEN'S WIVES PROTEST IN BELARUS. The women have been blocking the runway of an air base at Lida to protest being transferred to Russia, Reuters reports on 2-June. Many of the servicemen had previously been stationed in East Germany and are to be withdrawn to Russia. The wives claim they will have no housing in Russia and want access to the housing Germany is building in Belarus for the troops being withdrawn from East Germany. -Ustina Markus RUSSIA WON'T OBSERVE LATVIAN ELECTIONS. Russian Foreign Ministry press spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky told the press on 1 June that his country had turned down an invitation from Latvia to observe on 5 and 6 June the parliamentary elections there. Those Russians who are not citizens of Latvia are not allowed to participate in the voting, Yastrzhembsky explained, and Russia "does not find it possible to participate in an act that can be assessed as a recognition of the legitimacy of abuse of political rights of a significant part of the population of Latvia." -Dzintra Bungs LATVIAN LEGISLATORS INVALIDATE ACCORD ON RUSSIAN MILITARY PLANTS. On 1-June, meeting in its last session before the parliamentary elections, the Supreme Council endorsed a motion from the Satversme faction to reject a Latvian-Russian accord on the conversion of Russian military plants in Latvia that was signed in mid-May. The deputies decided that the accord is not in Latvia's best interest since it could be interpreted as allowing Russia to manufacture arms in Latvia and sell them abroad. The parliament did not endorse the faction's other proposal to end on 1 June the authority of the Latvian team negotiating with Russia on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia. Having flown in from Moscow for the session, Minister of State Janis Dinevics, who heads the team, expressed concern about the outcome of the talks and the future of Latvian-Russian negotiations. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIAN VISAS. On 1 June Estonia stopped issuing visas to visitors from CIS countries on the border, BNS reports. About 10-15 people from every train arriving in Narva without visas were sent back to Russia by bus. Visitors from 20 European countries as well as South Africa and Korea are still able to obtain visas on the border. Visas will not be required from citizens of the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Vatican, Andorra, San Marino, Liechtenstein, and Monaco. Estonia has signed visa-free travel accords with Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Great Britain, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Slovakia and is near completing similar agreements with Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. From 1 July citizens of the CIS and Georgia will be able to enter Estonia only with travel passports and not the domestic passports. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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