|The way I see it, if you want the rainbow, you gotta put up with the rain. - Dolly Parton|
No. 102, 01 June 1993
RUSSIA JOURNALISTS PREVENTED FROM SEEING RUTSKOI. The meeting scheduled between foreign correspondents and Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi did not go ahead on 28 May, Reuters reported, as Kremlin guards (who are under the command of President Yeltsin) refused to give the journalists access to the Kremlin. A Rutskoi aide described the incident as being in "the old Soviet scheme of things." On 31 May, Rutskoi continued his criticisms of Yeltsin in an interview with Interfax reported by AFP, in which he said that Russia was being led "not by the President but by his aides, who are issuing decrees but not taking responsibility for them." The government's policies, he said, could lead to Russia's disintegration into over 100-"little principalities," and that the only way to resolve the situation was to hold immediate general elections.-Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV ATTACKS THE WEST. In one of his strongest attacks so far on the West, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov accused "powerful international financial-industrial groups" in the West of trying to colonize some of the Russian economic regions and incorporate them into a "system of their global interests." ITAR-TASS on 29 May quoted him as saying that these forces are interested in breaking up and destroying Russia. He asserted that the fate designed and thrust by external forces upon Yugoslavia is now awaiting Russia. Khasbulatov further accused the Russian executive powers of destroying the elected power. He claimed that the representative power, i.e., the parliament, is synonymous with, and is the salvation of, democracy.-Alexander Rahr KHASBULATOV UNDER FIRE. The Presidium of the parliament has decided to meet behind closed doors to discuss the possibility of removing its chairman, Khasbulatov, Russian news agencies reported on 31 May. Khasbulatov has convened a meeting of 2,000 local parliamentary leaders without approval from the Presidium. He intends to thwart the plans of President Yeltsin to adopt a new constitution through a Constitutional Assembly, although several members of the Presidium of the parliament support Yeltsin's idea. Khasbulatov proposes to hold a referendum on three different constitutional projects and states that a new constitution should be adopted in 1995 or later. Fearing that he might be ousted at the next Congress, Khasbulatov also suggested postponing the convening of the next Congress until autumn. -Alexander Rahr CONFERENCE ON THE KGB IN MOSCOW. A second conference on Russia's state security organs called "The KGB: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow," organized by former Soviet human-rights activists, ended in Moscow on 30 May, ITAR-TASS reported. Conference delegates called for the urgent elaboration of procedures for acessing all KGB archives except those containing state secrets. Representatives of the Ministry of Security-the successor organization to the KGB-who participated at the conference, said that they want to conduct a constructive dialogue with the public. They stated that the ministry plans to organize its own public conference on state security issues. -Alexander Rahr STATE OF EMERGENCY EXTENDED IN NORTH OSSETIA/INGUSHETIA. On 30 May Yeltsin issued a decree prolonging the state of emergency in parts of North Ossetia and Ingushetia until 31 July, ITAR-TASS reported. The decree also extends the territory covered by the state of emergency to include-in addition to the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia and part of the Nazran raion of Ingushetia-the rest of Nazran raion and the Malgobek raion of Ingushetia and the Mozdok raion of North Ossetia. The reason given for extending the state of emergency was that the situation had deteriorated as a result of "terriorist acts and mass disorders on an ethnic basis with the use of firearms," which was attributed largely to the failure by both sides to fulfil agreements on disarming the population, the return of hostages, and resolving the problem of refugees. -Ann Sheehy GOVERNMENT PRESSURED ON INDEXATION. On 31 May, the Constitutional Court called on the government to take early steps to implement a decree on the indexation of savings deposits, ITAR-TASS reported. In late March, President Yeltsin decreed the "protection" of the poulation's savings, while parliament passed a resolution specifically calling for the indexation of savings deposits retroactive to January 1992. The cost of such retroactive indexation has been estimated at between 10 trillion and 30 trillion rubles. Even if such indexation were spread over many years, its inflationary impact would be severe. -Keith Bush RUBLE FALLS BELOW 1,000 LEVEL. On 31 May, the ruble dropped to a record low of 1,024 rubles to the dollar. The fall came on the first day of a new trading schedule on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange: the exchange will henceforth trade the dollar four times a week and the D-Mark once a week. -Keiith Bush KURILS DISPUTE NOT TO BE ON G-7 AGENDA. Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa said in Tokyo on 28 May that Japan would not raise the issue of ownership of the disputed Kuril Islands at the G-7 Summit meeting, scheduled for 7-9 July in Tokyo. According to Japanese, Russian, and Western agencies, Miyazawa said that Japan had made clear its stance on the islands at the G-7 summit in Munich last year and saw no need to raise the issue again. The announcement appeared to mark a softening in Tokyo's position, a shift that many have attributed at least in part to pressure exerted by Washington on the Japanese government. Yeltsin is expected to be invited to the summit as an observer, however, and Miyazawa suggested that the issue would be broached in bilateral talks with the Russian President. On 30 May Japanese Foreign Minister Kabun Muto echoed Miyazawa's remarks. On 31 May a Japanese Deputy Foreign Minister left for Moscow for two days of talks that are believed to be aimed at laying the groundwork for the summit meeting, Reuters reported. -Stephen Foye RUSSIA CALLS FOR RECONSIDERATION OF CFE SUB-LIMITS. The Russian Ministry of Defense collegium met on 31 May to discuss the progress of economic reforms and their impact on the defense capability of the country. While the reforms were apparently positively appraised, the collegium did have some criticisms of the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty. The collegium noted that while Russia will fulfill its obligation to cut conventional armaments by 1 January 1995, it expressed concern that the regional sub-limits imposed by the treaty didn't take into account the significant political changes that have taken place since the treaty was signed in 1990. The defense ministry has in the past hinted that the CFE treaty limited Russia's ability to shift forces from western military districts to the North Caucasus military district, which it now considers to be the most important, and threatened, in the country. Any attempt to change the regional sub-limits, however, is likely to meet with strong opposition from the other CIS parties to the treaty, as well as from other signatories. The results of the collegium were reported by ITAR-TASS. -John Lepingwell COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES TENSIONS MOUNT OVER BLACK SEA FLEET. Over 200 ships of the Black Sea Fleet have now raised the Russian naval ensign, although reports suggest that no combat vessels have done so. On 28 May the deputy commander of the fleet for logistics told ITAR-TASS that even though Ukrainian citizens are in the majority on many of the ships some 80% of the fleet's support vessels were flying the Russian ensign. Crews of support vessels are paid in Ukrainian currency on a much lower payscale than the crews of warships, who are paid in rubles, hence the widespread dissatisfaction amongst support units. The Ukrainian Defense Council met to discuss the issue on 31 May, but any decisions taken have not been announced. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk Kravchuk also met with the Russian ambassador to Ukraine on 31 May, who gave Kravchuk a letter from Yeltsin calling for a meeting of the Russian and Ukrainian foreign ministers, to prepare for a summit between Kravchuk and Yeltsin expected to take place in mid or late June. The developments were reported by ITAR-TASS on 31 May. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TROUBLE ON TAJIK-AFGHAN BORDER. The Tajik Foreign Ministry warned the Afghan authorities on 31 May that a repeat of Saturday's attack on a Russian border guard unit could lead to the bombing of armed groups on the Afghan side of the border, ITAR-TASS reported. In the attack, three border guards were killed, and four others injured, when the unit came under fire from Afghan and Tajik rebels on the other side of the border. The Russian Foreign Ministry had earlier responded by warning all groups in the area against "an irresponsible trial of strength," according to Reuters. It is unclear how Tajikistan would implement its threat, as it does not have its own air force; it relied on Uzbekistan's air force late last year for operations against rebels within Tajikistan. There have been frequent skirmishes along the Tajik-Afghan border since the beginning of the civil war over a year ago. -Keith Martin ABKHAZ, SOUTH OSSETIAN LEADERS APPEAL TO YELTSIN. Vladislav Ardzinba and Torez Kulumbegov, the chairmen of the Abkhaz and South Ossetian parliaments, have addressed a joint appeal to Russian President Boris Yeltsin not to sign the Russian-Georgian treaty on friendship and cooperation until a peaceful solution has been reached to the conflicts between the leadership of Georgia and those areas. Ardzinba and Kulumbegov argue that their regions "can no longer remain part of a Georgia that is not capable of protecting the human rights of the peoples of our republics" and express concern at ongoing transfers of weaponry from Russia to Georgia, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 May. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN'S EXPORT SUCCESSES. In the first quarter of 1993 Kazakhstan exported industrial and agricultural products valued at $355 million, while spending only $86 million on imports, ITAR-TASS reported on 31 May. The value of exports has more than doubled compared to the corresponding period in 1992. Kazakhstan's customers tend to be developed capitalist countries, which account for 60% of the exports. Former European socialist countries are also high on the list, but the most important trading partner is China, which accounts for about one-fifth of Kazakhstan's exports. The republic's export successes are attributed to a series of laws passed over the last year which provide more guarantees and clearer procedures for foreign business interests. Exports are, however, still dominated by raw materials, mainly ferrous and non-ferrous metals, coal, crude oil, and tin. Imports are dominated by consumer goods and machinery. -Sheila Marnie TURKMEN PRESIDENT WRAPS UP "PRIVATE" VISIT TO FRANCE. President Sapurmurad Niyazov ended a three-day visit to France on Friday, 28-May. According to the French newspaper Le Monde, Niyazov and his delegation, including most of his cabinet, met with French President Francois Mitterand, other government officials and with business leaders. Le Monde reported on 30-31 May that the French corporation Thomson-CSF had signed a contract with the Turkmen delegation for the modernization of Turkmenistan's air traffic control system. Additionally, the French petrolium and natural gas giant Elf reportedly agreed on a "protocol of cooperation" for exploration and production in the Caspian Sea region. -Keith Martin CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE WALESA DISSOLVES PARLIAMENT. Polish President Lech Walesa announced on 29 May that he has decided to dissolve parliament and call new elections rather than accept the resignation of the government headed by Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka. The government lost a no-confidence motion by a single vote on 28 May. Walesa's dissolution order took effect on 31 May, when it was published in the government's legal gazette. The dissolution leaves Poland without a sitting parliament for three to four months until new elections are held. After Walesa announced his decision, both the Sejm and Senate scheduled intensive sessions for the first week of June. The government submitted a scaled-down request for decree powers to prevent reforms from grinding to a halt during the legislative recess. The swift publication of Walesa's order scuttled all such plans for last-minute legislation, however, as the parliament immediately ceased to exist. The government, which controlled the timing of the publication of the dissolution order, apparently concluded that the opposition would block its "special powers" request. It also may have wished to forestall attempts to use the Sejm's final days to launch the election campaign. The parliament's dissolution effectively kills the government's most ambitious project, the "pact on state firms," and puts reprivatization legislation and the start-up of mass privatization on hold. Work on all unfinished legislation, including the new constitution, will have to begin anew when the new parliament convenes in the fall. -Louisa Vinton NEW ELECTIONS IN SEPTEMBER? NEW ELECTIONS ARE EXPECTED TO TAKE PLACE IN SEPTEMBER. The president's office announced on 31 May that Walesa had decided to sign the new election law that was approved by the Sejm only a few hours after the no-confidence vote. Under debate since early 1992, the new law favors existing large parties and is designed to combat fragmentation. It imposes a 5% threshold for individual parties (8% for coalitions) in dividing the 391 seats available in 52 election districts. Parties with over 7% of the national vote share out an additional 69 seats on the "national list." Parties with at least 15 deputies in the outgoing Sejm are freed from the obligation to collect the 3,000 signatures required in each district to register candidate lists. Walesa had objected strenuously to the 1991 "hyperproportional" law on the grounds that it would create a fragmented parliament (which it did). But there was uncertainty about which law the president would choose for the coming elections, as the new law could conceivably help produce a majority for parties opposed to economic reform and petrify the political prominence of postcommunist parties. -Louisa Vinton PRESIDENT VETOES PENSION BILL. The president's office announced that Walesa vetoed the controversial pension bill on 30 May, the deadline for his decision on the issue. The bill, approved by the Sejm over the government's objections on 29 April, would have raised the minimum pension and restored bonuses for such "hardship" occupations as mining. The government urged Walesa to veto the bill on the grounds that it would increase the budget deficit by an unaffordable 23 trillion zloty ($1.4 billion) and would undermine the reform of Poland's social insurance system. Before the conflict with Solidarity erupted, Walesa had hinted strongly that he would sign the bill into law. Labor Minister Jacek Kuron appeared on national television on 30-May with an appeal to the president, in the name of the government, not to sign the bill. Gazeta Wyborcza commented on 31 May that the president's veto was a "classic example of a necessary but unpopular decision, made bravely and resolutely." -Louisa Vinton COSIC OUSTED. Belgrade and international media report on 31 May and 1 June that the majority of deputies in both chambers of the rump Yugoslav Federal Assembly passed a vote of no-confidence in Dobrica Cosic, the federal president. Both chambers are dominated by the Socialist and Radical parties. Deputies accused Cosic of violations of the Constitution by ignoring Federal Assembly decisions, failing to expedite the appointment of a prime minister and federal judges, and conducting foreign policy without the consent of the legislature. Vojislav Seselj, head of the Radical Party, calling for Cosic's resignation for months, accused him of negotiating with Croatia without the assembly's consent and of undermining the "reputation and stability" of Serbia-Montenegro. The proximate cause of the Federal Assembly action, however, was prabably linked to Cosic's meeting late last week with the Yugoslav army chief of staff "in order to resolve political questions," as Nedeljko Sipovac, a leading Socialist deputy, put it. Radio B92 commented that the vote is a clear sign that hard-line Socialists and the Radicals fear for their political careers and moved quickly to oust Cosic before he could strike a deal with the military. Opposition parties and Montenegro's ruling Democratic Party of Socialists rallied to Cosic's support and protested his ouster. -Milan Andrejevich MILOSEVIC IN MACEDONIA. Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic and his Macedonian counterpart Kiro Gligorov met for more than three hours at Ohrid on 31-May. Radios Serbia and Macedonia report that Milosevic was trying to convince Gligorov not to accept Washington's proposal for the deployment of US troops in Macedonia. Both leaders also discussed ways of stabilizing the Balkan situation and the impact of UN sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro, which have also affected Macedonia. Radio Serbia said the meeting had not been publicly announced. The last meeting between the two leaders took place in December 1991. The Skopje government is wary of ultranationalist Serbs, who consider Macedonian lands a part of southern Serbia, and is concerned that a deal between Greece and Serbia could threaten the republic's existence. -Milan Andrejevich BOSNIAN UPDATE. The BBC reported on 31 May that heavy fighting raged the previous day around Sarajevo, apparently triggered by Muslim attempts to cut Serb supply lines. A commentator added that this brings into question the whole concept of safe havens, of which Sarajevo is to be one, and shows once again how events on the ground can upset carefully prepared diplomatic plans. Sarajevo citizens, the broadcast noted, treat the concept of safe havens "with contempt." Also on 30 May, Croatian President Franjo Tudjman made a speech to mark the Day of Statehood, which commemorates the third anniversary of the first post-communist Croatian parliament. Accounts of the speech by the BBC and Hina differ somewhat, but it seems that he has now given up hope for any international intervention to reverse Serb conquests in Bosnia and instead is moving Croatia's ambiguous Bosnian policy toward partitioning that embattled republic along ethnic lines. He lambasted what he described as the ignorance and ineffectiveness of the international community, and said that Croatian state interests include the defense of the Croats in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This appears to rebuke leading generals and some politicians in his own party who have long argued that Croatian state interests require the preservation of Bosnian territorial integrity. Articles in the Croatian press in recent days have suggested that Tudjman's party has concluded that Bosnian statehood is dead and that Croatia must now look out for the Croats there. -Patrick Moore BRATISLAVA, PRAGUE EMBASSIES. On 28 May the two successor states to Czechoslovakia officially opened their missions in Bratislava and Prague, respectively, agencies reported. At a press conference in Prague, Czech Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Vondra called the opening of the embassies "a standard institutionalization of relations between two neighboring, independent states." Slovak Ambassador to the Czech Republic, Ivan Mjartan and Vondra pointed out to the journalists, however, that "given the common history and cultural similarities, relations between the two countries will be more specific than with other neighbors." -Jan Obrman SUDETEN GERMAN CONGRESS CONFIRMS DEMANDS. The organizations of Sudeten Germans who were expelled from Czechoslovakia after World War-II held their 44th joint congress in Nčrnberg on 29-30 May, German and Czech media report. Among the guests were German Finance Minister Theo Waigel and new Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber. Both Waigel and Stoiber made it clear that Germany will not offer "one-sided" compensation to victims of the Nazi regime unless Czechs are willing to discuss compensation for the victims of the expulsion. At the same time, however, both politicians called for an "honest and open" dialogue with Prague, and Stoiber asked the Sudeten Germans to "have understanding for the difficulties" the Klaus government has in dealing with the issue. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus told journalists in Prague that "it is in the interest of the Czech Republic that relations with Sudeten Germans are as good as somehow possible." He made it clear, however, that his government cannot get involved directly in talks with the Sudeten organizations and that reciprocity in the issue of compensation is "totally unacceptable." Reacting to the demand to grant Sudeten Germans the right to return to Czechoslovakia, Klaus said that Sudeten Germans, like everybody else, have the right to settle in the Czech Republic and ask for citizenship. -Jan Obrman EXTRAORDINARY HDF MEETING. MTI said the National Presidium of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum called an extraordinary session on 31 May to replace Executive Chairman Lajos Fur, who resigned last week, because he felt he was unable to mediate between the liberal faction of Istvan Elek and Jozsef Debreczeni and some extremists of the nationalist populist faction headed by Istvan Csurka. The executive chairman is the first deputy of Chairman Jozsef Antall. The most likely candidate for the position is presidium member Sandor Lezsak, who told reporters before the meeting that he would decline the position should Antall offer it. Csurka, the deputies close to him, and Lajos Fur were all absent from the 31 May discussions. In a TV interview following the meeting Antall said that the position of the executive chairman would be filled on rotational basis and an extended presidium meeting this weekend will decide who the first nominee will be. Lezsak will fill the position until the meeting. The National Presidium also discussed the possibility that the nationalist faction should split off from the HDF. Antall warned, however, that Csurka will not get any money or other party assets should he leave the HDF. -Judith Pataki HEAD OF HUNGARIAN JOURNALIST UNION RESIGNS. Pal Bodor, the chairman of MUOSZ, the National Union of Hungarian Journalists, resigned on 31-May, MTI reports. Bodor cited his own inefficiency, since under his leadership the union was unable to make significant gains or to ease the "defenseless position" of journalists. Bodor also blamed state financial institutions and private foundations for supporting extremist organizations"-probably a reference to associations organized by journalists close to the government-rather than MUOSZ. -Judith Pataki NATIONAL SALVATION FRONT CHANGES ITS NAME. At a special convention held on 28-29 May in Constanta, delegates representing the National Salvation Front approved the merger of their party with the small Democratic Party, a formation that is not represented in parliament. Radio Bucharest announced on 29 May that the new name of the party will be Democratic Party-National Salvation Front. Both former wings of the NSF-the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front and the opposition NSF-are now called "democratic," which is bound to perpetuate the confusion over the names of the two groups. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN TV STRIKE OVER. Radio Bucharest announced on 28 May that the strike committee of Romanian Radio and Television employees had decided to call off the strike that started one day earlier. The committee cited "tension in public opinion" as the reason for its decision. It also said that negotiations with the administration would continue and warned that another strike is possible. -Michael Shafir EC COMMISSIONER IN SOFIA. During a four-day stay in Bulgaria Sir Leon Brittan, Trade Commissioner of the European Community, met with several top politicians and economists, including President Zhelyu Zhelev and Prime Minister Lyuben Berov, BTA reports. At a press conference on 31 May, he promised to take up in the EC Commission the issue of compensating Bulgaria for some of the losses it has suffered as a result of the UN embargo against rump Yugoslavia. Brittan also said that the delay in finalizing a temporary trade agreement between Bulgaria and the EC was exclusively due to "theoretical disputes" among the European partners. Two other prominent European politicians, British Foreign Minister Douglas Hurd and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl are scheduled to visit Bulgaria in the first half of June. -Kjell Engelbrekt MOLDOVANS ON TRIAL IN TIRASPOL. Sentencing is expected this week in the trial of six local Moldovans on trial before a "Dniester republic" kangaroo court in Tiraspol on charges of terrorism. Both before and during the trial, Dniester leaders and the local Russian press have pronounced the defendants guilty and liable for the death penalty, and local Russian communist groups are urging execution. The trial is taking place in the Kirov factory meeting hall under Soviet symbols, with the defendants held in two metal cages before a vociferous audience calling for the death penalty. President Mircea Snegur and parliament have appealed to Russian President Yeltsin, UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali, and US President Clinton to intercede. In a separate appeal to Yeltsin, Romania's Democratic Convention (the alliance of the democratic opposition parties, which has supported Yeltsin against his domestic opponents) has noted that any "judicial assassination" in Tiraspol will be seen to have taken place under the protective cover of the Russian Army that controls the area and props up the "Dniester republic." The defense and all but one of the accused (who has testified for the prosecution) reject the charges as fabricated and refuse to recognize the jurisdiction of the court, which detained the defendants for a full year before bringing them to trial. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINE CONSIDERS SECURITY GUARANTEES INSUFFICIENT. Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk has rejected security guarantees offered by Russia, France, Britain, and the United States as insufficient, AFP reported on 29 May. China has also agreed in principle to guarantee Ukrainian security. In a newspaper interview Tarasyuk said the guarantees are inadequate since the powers involved do not want to make their pledges public until after START-1 is ratified by the Ukrainian parliament. He said Kiev wants a multinational accord rather than isolated commitments. The guarantees, he continued, need to cover more than just instances of nuclear threats; they should also encompass the threatened use of conventional forces, respect for territorial integrity, and a commitment not to use economic or political pressure against Ukraine. The Ukrainian Ministry of Defense has estimated the cost of disarming the weapons at $2.8 billion-funds that would have to be forthcoming from somewhere. Ukraine is the only one of the former Soviet states with nuclear weapons not to have ratified START-1. -Ustina Markus RUSSIAN-LATVIAN TALKS. On 31 May talks between Latvian and Russian delegations on the pullout of Russian troops from Latvia resumed. Specific accords hammered out in earlier rounds are expected to be signed during the current round. One of the issues will be the social welfare of active and retired servicemen and their families. Many would prefer to stay in Latvia rather than return home to the CIS, but Latvia wants them to depart and be demobilized outside its territory. In a related development, Russia's Baltic Fleet command has announced that its personnel, ships, and equipment will depart from Latvia by the end of 1994. The Russian coast guard stated that it would complete its withdrawal in June 1993, BNS reported on 28-31 May. -Dzintra Bungs JOINT BALTIC MILITARY TRAINING. Elite units of the Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian armed forces participated in the first joint training exercises and competitions at Adazi on 28-31 May, Baltic media report. The exercises were considered a success by the organizers-Dzintra Bungs RUSSIA BUILDING BALTIC PORT. On 29 May the cornerstone was laid for what is to become the largest commercial port on the Baltic Sea, Baltic media report. Financed privately, the port at Ust-Luga, near the Russian-Estonian border, is to be completed by 1995 or 1996. The project has been protested by Estonians, who fear the new facility would take traffic away from the ports of the Baltic States. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Keith Bush and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.