|Silence is the real crime against humanity. - Nadezhda Mandelstam|
No. 95, 19 May 1993
RUSSIA POSSIBLE PERSONNEL CHANGES PREDICTED. The Ministry of Security Viktor Barannikov may be replaced by his liberal deputy, Evgenii Savostyanov, by the end of this month, Sovetskaya Rossiya reported on 15 May, quoting a Radio Liberty correspondent. The newspaper also stated that the Russian ambassador to France, Yurii Ryzhov, is now considered by President Boris Yeltsin as best candidate for the post of Secretary of the Security Council. In a recent interview in Vek (#18), Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev accused the former Secretary of the Security Council Yurii Skokov of having attempted to transform the Security Council into an office resembling a Central Committee department. Kozyrev suggested that Skokov may in future become an ally of Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi. -Alexander Rahr STEPASHIN EMPHASIZES CENTRIST POSITION. The head of the parliamentary Committee for Defense and Security, Sergei Stepashin, told the independent Moscow newspaper Segodnya on 18 May that the new Secretary of the Security Council will be nominated this week and the composition of the apparatus of the council will be changed. He complained about plans of the parliament's leadership to restructure the legislature and to abolish his committee. He said that his committee, which exercises parliamentary control over the army, state security, foreign intelligence and interior ministry, is staffed mainly with representatives of these institutions or deputies who maintain on centrist political positions. He warned that the polarization in Russian politics has "phased out the centrist factions." Speaking about reorganizations in the Interior Ministry, he suggested that the system of prison camps should be reorganized. -Alexander Rahr STEPASHIN SAYS START-2 RATIFICATION TO BE DELAYED. In his interview with Segodnya, Stepashin noted that ratification of the START-2 treaty depended on a number of conditions. Stepashin suggested that during the START-2 ratification process the treaty should be supplemented by a protocol or a "gentlemen's agreement" committing the US and Russia to further reductions in nuclear weapons. Stepashin also suggested that the other three nuclear powers (China, France, and Great Britain) might join the agreement as well. He also stated that he expected START-2 ratification to be delayed until the end of 1993 so that it does not become a victim of the current power struggles in Moscow. The proposal for further reductions is based on concerns that the restructuring of Russian forces under START-2 will require both the destruction of old forces and the deployment of an expensive new generation of weapons. A further reduction in arms would reduce the number of new weapons required. Stepashin's proposal at present appears unofficial, but if it becomes a formal precondition insistence on it could further slow or halt the ratification process. -John Lepingwell STEPASHIN CLAIMS UKRAINE TRYING TO RETARGET NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Discussing Ukrainian nuclear weapons, Stepashin pointed out that START-2 ratification also depends upon Ukraine ratifying START1. He alleged that Ukraine is attempting to retarget the nuclear weapons located on its territory, and to break the security systems that would prevent Ukraine from taking over launch control (or "operational control") of the weapons. Stepashin stated that experts from the Russian defense ministry estimated that this process could take from 8-9 months to a year, which is consistent with Western estimates. He also warned that Kazakhstan is watching developments in Ukraine on this issue very closely. Similar charges have been made before, but they have never come from such a highly-placed source as Stepashin. Ukraine has denied that it is attempting to gain control of the weapons. The Ukrainian parliament is expected to debate the START1 treaty within the next few days, and Stepashin's comments may be intended to influence that debate. -John Lepingwell TRIAL OF COUP LEADERS PUT OFF. The trial of the August 1991 coup organizers was put off again after resuming for only a few hours on 18 May, Russian television reported The postponement resulted from arguments made by the defense that the prosecution is not independent, because its chiefs, the Prosecutor-General Valentin Stepankov and his deputy Evgenii Lisov, have vested personal interests in the case. The defense claimed that "Stepankov and Lisov demonstrated that they serve political parties and the country's leaders rather than the law." The judge, Anatolii Ukolov, seemed receptive to the defense's arguments and appealed to the parliament to address the issue and to confirm the "genuine independence" of the prosecutors. The date of the next court hearing was not set. -Julia Wishnevsky RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT PROMISES SUPPORT FOR SMALL BUSINESSES. The Russian government has passed a resolution announcing a series of measures to support small businesses, ITAR-TASS reported on 17-May. The resolution envisages new draft laws, changes to existing legislation and other actions to encourage entrepreneurship. The measures will include guaranteeing the rights of entrepreneurs and establishing a simpler process for registering new enterprises and business activity of individuals. Enterprises working in priority areas of the economy shall be given special government assistance, in the form of tax relief, credit, promotion of foreign trade activity, exemption from custom duties, etc. The priority sectors listed seem fairly broad and include agriculture, production of industrial and consumer goods, medicines and medical technology, services, and certain construction activities. -Sheila Marnie TOKYO, MOSCOW JOUST OVER KURILS. During a meeting with former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone in Moscow on 18 May, Russian President Boris Yeltsin called for Tokyo to exercise greater flexibility in resolving the long dispute over ownership of the Kuril Islands. According to Kyodo, after the meeting Nakasone quoted Yeltsin as saying that Russia's current economic difficulties made it difficult for Moscow to make concessions on the issue; Yeltsin reportedly urged Tokyo not to exert pressure on Moscow. Meanwhile, Reuter reported on the same day that Russian Foreign Ministry officials have denied a report published by Komsomolskaya pravda on 14 May that alleges that the Foreign Ministry has prepared a secret plan containing concessions on the territorial issue. Foreign Ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky denied the existence of such a document. Komsomolskaya pravda reportedly received its information from hardline parliamentarian Sergei Baburin. Similar allegations of a secret plan to "give away" the islands surfaced last summer prior to a planned visit by Boris Yeltsin to Japan. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN BALKANS CAMPAIGN STALLS. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev held talks on 18 May with the presidents of Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, and rump Yugoslavia in an attempt to gain support for gradual implementation of the Vance-Owen peace plan. Kozyrev departed from Belgrade empty-handed and continued to Rome for further talks with European leaders. Russia retracted its earlier plan to convene a meeting of UN Security Council foreign ministers for discussions of the Bosnia conflict owing to reported U.S. opposition. Instead, Kozyrev will hold talks with U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher, Western agencies and ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES SHOKHIN: CIS ECONOMIC UNION MUST BENEFIT RUSSIA. Russian deputy premier Aleksandr Shokhin stated on 18 May that a CIS economic union should be set up in such a way as to benefit Russia, ITAR-TASS reported. Shokhin, who was speaking with journalists about the results of the CIS summit on 14 May, said many CIS states wanted the economic union to be first and foremost a customs union in order to obtain duty-free imports of Russian energy products. Shokhin added that Russia would insist on fairly stringent criteria for joining the union. Shokhin also said that Russia was trying to explain to all the CIS states that an economic union would mean a partial loss of sovereignty, and not only economic but also political. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN OPPOSITION FIGURE APPEALS FOR INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION. Nizami Suleimanov, chairman of the Independent Azerbaijan Party and runner-up in last year's presidential elections, has appealed to international human rights organizations for protection against what he terms persecution by the Azerbaijani authorities, RFE/RL's Azerbaijani Language Service reported on 14 May. Suleimanov claimed he has received anonymous letters advising him to leave the country and that he has been repeatedly summoned to the state prosecutor's office for questioning concerning "fabricated allegations." -Liz Fuller REVISED KARABAKH PEACE PLAN UNVEILED. An amended version of the CSCE-sponsored peace plan for Nagorno-Karabakh drawn up in late April by the US, Russia and Turkey was submitted to the Armenian government and the Nagorno-Karabakh representation in Erevan on 18 May, AFP reported. The new version proposes a withdrawal of Armenian forces from Kelbadzhar under international supervision between 29 May and 3 June, and a two-month ceasefire beginning 1 June; the earlier plan stipulated completion of the Armenian withdrawal from Kelbadzhar by 14 May. Separate rounds of peace talks in Geneva and Rome would follow in June: originally they had been proposed for 17-22 May and 24-25-May. Azerbaijan has accepted the proposal in principle; Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh remain uncommitted. -Liz Fuller KYRGYZ PRIME MINISTER SAYS UZBEKISTAN TO DROP SANCTIONS. Kyrgyzstan's Prime Minister Tursunbek Chyngyshev told RFE/RL on 18 May that Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov has promised to drop measures taken by Uzbekistan against Kyrgyzstan in retaliation for the latter's introduction of its own currency. Reuter, quoting a journalist in Bishkek, reported the same day that Karimov had pledged to restore communications links and energy supplies that had been reduced or cut off over the weekend. The border between the two countries had been closed, according to Reuter, but is to be reopened. Uzbekistan resorted to these drastic measures because it feared that Kyrgyzstan would not honor its old debts. -Bess Brown UN OFFERS HELP TO TAJIKISTAN. The head of a group of UN observers in Tajikistan, Liviu Bota, told a gathering of government officials and journalists in Dushanbe that UN experts are prepared to help the country draw up a new constitution, law on elections and other legal documents, ITAR-TASS reported on 18-May. Bota also expressed understanding for the political situation in the country, but warned that the effects of the civil war in 1992 are no justification for human rights violations. The present government of Tajikistan has dealt harshly with its opponents, jailing and, according to some accounts, torturing those opposition leaders it has been able to capture and issuing arrest warrants for others, claiming that the nationalist-democratic-Islamic opposition bears sole responsibility for the civil war. Most recently, international human rights groups have protested the arrest of noted poet Bozor Sobir. Bota's rebuke of the government for its human rights record drew the usual response, that those who have been arrested are guilty of criminal acts. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATS AND MUSLIMS REACH AGREEMENT. International media report on 19 May that delegations led by Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and his Bosnian counterpart Alija Izetbegovic reached an agreement the previous night to begin implementing the Vance-Owen plan in the areas under their control. International mediators Lord Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg led the talks in Medjugorje between the nominal allies whose forces have clashed again in the past two weeks amid mutual recriminations. The Croatian news agency Hina on 19 May quotes Herzegovinian Croat leader Mate Boban as saying that the latest agreement, which includes a cease-fire, is "nothing new" but merely a reaffirmation of previous ones. Izetbegovic noted that he hopes UNPROFOR troops can take up positions soon in the Konjic area, where the Croats claim that Muslims are attacking them. Elsewhere, the Washington Post says that Bosnian Serbs have advanced "a set of radical new demands" as prerequisites for any Balkan peace. One includes the forced exodus of "tens of thousands of Muslims" from eastern Bosnia. -Patrick Moore CROATIAN UPDATE. The BBC and Hina report on 19-May that the Croatian government and Serbian rebels concluded a cease-fire the previous day. It is slated to take effect on 20 May, with more talks scheduled for the 26th. The BBC quotes UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali as warning that UNPROFOR troops in Croatia might have to be withdrawn if the warring sides do not improve their conduct toward the peace-keepers, whom the Croats in particular accuse of bias. On another political front, the Croatian and Slovenian prime ministers led high-level delegations for an informal meeting near their common border on 15-May. Vecernji list of 17 May described the talks as an ice-breaking, get-acquainted session behind closed doors. There are a number of mainly economic and frontier problems between the two countries, but these could be cleared up quickly if the main issue, namely mutual mistrust, could be overcome by statesmanship and good will. Each side accuses the other of having left it in the lurch during the Yugoslav army's war against them in 1991. Meanwhile in Split, Western news agencies on 18 May reported that the Croatian authorities are taking legal measures to prevent the satirical publication Feral Tribune from reappearing. Finally, the 19 May Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung carries an appeal by Croatian Cardinal Franjo Kucharic for peace in Bosnia. He says he cannot apportion blame in the conflict between Croats and Muslims, but he clearly warns the Croats not to behave toward the Muslims like the Serbs have behaved toward both groups. Kucharic adds that the Herzegovinian Croats must bear responsibility for any harm their actions bring upon the Croatian cause internationally. -Patrick Moore ILIESCU IN CROATIA. On 18 May Romanian President Ion Iliescu continued his official visit to Croatia. He met Croatia's Premier Nikita Valentic and Foreign Minister Zdenko Skrabalo, with whom he discussed the Yugoslav situation. Radio Bucharest reported that Iliescu also discussed ways of boosting bilateral economic relations with local businessmen at the Zagreb Chamber of Commerce. Iliescu returns to Romania today after a stopover in Belgrade to meet with Serbian and federal officials. -Dan Ionescu MORE BOSNIAN SERB RECRIMINATIONS. On 17-May Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic apologized for a warning by army commander Gen. Ratko Mladic on the 16th that any Western military intervention against the Bosnian Serbs would result in the bombing of London, and implying that Serbian terrorists could strike in Washington as well. Reuters and Radio Serbia quote Karadzic as calling the threat "idiotic and irresponsible." Mladic is not authorized to make statements or decisions of this nature, he said, warning that the commander could face disciplinary action. According to Radio Serbia on 18 May, Karadzic now intends to ban all officers from making political or strategic statements. -Milan Andrejevich GOVERNMENT-SOLIDARITY TALKS SUSPENDED. Solidarity's spokesman pronounced as "unsatisfactory" government proposals made during lengthy talks on 18-May, PAP reports. The government proposed making a one-time payment in October to teachers, health care workers, and other public servants, with the exact amount to be set by a joint union-government commission that would conduct a review of public finances at mid-year. The government also invited the union to take part in drafting the 1994 budget, presumably so that the interests of the "budget sphere" could be better taken into account. Finally, the government offered to set up a joint commission to review all unresolved disagreements with the union. A cabinet session was held during a break in negotiations. Reporting on the strike situation, Deputy Prime Minister Pawel Laczkowski predicted that surplus revenues would be available later in the year, but that the size of the surplus was hard to judge. The government has repeatedly pledged to devote any surplus to education and health. Solidarity's National Commission meets today to assess the government's stance; both a no-confidence vote and a general strike have been threatened in the event of the government's failure to meet the union's demands. -Louisa Vinton ANTI-WALESA PROTESTERS MARCH IN WARSAW. Demonstrators shouting "Down with Walesa!" "Traitors!" and "Down with Suchocka!" marched through Warsaw on 18 May. Police estimated the crowd at 1,500; the organizers said 5,000 participated. The march, organized by a dissident local Solidarity organization, was disavowed by the union leadership. Two former ministers from the Olszewski government-Jan Parys and Adam Glapinski-were on hand. PAP reports that the demonstrators, confused by Warsaw landmarks, shouted "Thieves!" at police forensic headquarters rather than the government's offices. Some anti-Semitic slogans were also heard, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton WHAT IS WALESA'S GAME? THE PRESIDENT'S POSITION ON THE POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE STRIKE REMAINS AMBIGUOUS. For the second day in a row, Walesa met on 18 May with representatives of the Network, the informal organization of Solidarity locals from large industrial plants. Press speculation has long identified the Network as the likely basis for a "presidential party," should Walesa take that step. Network activists urged the president to form a "nonpartisan government of experts" and hinted that Andrzej Olechowski, the president's economic adviser who was present at the meeting, would be a suitable candidate to head such a government. "The current government is a spent force," the Network argued, adding that the Sejm is incapable of forming a better one. In extensive comments reported by PAP, Walesa did not address the Network's proposals directly but stressed that no government would be able to solve Poland's problems instantaneously. "We are always interrupting something," Walesa said. "The time has come for more lengthy governing. Society needs stability, but the authorities need stability as well." Almost unnoticed in the day's events, the president signed into law the government's mass privatization legislation, Polish TV reports. Mass privatization will transfer 600 state firms to national investment funds; shares in the funds will be distributed to the public for a nominal fee. -Louisa Vinton POLISH-RUSSIAN TRADE TALKS. Returning from three days of trade talks in Moscow on 18-May, Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski reported agreement on the joint construction of a gas pipeline from Russian to Europe through Polish territory. Goryszewski said the location of the pipeline would enable Russia to make its natural gas exports to Europe independent of relations with Lithuania and Ukraine. In return, Poland would receive guaranteed supplies of natural gas. The two sides failed to reach agreement on questions of mutual indebtedness, however. Both sides accept a "zero-sum" solution in principle, but Poland is pressing for separate compensation for construction work performed in the Soviet Union. The role of hard currency in current trade also remained unresolved. Poland rejected Russian proposals to conduct trade in "national currencies," as this would amount to Polish subsidies for Russia's economy. Negotiations at the presidential level may be required to settle the two issues. During talks with Russian Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, a tentative date for Russian President Boris Yeltsin's visit to Poland was set. The visit will take place after the G-7 summit in Tokyo in July, most likely in September, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton CZECHS WEIGH PROTEST OF MECIAR REMARKS. Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec told Czech TV that the government is considering a protest of Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar's remarks in which he linked federal property distribution disputes between the two successor states of Czechoslovakia with energy supplies to the Czech Republic. Meciar said in the latest issue of Der Spiegel that the fact that Czech energy supplies pass through Slovakia lends weight to Slovak claims on former Czechoslovak gold and other property. He added that the Czech economy could not survive more than ten days if deliveries were disrupted. Zieleniec pointed out that Meciar's remarks are "absolutely unusual between states, which desire to be on good terms" and that the dispute over former federal property has been "greatly aggravated" by them. -Jan Obrman SLOVAK EXCOMMUNISTS WANT EARLY ELECTIONS. At its regular press conference, representatives of the ex-communist Party of the Democratic Left, the second strongest political party in Slovakia, indicated that they will call for early elections, Slovak Radio reported on 18 May. The party's Deputy Chairman Pavol Kanis made it clear that early elections will "not be a waste of time or money," adding that the same could not be said about a continuation of Prime Minister Meciar's rule. Kanis also said that the one-party government has been unsuccessful and that it is time for a broad coalition to assume responsibility in Bratislava. The PDL has, so far, spared Meciar's minority government a major defeat in the parliament and the prime minister has exerted considerable effort to form a coalition with the PDL. The next congress of the excommunists, scheduled for 22 and 23-May, will probably decide whether Meciar's government will receive continued support. -Jan Obrman ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCES CRACKDOWN ON CORRUPTION. During a cabinet meeting on 18 May, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu urged government financial officials to step up efforts "to destroy corruption rings and big smuggling networks." Radio Bucharest read a communique in which the cabinet stressed his determination to combat corruption in the economy, social life and administration. It also pledged to take tougher legal steps against tax evasion and smuggling. The statement singled out Constanta as the area "most affected by corruption and smuggling" and said that customs control would be tightened in that Black Sea port. The cabinet's reaction came after repeated allegations in the media that government officials have abused their offices to help or cover up illegal transactions, smuggling, tax evasion, and bribery. The communique dismissed such accusations as groundless and spoke of a "disloyal campaign against some members of the cabinet" in the media. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER: TURKEY NO THREAT. Addressing a two-day seminar on national security issues in Sofia, Defense Minister Valentin Aleksandrov on 18 May said Turkey might qualify as Bulgaria's "strategic rear," BTA reports. Noting that in the entire postwar period Turkey has shown no signs of "aggressiveness or intolerance" toward Bulgaria, Aleksandrov said a concrete military threat is more likely to originate from the west [where Macedonia and Serbia are located]. Another attendee at the seminar, Nikolay Slatinski, a national security expert and UDF deputy, called on state agencies to coordinate policy-making on security problems. -Kjell Engelbrekt KRAVCHUK APPOINTS NEW MINISTER FOR CONVERSION. Ukrainian Radio reported on 18 May that President Leonid Kravchuk has appointed Dmytro Chernenko as Minister of Machine-Building, the Military Industrial Complex and Conversion. The former minister, Viktor Antonov, has gone into retirement, but the reasons for his sudden departure have not been stated. -Ustina Markus KUCHMA REPORTS ON THE ECONOMY. The Ukrainian parliament resumed its plenary meetings on 18-May and heard Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma report on the work of his government in introducing economic reform, Ukrainian TV reports. Kuchma, stressing the need for strong executive power, asked for an extension of his extraordinary powers to issue economic decrees for another full year. Stabilization of the economy, according to the government head, would require another two to three years. Lawmakers are scheduled to debate Kuchma's proposals over the next few days. -Roman Solchanyk BELARUS CONSIDERS REFERENDUM. The Supreme Soviet agreed to put the issue of a national referendum on its agenda as a new session opened in Minsk, Radiefakt reported on 18 May. The proposal presented by Parliament Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich asks citizens to vote on Belarusian participation in the CIS collective security pact and on disbanding the Supreme Soviet and holding early elections. Parliament also agreed to discuss changes to the Constitution and a draft law on private land ownership supported by Shushkevich. The deputies refused, however, to put a media law supported by Shushkevich on their agenda, the RFE/RL Belarusian Service reports. -Ustina Markus GRACHEV IN LITHUANIA. On 18 May Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev began a visit to Lithuania, Baltic media report. In his talks with President Algirdas Brazauskas he said that although Russia had no wish to delay the withdrawal of Russian troops past the 31-August deadline, the shortage of railroad cars might make this necessary. Grachev visited army facilities in Kaunas and held talks with the Latvian and Estonian defense ministers. He said that Russian troops could leave Latvia by the end of 1994-except from the Skrunda radar station, the Liepaja naval harbor, and the communication center near Ventspils-if appropriate agreements are signed. Russian troops could leave Estonia by the end of this year if unspecified "necessary compensation" is paid. On 19 May Grachev will meet with Seimas Chairman Ceslovas Jursenas, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius, and defense officials before departing. -Saulius Girnius RUSSIAN-LITHUANIAN NEGOTIATIONS. On 18 May, after a seven-month break, negotiations between Russia and Lithuania resumed in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania reports. Virgilijus Bulovas now heads the much-changed Lithuanian delegation. Russia has stressed the need to sign a general political agreement, which Russian President Yeltsin earlier refused to sign. Working groups have approved agreements on pensions for former servicemen and military transit from Germany through Lithuania. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN DEPUTIES WANT GODMANIS OUT. Reflecting the growing public dissatisfaction with the government, 20 deputies from various parties and parliamentary factions are calling for a vote of no-confidence in Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis. They are especially dissatisfied with the government's economic performance and propose that until a new government is formed, the chairman of the Supreme Council fulfill also the duties of the prime minister. The Supreme Council is expected to review Godmanis's performance on 25 May, Radio Riga report. -Dzintra Bungs RUBIKS RUNS FOR LATVIAN PARLIAMENT. Alfreds Rubiks, former Latvian Communist Party leader, is one of the candidates for a seat in parliament on the Ravnopravie ticket. Rubiks has told the press that he plans to start a hunger strike on 21 May unless he is released from detention so that, like other candidates, he can do some actual campaigning. Rubiks, detained in connection with the failed August 1991 coup and efforts to overthrow the government of Latvia, is expected to be brought to trial in mid-June. Election laws do not preclude his running for parliament while in detention, Diena reports. -Dzintra Bungs NOTICE: The RFE/RL Daily Report will not appear tomorrow, 20 May. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Erik Whitlock and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.