Дружба удваивает радости и сокращает наполовину горести. - Ф. Бэкон
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 102, 01 June 1993


between foreign correspondents and Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi
did not go ahead on 28 May, Reuters reported, as Kremlin guards
(who are under the command of President Yeltsin) refused to give
the journalists access to the Kremlin. A Rutskoi aide described
the incident as being in "the old Soviet scheme of things." On
31 May, Rutskoi continued his criticisms of Yeltsin in an interview
with Interfax reported by AFP, in which he said that Russia was
being led "not by the President but by his aides, who are issuing
decrees but not taking responsibility for them." The government's
policies, he said, could lead to Russia's disintegration into
over 100-"little principalities," and that the only way to resolve
the situation was to hold immediate general elections.-Wendy

KHASBULATOV ATTACKS THE WEST. In one of his strongest attacks
so far on the West, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov
accused "powerful international financial-industrial groups"
in the West of trying to colonize some of the Russian economic
regions and incorporate them into a "system of their global interests."
ITAR-TASS on 29 May quoted him as saying that these forces are
interested in breaking up and destroying Russia. He asserted
that the fate designed and thrust by external forces upon Yugoslavia
is now awaiting Russia. Khasbulatov further accused the Russian
executive powers of destroying the elected power. He claimed
that the representative power, i.e., the parliament, is synonymous
with, and is the salvation of, democracy.-Alexander Rahr

KHASBULATOV UNDER FIRE. The Presidium of the parliament has decided
to meet behind closed doors to discuss the possibility of removing
its chairman, Khasbulatov, Russian news agencies reported on
31 May. Khasbulatov has convened a meeting of 2,000 local parliamentary
leaders without approval from the Presidium. He intends to thwart
the plans of President Yeltsin to adopt a new constitution through
a Constitutional Assembly, although several members of the Presidium
of the parliament support Yeltsin's idea. Khasbulatov proposes
to hold a referendum on three different constitutional projects
and states that a new constitution should be adopted in 1995
or later. Fearing that he might be ousted at the next Congress,
Khasbulatov also suggested postponing the convening of the next
Congress until autumn. -Alexander Rahr

CONFERENCE ON THE KGB IN MOSCOW. A second conference on Russia's
state security organs called "The KGB: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow,"
organized by former Soviet human-rights activists, ended in Moscow
on 30 May, ITAR-TASS reported. Conference delegates called for
the urgent elaboration of procedures for acessing all KGB archives
except those containing state secrets. Representatives of the
Ministry of Security-the successor organization to the KGB-who
participated at the conference, said that they want to conduct
a constructive dialogue with the public. They stated that the
ministry plans to organize its own public conference on state
security issues. -Alexander Rahr

May Yeltsin issued a decree prolonging the state of emergency
in parts of North Ossetia and Ingushetia until 31 July, ITAR-TASS
reported. The decree also extends the territory covered by the
state of emergency to include-in addition to the Prigorodnyi
raion of North Ossetia and part of the Nazran raion of Ingushetia-the
rest of Nazran raion and the Malgobek raion of Ingushetia and
the Mozdok raion of North Ossetia. The reason given for extending
the state of emergency was that the situation had deteriorated
as a result of "terriorist acts and mass disorders on an ethnic
basis with the use of firearms," which was attributed largely
to the failure by both sides to fulfil agreements on disarming
the population, the return of hostages, and resolving the problem
of refugees. -Ann Sheehy

Court called on the government to take early steps to implement
a decree on the indexation of savings deposits, ITAR-TASS reported.
In late March, President Yeltsin decreed the "protection" of
the poulation's savings, while parliament passed a resolution
specifically calling for the indexation of savings deposits retroactive
to January 1992. The cost of such retroactive indexation has
been estimated at between 10 trillion and 30 trillion rubles.
Even if such indexation were spread over many years, its inflationary
impact would be severe. -Keith Bush

RUBLE FALLS BELOW 1,000 LEVEL. On 31 May, the ruble dropped to
a record low of 1,024 rubles to the dollar. The fall came on
the first day of a new trading schedule on the Moscow Interbank
Currency Exchange: the exchange will henceforth trade the dollar
four times a week and the D-Mark once a week. -Keiith Bush

Kiichi Miyazawa said in Tokyo on 28 May that Japan would not
raise the issue of ownership of the disputed Kuril Islands at
the G-7 Summit meeting, scheduled for 7-9 July in Tokyo. According
to Japanese, Russian, and Western agencies, Miyazawa said that
Japan had made clear its stance on the islands at the G-7 summit
in Munich last year and saw no need to raise the issue again.
The announcement appeared to mark a softening in Tokyo's position,
a shift that many have attributed at least in part to pressure
exerted by Washington on the Japanese government. Yeltsin is
expected to be invited to the summit as an observer, however,
and Miyazawa suggested that the issue would be broached in bilateral
talks with the Russian President. On 30 May Japanese Foreign
Minister Kabun Muto echoed Miyazawa's remarks. On 31 May a Japanese
Deputy Foreign Minister left for Moscow for two days of talks
that are believed to be aimed at laying the groundwork for the
summit meeting, Reuters reported. -Stephen Foye

Ministry of Defense collegium met on 31 May to discuss the progress
of economic reforms and their impact on the defense capability
of the country. While the reforms were apparently positively
appraised, the collegium did have some criticisms of the Conventional
Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty. The collegium noted that while
Russia will fulfill its obligation to cut conventional armaments
by 1 January 1995, it expressed concern that the regional sub-limits
imposed by the treaty didn't take into account the significant
political changes that have taken place since the treaty was
signed in 1990. The defense ministry has in the past hinted that
the CFE treaty limited Russia's ability to shift forces from
western military districts to the North Caucasus military district,
which it now considers to be the most important, and threatened,
in the country. Any attempt to change the regional sub-limits,
however, is likely to meet with strong opposition from the other
CIS parties to the treaty, as well as from other signatories.
The results of the collegium were reported by ITAR-TASS. -John


TENSIONS MOUNT OVER BLACK SEA FLEET. Over 200 ships of the Black
Sea Fleet have now raised the Russian naval ensign, although
reports suggest that no combat vessels have done so. On 28 May
the deputy commander of the fleet for logistics told ITAR-TASS
that even though Ukrainian citizens are in the majority on many
of the ships some 80% of the fleet's support vessels were flying
the Russian ensign. Crews of support vessels are paid in Ukrainian
currency on a much lower payscale than the crews of warships,
who are paid in rubles, hence the widespread dissatisfaction
amongst support units. The Ukrainian Defense Council met to discuss
the issue on 31 May, but any decisions taken have not been announced.
Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk Kravchuk also met with the
Russian ambassador to Ukraine on 31 May, who gave Kravchuk a
letter from Yeltsin calling for a meeting of the Russian and
Ukrainian foreign ministers, to prepare for a summit between
Kravchuk and Yeltsin expected to take place in mid or late June.
The developments were reported by ITAR-TASS on 31 May. -John


TROUBLE ON TAJIK-AFGHAN BORDER. The Tajik Foreign Ministry warned
the Afghan authorities on 31 May that a repeat of Saturday's
attack on a Russian border guard unit could lead to the bombing
of armed groups on the Afghan side of the border, ITAR-TASS reported.
In the attack, three border guards were killed, and four others
injured, when the unit came under fire from Afghan and Tajik
rebels on the other side of the border. The Russian Foreign Ministry
had earlier responded by warning all groups in the area against
"an irresponsible trial of strength," according to Reuters. It
is unclear how Tajikistan would implement its threat, as it does
not have its own air force; it relied on Uzbekistan's air force
late last year for operations against rebels within Tajikistan.
There have been frequent skirmishes along the Tajik-Afghan border
since the beginning of the civil war over a year ago. -Keith

and Torez Kulumbegov, the chairmen of the Abkhaz and South Ossetian
parliaments, have addressed a joint appeal to Russian President
Boris Yeltsin not to sign the Russian-Georgian treaty on friendship
and cooperation until a peaceful solution has been reached to
the conflicts between the leadership of Georgia and those areas.
Ardzinba and Kulumbegov argue that their regions "can no longer
remain part of a Georgia that is not capable of protecting the
human rights of the peoples of our republics" and express concern
at ongoing transfers of weaponry from Russia to Georgia, ITAR-TASS
reported on 29 May. -Liz Fuller

KAZAKHSTAN'S EXPORT SUCCESSES. In the first quarter of 1993 Kazakhstan
exported industrial and agricultural products valued at $355
million, while spending only $86 million on imports, ITAR-TASS
reported on 31 May. The value of exports has more than doubled
compared to the corresponding period in 1992. Kazakhstan's customers
tend to be developed capitalist countries, which account for
60% of the exports. Former European socialist countries are also
high on the list, but the most important trading partner is China,
which accounts for about one-fifth of Kazakhstan's exports. The
republic's export successes are attributed to a series of laws
passed over the last year which provide more guarantees and clearer
procedures for foreign business interests. Exports are, however,
still dominated by raw materials, mainly ferrous and non-ferrous
metals, coal, crude oil, and tin. Imports are dominated by consumer
goods and machinery. -Sheila Marnie

Sapurmurad Niyazov ended a three-day visit to France on Friday,
28-May. According to the French newspaper Le Monde, Niyazov and
his delegation, including most of his cabinet, met with French
President Francois Mitterand, other government officials and
with business leaders. Le Monde reported on 30-31 May that the
French corporation Thomson-CSF had signed a contract with the
Turkmen delegation for the modernization of Turkmenistan's air
traffic control system. Additionally, the French petrolium and
natural gas giant Elf reportedly agreed on a "protocol of cooperation"
for exploration and production in the Caspian Sea region. -Keith


WALESA DISSOLVES PARLIAMENT. Polish President Lech Walesa announced
on 29 May that he has decided to dissolve parliament and call
new elections rather than accept the resignation of the government
headed by Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka. The government lost
a no-confidence motion by a single vote on 28 May. Walesa's dissolution
order took effect on 31 May, when it was published in the government's
legal gazette. The dissolution leaves Poland without a sitting
parliament for three to four months until new elections are held.
After Walesa announced his decision, both the Sejm and Senate
scheduled intensive sessions for the first week of June. The
government submitted a scaled-down request for decree powers
to prevent reforms from grinding to a halt during the legislative
recess. The swift publication of Walesa's order scuttled all
such plans for last-minute legislation, however, as the parliament
immediately ceased to exist. The government, which controlled
the timing of the publication of the dissolution order, apparently
concluded that the opposition would block its "special powers"
request. It also may have wished to forestall attempts to use
the Sejm's final days to launch the election campaign. The parliament's
dissolution effectively kills the government's most ambitious
project, the "pact on state firms," and puts reprivatization
legislation and the start-up of mass privatization on hold. Work
on all unfinished legislation, including the new constitution,
will have to begin anew when the new parliament convenes in the
fall. -Louisa Vinton

PLACE IN SEPTEMBER. The president's office announced on 31 May
that Walesa had decided to sign the new election law that was
approved by the Sejm only a few hours after the no-confidence
vote. Under debate since early 1992, the new law favors existing
large parties and is designed to combat fragmentation. It imposes
a 5% threshold for individual parties (8% for coalitions) in
dividing the 391 seats available in 52 election districts. Parties
with over 7% of the national vote share out an additional 69
seats on the "national list." Parties with at least 15 deputies
in the outgoing Sejm are freed from the obligation to collect
the 3,000 signatures required in each district to register candidate
lists. Walesa had objected strenuously to the 1991 "hyperproportional"
law on the grounds that it would create a fragmented parliament
(which it did). But there was uncertainty about which law the
president would choose for the coming elections, as the new law
could conceivably help produce a majority for parties opposed
to economic reform and petrify the political prominence of postcommunist
parties. -Louisa Vinton

PRESIDENT VETOES PENSION BILL. The president's office announced
that Walesa vetoed the controversial pension bill on 30 May,
the deadline for his decision on the issue. The bill, approved
by the Sejm over the government's objections on 29 April, would
have raised the minimum pension and restored bonuses for such
"hardship" occupations as mining. The government urged Walesa
to veto the bill on the grounds that it would increase the budget
deficit by an unaffordable 23 trillion zloty ($1.4 billion) and
would undermine the reform of Poland's social insurance system.
Before the conflict with Solidarity erupted, Walesa had hinted
strongly that he would sign the bill into law. Labor Minister
Jacek Kuron appeared on national television on 30-May with an
appeal to the president, in the name of the government, not to
sign the bill. Gazeta Wyborcza commented on 31 May that the president's
veto was a "classic example of a necessary but unpopular decision,
made bravely and resolutely." -Louisa Vinton

COSIC OUSTED. Belgrade and international media report on 31 May
and 1 June that the majority of deputies in both chambers of
the rump Yugoslav Federal Assembly passed a vote of no-confidence
in Dobrica Cosic, the federal president. Both chambers are dominated
by the Socialist and Radical parties. Deputies accused Cosic
of violations of the Constitution by ignoring Federal Assembly
decisions, failing to expedite the appointment of a prime minister
and federal judges, and conducting foreign policy without the
consent of the legislature. Vojislav Seselj, head of the Radical
Party, calling for Cosic's resignation for months, accused him
of negotiating with Croatia without the assembly's consent and
of undermining the "reputation and stability" of Serbia-Montenegro.
The proximate cause of the Federal Assembly action, however,
was prabably linked to Cosic's meeting late last week with the
Yugoslav army chief of staff "in order to resolve political questions,"
as Nedeljko Sipovac, a leading Socialist deputy, put it. Radio
B92 commented that the vote is a clear sign that hard-line Socialists
and the Radicals fear for their political careers and moved quickly
to oust Cosic before he could strike a deal with the military.
Opposition parties and Montenegro's ruling Democratic Party of
Socialists rallied to Cosic's support and protested his ouster.
-Milan Andrejevich

MILOSEVIC IN MACEDONIA. Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic
and his Macedonian counterpart Kiro Gligorov met for more than
three hours at Ohrid on 31-May. Radios Serbia and Macedonia report
that Milosevic was trying to convince Gligorov not to accept
Washington's proposal for the deployment of US troops in Macedonia.
Both leaders also discussed ways of stabilizing the Balkan situation
and the impact of UN sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro, which
have also affected Macedonia. Radio Serbia said the meeting had
not been publicly announced. The last meeting between the two
leaders took place in December 1991. The Skopje government is
wary of ultranationalist Serbs, who consider Macedonian lands
a part of southern Serbia, and is concerned that a deal between
Greece and Serbia could threaten the republic's existence. -Milan

BOSNIAN UPDATE. The BBC reported on 31 May that heavy fighting
raged the previous day around Sarajevo, apparently triggered
by Muslim attempts to cut Serb supply lines. A commentator added
that this brings into question the whole concept of safe havens,
of which Sarajevo is to be one, and shows once again how events
on the ground can upset carefully prepared diplomatic plans.
Sarajevo citizens, the broadcast noted, treat the concept of
safe havens "with contempt." Also on 30 May, Croatian President
Franjo Tudjman made a speech to mark the Day of Statehood, which
commemorates the third anniversary of the first post-communist
Croatian parliament. Accounts of the speech by the BBC and Hina
differ somewhat, but it seems that he has now given up hope for
any international intervention to reverse Serb conquests in Bosnia
and instead is moving Croatia's ambiguous Bosnian policy toward
partitioning that embattled republic along ethnic lines. He lambasted
what he described as the ignorance and ineffectiveness of the
international community, and said that Croatian state interests
include the defense of the Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This
appears to rebuke leading generals and some politicians in his
own party who have long argued that Croatian state interests
require the preservation of Bosnian territorial integrity. Articles
in the Croatian press in recent days have suggested that Tudjman's
party has concluded that Bosnian statehood is dead and that Croatia
must now look out for the Croats there. -Patrick Moore

BRATISLAVA, PRAGUE EMBASSIES. On 28 May the two successor states
to Czechoslovakia officially opened their missions in Bratislava
and Prague, respectively, agencies reported. At a press conference
in Prague, Czech Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Vondra called
the opening of the embassies "a standard institutionalization
of relations between two neighboring, independent states." Slovak
Ambassador to the Czech Republic, Ivan Mjartan and Vondra pointed
out to the journalists, however, that "given the common history
and cultural similarities, relations between the two countries
will be more specific than with other neighbors." -Jan Obrman

Sudeten Germans who were expelled from Czechoslovakia after World
War-II held their 44th joint congress in NЯrnberg on 29-30 May,
German and Czech media report. Among the guests were German Finance
Minister Theo Waigel and new Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber.
Both Waigel and Stoiber made it clear that Germany will not offer
"one-sided" compensation to victims of the Nazi regime unless
Czechs are willing to discuss compensation for the victims of
the expulsion. At the same time, however, both politicians called
for an "honest and open" dialogue with Prague, and Stoiber asked
the Sudeten Germans to "have understanding for the difficulties"
the Klaus government has in dealing with the issue. Czech Prime
Minister Vaclav Klaus told journalists in Prague that "it is
in the interest of the Czech Republic that relations with Sudeten
Germans are as good as somehow possible." He made it clear, however,
that his government cannot get involved directly in talks with
the Sudeten organizations and that reciprocity in the issue of
compensation is "totally unacceptable." Reacting to the demand
to grant Sudeten Germans the right to return to Czechoslovakia,
Klaus said that Sudeten Germans, like everybody else, have the
right to settle in the Czech Republic and ask for citizenship.
-Jan Obrman

EXTRAORDINARY HDF MEETING. MTI said the National Presidium of
the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum called an extraordinary
session on 31 May to replace Executive Chairman Lajos Fur, who
resigned last week, because he felt he was unable to mediate
between the liberal faction of Istvan Elek and Jozsef Debreczeni
and some extremists of the nationalist populist faction headed
by Istvan Csurka. The executive chairman is the first deputy
of Chairman Jozsef Antall. The most likely candidate for the
position is presidium member Sandor Lezsak, who told reporters
before the meeting that he would decline the position should
Antall offer it. Csurka, the deputies close to him, and Lajos
Fur were all absent from the 31 May discussions. In a TV interview
following the meeting Antall said that the position of the executive
chairman would be filled on rotational basis and an extended
presidium meeting this weekend will decide who the first nominee
will be. Lezsak will fill the position until the meeting. The
National Presidium also discussed the possibility that the nationalist
faction should split off from the HDF. Antall warned, however,
that Csurka will not get any money or other party assets should
he leave the HDF. -Judith Pataki

of MUOSZ, the National Union of Hungarian Journalists, resigned
on 31-May, MTI reports. Bodor cited his own inefficiency, since
under his leadership the union was unable to make significant
gains or to ease the "defenseless position" of journalists. Bodor
also blamed state financial institutions and private foundations
for supporting extremist organizations"-probably a reference
to associations organized by journalists close to the government-rather
than MUOSZ. -Judith Pataki

held on 28-29 May in Constanta, delegates representing the National
Salvation Front approved the merger of their party with the small
Democratic Party, a formation that is not represented in parliament.
Radio Bucharest announced on 29 May that the new name of the
party will be Democratic Party-National Salvation Front. Both
former wings of the NSF-the ruling Democratic National Salvation
Front and the opposition NSF-are now called "democratic," which
is bound to perpetuate the confusion over the names of the two
groups. -Michael Shafir

ROMANIAN TV STRIKE OVER. Radio Bucharest announced on 28 May
that the strike committee of Romanian Radio and Television employees
had decided to call off the strike that started one day earlier.
The committee cited "tension in public opinion" as the reason
for its decision. It also said that negotiations with the administration
would continue and warned that another strike is possible. -Michael

EC COMMISSIONER IN SOFIA. During a four-day stay in Bulgaria
Sir Leon Brittan, Trade Commissioner of the European Community,
met with several top politicians and economists, including President
Zhelyu Zhelev and Prime Minister Lyuben Berov, BTA reports. At
a press conference on 31 May, he promised to take up in the EC
Commission the issue of compensating Bulgaria for some of the
losses it has suffered as a result of the UN embargo against
rump Yugoslavia. Brittan also said that the delay in finalizing
a temporary trade agreement between Bulgaria and the EC was exclusively
due to "theoretical disputes" among the European partners. Two
other prominent European politicians, British Foreign Minister
Douglas Hurd and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl are scheduled
to visit Bulgaria in the first half of June. -Kjell Engelbrekt

MOLDOVANS ON TRIAL IN TIRASPOL. Sentencing is expected this week
in the trial of six local Moldovans on trial before a "Dniester
republic" kangaroo court in Tiraspol on charges of terrorism.
Both before and during the trial, Dniester leaders and the local
Russian press have pronounced the defendants guilty and liable
for the death penalty, and local Russian communist groups are
urging execution. The trial is taking place in the Kirov factory
meeting hall under Soviet symbols, with the defendants held in
two metal cages before a vociferous audience calling for the
death penalty. President Mircea Snegur and parliament have appealed
to Russian President Yeltsin, UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali,
and US President Clinton to intercede. In a separate appeal to
Yeltsin, Romania's Democratic Convention (the alliance of the
democratic opposition parties, which has supported Yeltsin against
his domestic opponents) has noted that any "judicial assassination"
in Tiraspol will be seen to have taken place under the protective
cover of the Russian Army that controls the area and props up
the "Dniester republic." The defense and all but one of the accused
(who has testified for the prosecution) reject the charges as
fabricated and refuse to recognize the jurisdiction of the court,
which detained the defendants for a full year before bringing
them to trial. -Vladimir Socor

Minister Boris Tarasyuk has rejected security guarantees offered
by Russia, France, Britain, and the United States as insufficient,
AFP reported on 29 May. China has also agreed in principle to
guarantee Ukrainian security. In a newspaper interview Tarasyuk
said the guarantees are inadequate since the powers involved
do not want to make their pledges public until after START-1
is ratified by the Ukrainian parliament. He said Kiev wants a
multinational accord rather than isolated commitments. The guarantees,
he continued, need to cover more than just instances of nuclear
threats; they should also encompass the threatened use of conventional
forces, respect for territorial integrity, and a commitment not
to use economic or political pressure against Ukraine. The Ukrainian
Ministry of Defense has estimated the cost of disarming the weapons
at $2.8 billion-funds that would have to be forthcoming from
somewhere. Ukraine is the only one of the former Soviet states
with nuclear weapons not to have ratified START-1. -Ustina Markus

RUSSIAN-LATVIAN TALKS. On 31 May talks between Latvian and Russian
delegations on the pullout of Russian troops from Latvia resumed.
Specific accords hammered out in earlier rounds are expected
to be signed during the current round. One of the issues will
be the social welfare of active and retired servicemen and their
families. Many would prefer to stay in Latvia rather than return
home to the CIS, but Latvia wants them to depart and be demobilized
outside its territory. In a related development, Russia's Baltic
Fleet command has announced that its personnel, ships, and equipment
will depart from Latvia by the end of 1994. The Russian coast
guard stated that it would complete its withdrawal in June 1993,
BNS reported on 28-31 May. -Dzintra Bungs

JOINT BALTIC MILITARY TRAINING. Elite units of the Estonian,
Latvian, and Lithuanian armed forces participated in the first
joint training exercises and competitions at Adazi on 28-31 May,
Baltic media report. The exercises were considered a success
by the organizers-Dzintra Bungs

RUSSIA BUILDING BALTIC PORT. On 29 May the cornerstone was laid
for what is to become the largest commercial port on the Baltic
Sea, Baltic media report. Financed privately, the port at Ust-Luga,
near the Russian-Estonian border, is to be completed by 1995
or 1996. The project has been protested by Estonians, who fear
the new facility would take traffic away from the ports of the
Baltic States. -Dzintra Bungs

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull

assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA).
The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU),
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Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036
Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783;
Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications
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All rights reserved.

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