|Much unhappiness has come into the world because of bewilderment and things left unsaid. - Dostoevsky|
No. 94, 18 May 1993
RUSSIA REPUBLICS REJECT PRESIDENTIAL DRAFT OF CONSTITUTION. A document published by Nezavisimaya gazeta on 15 May states that the heads of the republics of the Russian Federation consider Yeltsin's draft constitution unacceptable because, although it incorporates the federal treaty, the first part negates the content of the treaty. The draft does not recognize that the republics are sovereign states and that their membership of the Russian Federation is voluntary. It also contains no reference to the right to self-determination. The heads of the republics say that to talk of the immediate adoption of a new constitution is "more than premature;" measures to implement the federal treaty must be adopted first. They also say that any anticonstitutional way of adopting the constitution is unacceptable for the republics. The newspaper comments that the heads of the parliaments of 11 of the 21-republics (Adygeya, Altai, Bashkortostan, Karelia, Khakassia, Komi, Marii El, Mordovia, Sakha (Yakutia), Tuva, and Udmurtia) had signed the document by the time it went to press. Given that Chechnya and Tatarstan are unlikely to want to even discuss the draft, and that the list above does not include most of the North Caucasian republics, who voted against Yeltsin in the recent referendum, it does not look as though Yeltsin's attempt to win the support of the republics is paying off. -Ann Sheehy COURTS STAND FOR PRESS FREEDOM? ON 17 MAY, RUSSIAN TELEVISION REPORTED, A COURT IN MOSCOW'S SVERDLOVSKY DISTRICT REJECTED THE REQUEST OF THE PRESS MINISTRY THAT THE COMMUNIST DAILY SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA BE CLOSED DOWN. The decision came after a similar ruling last week by another district court in Moscow (Dzerzhinsky), which declined to temporarily close down the conservative communist weekly, Den. Altogether the Press Ministry has reportedly prepared cases against some forty periodicals for violation of the Press Law; it is yet unclear whether all of them are associated with the hard-line opposition to Yeltsin. Meanwhile, according to the same newscasts, on 18-May the Constitutional Court is expected to rule on the case brought by the liberal daily Izvestiya, whose staff opposes the decision of the parliament to deprive the paper of its independence, and thus, it argues, turn the newspaper into a mouthpiece of conservative deputies. -Julia Wishnevsky COUP TRIAL RESUMES. The trial of the twelve men accused of treason for their role in the attempted coup of August 1991 will resume in the Russian Supreme Court's Military Collegium on 18 May after a one-month adjournment, Krim-Press reported on 17 May. The trial had opened on 14 April but was halted after two days because of the poor health of one of the defendants, Aleksandr Tizyakov [see RFE/RL Daily Report for 15-April]. The trial is expected to resume with the defense's objections to the state prosecutors, who, it is claimed, are prejudiced against the defendants. RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent reported that there will be eight prosecutors and 21 defense lawyers. Tizyakov was released from hospital on 13 May. -Wendy Slater PARTIES DISCUSS ADOPTION OF NEW CONSTITUTION. The majority of Russia's political parties, including the Movement for Democratic Reforms and those groups that constitute the Civic Union, are determined to get adequate representation in the Constituent Assembly which, according to President Yeltsin's plan, should approve a new Russian Constitution. On 15 May these parties held a round-table discussion in Moscow on how a new Constitution should be adopted. The Democratic Russia (DR) movement did not take part in the round-table due to the participation of several anti-Yeltsin groups. Radio Echo of Moscow quoted a leader of the DR, Vladimir Bokser, as saying that DR did not want to take part in a gathering together with the groups that "lost the 25 April referendum." The Communist Party also did not participate in the round-table, because, according to its leader, Gennadii Zyuganov, the very idea of a Constituent Assembly was unconstitutional. -Vera Tolz SHUMEIKO SUGGESTS CONSTITUTIONAL REFERENDUM. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko in Washington DC for talks with officials said on 17 May that President Yeltsin is prepared to hold another referendum, this time on the new constitution, if deputies refuse to ratify a draft to be discussed in the assembly convened by Yeltsin for 5 June, and if their refusal is supported by the Constitutional Court, Reuters reported. Shumeiko said that a referendum was the only way to break a future constitutional gridlock, and predicted that the reform program would accelerate once a new constitution was adopted. His remarks were echoed by Constitutional Court chairman Valerii Zorkin who said on Russian TV on 17 May that a new constitution could only be adopted by the current legislature or by means of a national referendum. -Wendy Slater POLICY DECLARATION FOR IMF BEING PREPARED. Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov is working with the Central Bank on a joint statement which will serve as a pledge to the International Monetary Fund that Russia will keep state spending and credit creation under control, Reuters and ITAR-TASS reported on 17 May. Such declarations are viewed as a precondition for the IMF to lend member states money. The Russian government and Central Bank have been at odds over economic policy for some time now, but Fedorov evaluated current negotiations with the bank in a positive light. "[They] are going normally... The Central Bank is showing good will," he said. The declaration will presumably be similar to the memorandum signed by then Prime Minister Egor Gaidar and Central Bank head Georgii Matyukhin in March of last year. -Erik Whitlock PARLIAMENT APPROVES BUDGET...AGAIN. The Russian parliament on 14 May passed a state budget for 1993 that envisages a 7-8 billion ruble deficit, various Russian and Western news agencies reported. This latest budget only slightly differs from the one given tentative approval on 25 March and does not incorporate most of the changes proposed by President Yeltsin in the interim. Parliament's action does not mark the end of the process of formulating the budget for this year, however. The budget's figures will reportedly be revised at least one more time to account for changes in prices expected for the rest of the year. -Erik Whitlock OIL SECTOR SLATED FOR COMPETITION? RECENT PRESS REPORTS SUGGEST THERE MAY BE PLANS AFOOT TO INTRODUCE COMPETITION IN THE RUSSIAN OIL SECTOR AS A MEANS OF BOOSTING OIL OUTPUT. Reuters on 17 May cited Alexander Putilov, the head of the state oil monopoly, Rosneft, as saying that he envisaged the creation of "several" companies, each with operations from extraction to retailing. He gave no time frame for the restructuring. Kommersant on 14-May reported that the State Property Committee has plans to structure ownership of the energy complex in enterprises along regional lines. The Minister of Fuel and Energy has opposed such ideas saying that privatizing and restructuring the industry should not be hurried as "there is no more efficient industry in Russia than the fuel and energy complex." Russian oil production fell 15% between the end of March 1992 and end of March 1993, according to the Russian State Committee for Statistics -Erik Whitlock RUSSIA MOVES ON BOSNIA SETTLEMENT. Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev started a tour dedicated to pushing through the Vance-Owen peace plan on 17-May. Russia's chief negotiator for the former Yugoslavia, Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin, asserted as Kozyrev departed that Russia wields considerable influence over the Serbs. Kozyrev's held talks in Berlin with his German counterpart Klaus Kinkel and stressed that the decision to stop first in Germany was not a matter of geographical convenience, "but the recognition of new realities in the present-day world." He added: "We view Germany as a reliable partner and are convinced that the way to peace in Europe now runs through Berlin." Kozyrev's tentative agenda includes stops in Zagreb, Belgrade, Sarajevo, and Rome, for meetings with members of the Western European Union, ITAR-TASS and the Los Angeles Times reported. -Suzanne Crow GRACHEV OPPOSES RUSSIAN TROOP DEPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 17 May, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev reviewed his recent trip to Turkey and answered a wide range of questions. Commenting on the situation in Bosnia, Grachev ruled out the introduction of Russian military forces, a position which appears to contradict that taken by Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev, who has suggested that up to 2000 Russian troops could be deployed for peacekeeping purposes. Grachev's comments were reported by Ostankino TV, Radio Rossii, and ITAR-TASS. -John Lepingwell DISSOLUTION OF THE SDI PROGRAM WELCOMED. Grachev also commented that the decision by US Defense Secretary Les Aspin to shut down the Strategic Defense Initiative office and reorient ballistic missile defense research, was a sensible decision that took into account current military, political, and economic realities. He did not reiterate earlier Russian calls for joint programs in ballistic missile defense, a proposal that appears to have been downplayed in the last few months. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV ON THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION. According to ITAR-TASS, Grachev denied reports that the Ministry of Defense opposes the current presidential draft constitution. He noted that all ministries and departments had been invited to submit comments on the draft by 20 May, and that the Defense Ministry was preparing its submission. Grachev stated that while defense issues were well covered in the constitution, it should also have a section on "Defense of the Fatherland" which would make such defense a duty of all citizens. Other suggestions were that the sections dealing with the president's prerogatives in ordering the armed forces to "repel aggression" be strengthened, and that the armed forces be "provided with everything necessary" to defend the state. The latter phrase echoes defense debates from the pre-Gorbachev period and may indicate that the Defense Ministry wants greater priority in resource allocation. Grachev also noted that the new Russian doctrine is "defensive" in nature, and will be unveiled soon. -John Lepingwell COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES SHAPOSHNIKOV REITERATES NEED FOR COLLECTIVE SECURITY. Speaking at a news conference on 17-May, CIS Commander Evgenii Shaposhnikov stated that Russia and Uzbekistan do not oppose the creation of a collective security system for the CIS, but that they have their own approach to the problem. ITAR-TASS said Shaposhnikov revealed that the CIS command will draft a proposal to increase defense coordination and capabilities for submission to the 16 July meeting of CIS heads of state. He positively appraised the meeting of CIS defense ministers, held on 14 May, noting that most of the CIS states recognized the need for a collective security pact, and that it marked the beginning of a new level of integration for the CIS states. Despite Shaposhnikov's enthusiasm, however, the states signing the collective security agreement remain only a subset of the CIS, and the emerging Russian preference for bilateral agreements leaves some doubt as to whether the integration process will continue. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV ON TURKEY, NAGORNO-KARABAKH. Speaking at a press conference in Moscow on 17 May, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev reiterated his charge (first made in Turkey) that both CIS and non-CIS states were supplying arms to Azerbaijan, according to ITAR-TASS. While this charge has been denied by Azerbaijan, Grachev stated "we attentively follow the sale of arms and equipment to Azerbaijan and don't miss any facts" and threatened to name the suppliers. Russian arms sales to Turkey, according to Grachev, will carry the condition that the weaponry not be re-exported to other countries. -John Lepingwell UZBEKISTAN RETALIATION TO KYRGYZ CURRENCY REFORM. Negotiators for the governments of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan began a round of discussions on 17 May on financial difficulties between the two countries resulting from Kyrgyzstan's introduction of its own currency, the Sueddeutsche Zeitung, citing AFP, reported on 18 May. Kyrgyz government officials were reported to be speaking of "difficulties" in Osh and Dzhalalabad Oblasts bordering Uzbekistan without giving details. The region was the scene of fighting between Kyrgyz and Uzbek inhabitants in the summer of 1990, and interethnic relations there remain tense. Fearing that Kyrgyzstan will not meet its old debts, Uzbekistan has threatened to cut off Kyrgyzstan's entire supply of gas. According to the report, telephone connections between the two countries have already been cut off. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SUCHOCKA ADDRESSES THE NATION. Responding to the deepening political crisis brought on by Solidarity's confrontation with the government, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka made a nationally televised address on 17 May. She reiterated both the government's commitment to negotiations and its determination to defend the budget. She repeated the government's pledge to channel any surplus revenues to education and health care, but reminded the unions that wage increases for striking teachers and doctors will be possible only in tandem with systemic reforms. Stressing the opportunities for state workers provided in the "pact on state firms," Suchocka expressed surprise that Solidarity is now calling for a no-confidence vote in the government. Turning to the current turmoil in politics, the prime minister proposed a non-aggression pact to prevent rivalry among parties from undermining Poland's substantial achievements. It is essential to recognize economic realities, she stressed. The parties should agree on a "political calendar" up to the next elections, she added, listing the government's five chief priorities: implementing the "pact," reforming public administration, fighting unemployment, reforming health care and education, and building a stable pensions system. She closed with a message of appreciation to "those whose voices go unheard," whose "normal, calm labor" makes reforms possible, regardless of "political ambitions and games." -Louisa Vinton SOLIDARITY AGREES TO TALK. Solidarity's national leadership met in Gdansk on 17 May to decide whether to accept the government's offer of talks "without preconditions." The union interrupted its deliberations to hear Suchocka's address. Although many union activists expressed skepticism or even derision at the prime minister's remarks, the leadership agreed, as a "good will gesture," to accept the government's invitation to talks. Negotiations opened early on 18 May, with Suchocka and Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski presiding. Krzaklewski told journalists beforehand that the union is prepared to reach a consensus with the government, provided the government is willing to contemplate "risky decisions." Should the talks prove fruitless, he warned, the union would submit its no-confidence motion and prepare to call a general strike. Solidarity's decision to attend the talks suggests that moderates may have the upper hand in the union leadership, at least for the moment. The union issued a statement disavowing a demonstration planned for 18 May in Warsaw by a radical union faction that opposes President Lech Walesa. -Louisa Vinton POLISH POLITICAL TURMOIL CONTINUES. Members of Solidarity's parliamentary caucus announced on 17 May that they had collected 49 signatures in support of a motion for a no-confidence vote in the government. The required minimum is 46. The Confederation for an Independent Poland has also collected enough signatures for a motion to bring down the government, but Solidarity apparently does not wish to associate itself with that party's radical demands. The former communist Democratic Left Alliance announced it will support the government in any no-confidence vote provided the ruling coalition agrees to hold early elections and convinces the Sejm to accept a concrete date. Meanwhile, President Lech Walesa met with representatives of the Network, the dissident organization of Solidarity locals that has traditionally supported his positions. In a statement, Network representatives called for the formation of a "presidential government" of nonpartisan experts, a new constitution based on a "presidential-parliamentary system," and a lustration law. The president did not directly endorse the Network's proposals, but scheduled further talks for 18 May. -Louisa Vinton DALAI LAMA, PRINCE CHARLES IN WARSAW. President Lech Walesa met privately with the Dalai Lama on 17 May. Early press reports had criticized the president for his alleged unwillingness to meet with the exiled Tibetan leader. Chinese representatives in Poland had made their displeasure with the visit known, Gazeta Wyborcza reports. Scoffing at such reports, Walesa stressed that "all nations have the right to freedom." The Dalai Lama is making an unofficial visit to Poland at the invitation of Polish human rights organizations. He laid wreaths at Warsaw sites on 17 May, including the Ghetto monument and Father Jerzy Popieluszko's grave. He praised Poland's struggle for independence and criticized China for conducting a policy of "extermination" in Tibet, PAP reports. Walesa also met with Britain's Prince Charles, who arrived in Warsaw on 17 May for a four-day official visit. -Louisa Vinton KUCHMA THREATENS TO RESIGN. In an interview on CIS TV on 16 May Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma said he will resign if the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet does not grant him extraordinary powers to implement economic reform. The Supreme Soviet had granted the government extraordinary powers six months ago to pursue reform by allowing it to issue decrees on the economy, but these powers expire on 18 May. Kuchma particularly wants the powers to accelerate privatization. On 18 May an RFE/RL correspondent quoted Taras Stetskiv, a political advisor to Kuchma, as saying, "The situation is at a stalemate because the government can't get a constitutional majority to extend its extraordinary powers and parliament, at the same time, isn't strong enough to sack the government." The prime minister has pursued a tough reformist path since coming to power last October and western economists in Kiev say Ukraine cannot not expect backing from foreign financial institutions if Kuchma resigns or compromises his policies on market reform. -Ustina Markus BOSNIAN SERBS OVERWHELMINGLY REJECT PLAN. International media and Radio Serbia report on 17 May that preliminary results from the referendum from many districts in Bosnia-Herzegovina show the Bosnian Serbs overwhelmingly rejecting the Vance-Owen peace plan and supporting an independent Serbian state in Bosnia. Turnout was reported to be over 90%. 90-99% voted to reject the plan. Final results may be announced on 18-May. International reaction has denounced the referendum. A spokesman for the French Foreign Ministry questioned the legitimacy of the results and declared them "null and void." Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said he cannot accept the results, which he called "more than disputable." Lord Owen expressed "consternation," saying that although the "temptation" is to respond "with bombs," the West should remain calm and preserve the "process of negotiation." -Milan Andrejevich MECIAR LINKS PROPERTY ISSUE WITH OIL SUPPLIES. In an interview with the German weekly Der-Spiegel, published on 17 May, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said that the fact that the Czech Republic's energy supplies pass through Slovak territory lends weight to Slovak claims on former Czechoslovak property. The prime minister argued that the Czech Republic could not survive for more than ten days if its oil supplies through Slovakia were disrupted. Asked by the interviewer whether he intends "to turn off the lights for Klaus and Havel," Meciar responded that such means should not be used in the dispute but that Slovakia's position is strengthened by the reality of the pipeline. Jan Obrman PYNZENYK SAYS UKRAINE'S FUEL PRICES MUST INCREASE. On 17 May an RFE/RL correspondent reported that Deputy Prime Minister Viktor Pynzenyk, in charge of economic reform, told the parliament that fuel prices must rise to reflect the higher prices Russia will be charging Ukraine. Earlier the Ukrainian Supreme Soviet had blocked government-ordered price increases until it hears a report on the economy from the cabinet which is due on 18-May. Pynzenyk stated that only the government has the authority to determine price increases, not the parliament. -Ustina Markus COMMISSION TO SCREEN CZECH OFFICERS. The Czech Defense Ministry issued an order to check the moral, physical and professional qualifications of some 28,000 professional soldiers, CTK reported on 17 May. Czech Defense Minister Antonin Baudys informed journalists that the checks will be carried out in the form of interviews and that the process should be completed by the end of 1993. Among the criteria for continued employment in the Czech armed forces will be a sufficient educational background, physical fitness, and an unproblematic moral profile. Baudys indicated that officers who participated in the purge of the armed forces after 1968 or in the preparations for the military clampdown on student demonstrations in 1989 will be fired. He also announced that the personnel reductions would force 8,000 and 10,000 professional soldiers to leave the armed forces or retire. Jan Obrman BULGARIA WANTS TRANSIT CORRIDOR THROUGH RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. In a memorandum addressed to the United Nations Security Council, the Bulgarian government on 17 May proposed the opening of a free transit corridor for goods traffic through rump Yugoslavia. Speaking to journalists in Sofia, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov said the cabinet is suggesting a corridor that would pass through Nis and Belgrade, and then reach Hungary. Without elaborating, Berov said there are ways to ensure that embargoed goods will not end up in Serbian hands. State officials have argued that Bulgaria so far has lost $1.8 billions as a result of UN sanctions and stands to lose $2.5 billion annually following the tightening of the embargo. Over the last few weeks Bulgarian-Romanian border crossings have been jammed by goods traffic normally relying on routes through Yugoslavia. -Kjell Engelbrekt ILIESCU MEETS TUDJMAN, IZETBEGOVICH. Romania's president, Ion Iliescu, arrived in Zagreb from Lubljana on 17 May, where he is paying the first official Romanian visit to Croatia. He held two session of talks on bilateral relations and the conflicts in former Yugoslavia with his host, Franjo Tudjman. Also on 17 May, Iliescu met the president of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Aljia Izetbegovic. The encounter had been originally scheduled for 16-May in Lubljana, but Izetbegovic was unable to attend it for what were said to be "security reasons." After the meeting with Izetbegovic, Iliescu said that both presidents were of the opinion that the Vance-Owen plan was still the "only realistic solution" for solving the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina, although Izetbegovic admitted that the Bosnians had had "misgivings" about the plan. -Michael Shafir GENERAL STRIKE PLANNED IN SERBIA. At a news conference on 17 May, members of the large "Independence" association of branch trade unions called a general strike for 19 May. The union demands that the Serbian government pay the salaries of workers given mandatory leaves of absence; that these salaries cover the cost of basic daily expenses; and that the salaries of those working be adjusted to the rate of inflation on basic food items. Members of Serbia's teachers union and the Belgrade transit union said they will join the strike. Organizers say the strike will last until their demands are met, Radio Serbia reports-Milan Andrejevich STRIKES IN ROMANIA. Romanian metal workers went on strike on 17 May to demand more pay to compensate for rising prices, Radio Bucharest said. Reuters reported from Bucharest that the metal workers union is demanding a minimum monthly wage of 50,000 lei ($81) for skilled workers. The current average is 34,000 ($55). Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu immediately appointed a team of negotiators to discuss the union's claims. Also on 17-May, the Free Trade Union of Romanian Radio and Television announced a one-hour warning strike for 18-May to protest against the government's refusal to negotiate a labor contract. The union's leader told an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest that Romanian TV still serves as "an instrument of propaganda" for the political forces controlling it.-Michael Shafir STRIKES IN LITHUANIA. On 13 May teachers went on strike in Lithuania to demand higher wages. On 14 May about 15% of all teachers working in 142 schools, or 6.7% of the total, were on strike. Although strikes ended in some schools on 17 May, the strike action remains strong, BNS reports. Noting that teachers' wages had been increased several times this year, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius rejected the teachers' demands as excessive and called the strike a "political action" coordinated by Sajudis to destabilize the economy. The sensitive nature of the strike showed in the government's failure to go to court to stop it. A strike begun by trolleybus drivers in Kaunas on 13 May ended on 17-May after the court ruled that it should be postponed. The drivers also demanded wage increases. -Saulius Girnius POLISH UNEMPLOYMENT DROPS. The rate of registered unemployment in Poland dropped by 0.2% in April, Deputy Labor Minister Michal Boni announced on 12 May. The number of people out of work fell by 6,200 to 2,642,000, or 14.3% of the work force. Unemployment was higher in twenty voivodships in April, and lower in twenty-nine, PAP reports. Of the 136,000 people removed from the unemployment rolls, 72,000 (53%) found new permanent jobs and 30,000 (22%) accepted employment in public works projects. The rest either qualified for retirement or were struck from the rolls for refusing an offer of work or retraining. Although a promising sign, Boni cautioned that the drop in unemployment is not necessarily evidence that the worst is over. -Louisa Vinton HUNGARY'S FINANCE MINISTER ON BUDGET DEFICIT. Finance Minister Ivan Szabo told the parliament on 17 May that new steps are needed to address the growing budget deficit, in light of the recent preliminary agreement with the IMF, MTI reports. Szabo said that the 1993 deficit will reach 215 billion forint ($2.5 billion), about 6.8% of GDP, exceeding the planned limit of 185 billion forint. The main cause is the shortfall in privatization income. Tax increases and spending reductions will be needed to remedy the imbalance, Szabo said. His proposals included reducing child benefits, postponing civil service wage increases, raising some value-added-taxes, and "temporarily" changing income tax levels. Business taxes, however, will be lowered from 40% to 38%. The budget adjustment package will be submitted to the parliament in the coming weeks. -Karoly Okolicsanyi LATVIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS ON TROOP WITHDRAWAL RESUME. On 17 May Latvian and Russian delegations met again in Jurmala to discuss issues related to the withdrawal of Russian troops from Latvia. Leaders of both sides said that they hope to sign several accords and agree on the completion date for the troop withdrawals, Baltic media report. In a related development, the Russian Baltic Fleet command announced on 14 May that it had rejected Latvia's criticism of its maneuvers in the Baltic Sea in mid-May and would go ahead with plans for missile-launch training late in May. The Latvian Foreign Ministry had termed the maneuvers an unfriendly act and noted that they effectively halted foreign trade in Western Latvian ports, BNS reported on 14 May. -Dzintra Bungs SWEDISH HELP IN GUARDING LATVIA'S BORDERS. After meeting with Latvian leaders, Sweden's Defense Minister Anders Bjšrck told the press on 17 May that his country has decided to help Latvia guard its borders, especially since some of the illegal immigrants to Sweden use Latvia for transit purposes. Bjšrck also said that Sweden expects to send to Latvia four border patrol boats, trucks, radiation detectors, military equipment and a wide range of medical aid. Sweden will also assist in the training of Latvia's defense forces, BNS reported on 17 May. From Riga Bjšrck went to Tallinn to meet with Estonian leaders. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Erik Whitlock and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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