|This communicating of a man's self to his friend works two contrary effects; for it redoubleth joy, and cutteth griefs in half. - Francis Bacon|
No. 93, 17 May 1993
RUSSIA RYABOV BREAKS RANKS WITH KHASBULATOV. The conservative deputy speaker of parliament, Nikolai Ryabov, has appealed to parliamentarians not to reject President Boris Yeltsin's idea of holding a constitutional assembly to approve the new constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 14 May. In doing so, Ryabov broke ranks with parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov who has called Yeltsin's idea "criminal." During Ryabov's speech to the parliament, Khasbulatov tried to interrupt him several times but other parliamentary leaders, such as the speakers of both chambers of the parliament, Venyamin Sokolov and Ramazan Abdulatipov, and the leader of the Communist faction, Sergei Baburin, supported Ryabov. After Ryabov spoke and Khasbulatov's motions to nix the constitutional assembly received only about 45 percent of deputies' votes, Khasbulatov stormed out of the parliament. -Alexander Rahr KHASBULATOV AND FILATOV SUGGEST COMBINING CONSTITUTIONAL DRAFTS. Following Ryabov's unexpected call for a compromise over the means of adopting the new constitution, Khasbulatov, meeting with foreign correspondents in Moscow on 15-May, indicated that he is now prepared to countenance "some kind of joint draft" of the president's and the parliament's versions for a new Russian Constitution, Western agencies reported. However, referring to Yeltsin's convening of local leaders on 5 June to discuss the president's draft, he warned of the danger of being "drawn into any kind of unconstitutional structures," claiming that Russia could continue under its current constitution for another two years and that the issue was being exploited by the presidential side to divert attention from more serious problems. Meanwhile, the head of Yeltsin's administration, Sergei Filatov, speaking on 14 May at a meeting of the president's regional representatives, added to the calls coming from the parliamentary side to combine the two constitutional drafts, but suggested that the president's version be used as the basic text. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN MEETS MINISTRY OF SECURITY LEADERS. President Yeltsin met with the senior leadership of the Ministry of Security on 15 May, according to ITAR-TASS. Yeltsin outlined the tasks of the ministry in ensuring Russia's national security during its political and economic transformation. He also called the ministry to support his constitution and said his reforms secure Russia's "powerful position in the world." The president categorically rejected conjectures in the media concerning the resignation of Viktor Barannikov from the post of the Minister of Security. Although not reported, Yeltsin is believed to have also discussed possible candidates for the post of Secretary of the Security Council with the ministry's leadership. Few additional details from the meeting were available. -Alexander Rahr URANIUM DEAL WITH US REACHED? ON 14 MAY REUTERS REPORTED THAT THE US AND RUSSIA WOULD SOON SIGN A DEAL UNDER WHICH RUSSIA WOULD SELL ENRICHED URANIUM RECLAIMED FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS FOR REPROCESSING INTO NUCLEAR FUEL. The deal, which has been under negotiation for over nine months, had been stalled by disagreements over price and the sharing of the proceeds with Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. According to the Reuters report, Russia would receive $780 per kilogram of low enriched uranium. Whether the highly enriched uranium would be diluted in Russia or the US was not specified. According to the report up to 500 tons of highly enriched weapons-grade material may be sold under the agreement. This suggests that the total deal could be worth approximately $13 billion over the expected ten-year sales period. Reuters also reported that progress has been made in resolving ongoing disagreements between Russia and the US over uranium market share and dumping charges. -John Lepingwell INGUSH ADOPT SOVEREIGNTY DECLARATION. An extraordinary congress of the peoples of Ingushetia on 15 May adopted a declaration of state sovereignty declaring the Ingush republic a democratic secular state, forming part of the Russian Federation on the basis of the federal treaty, ITAR-TASS reported. The congress also decided that Ingushetia should be a presidential republic. At the congress Ingush president Ruslan Aushev said that he had asked the Russian leadership to introduce a special form of rule in the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia after the state of emergency expires on 31 May. Aushev has consistently argued that there can be no solution to the problem of the return of Ingush refugees from the Prigorodnyi raion unless the federal authorities take direct responsibility. -Ann Sheehy PROCURATOR-GENERAL ON NORTH OSSETIAN-INGUSH CONFLICT. Procurator-General Valentin Stepankov told KRIM-PRESS on 14 May that it was difficult to arrest those suspected of crimes during the North Ossetian-Ingush armed clash in October-November 1992 because local inhabitants tended to regard the perpetrators as heroes. As a result, over half the warrants for arrest and detention have not been obstructed. Speaking about the report he will shortly present to Yeltsin, Stepankov said that in the first five days of the disorders over 4,000 crimes were committed in which over 1,700 people took part. 2,500 house were burnt, and about 400 people disappeared without trace. Stepankov referred to the hazards faced by the investigators, several of whom have been killed. He was guarded about the prospects for peace in the region, saying that, if order was to be restored, agreement must be reached on disbanding paramilitary units and the surrender of weapons. -Ann Sheehy POWER STRUGGLE CONTINUES IN CHECHNYA. Yaragi Mamodaev, recently appointed prime minister of Chechnya by the Chechen parliament, told ITAR-TASS in Groznyi on 15-May that Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev had placed himself outside the constitution by his recent actions and should step down. Dudaev had declared Mamodaev's appointment illegal and had tried unsuccessfully on the night of 13-May to force him and his team to relinquish the building of the cabinet of ministers. Mamodaev claimed in his remarks to the ITAR-TASS correspondent that his supporters were ten times more numerous than those of Dudaev, but the dispute must be solved by peaceful means, either on the basis of the constitution, a shariat court, or through a referendum. In conclusion, Mamodaev said Dudaev had done a great deal to win the independence of the Chechen people, but very little to consolidate this independence. -Ann Sheehy MOSCOW FOR VANCE-OWEN IMPLEMENTATION. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev held talks in Moscow on 16 May with Lord David Owen and Thorvald Stoltenberg. Following the meetings, Kozyrev told reporters that Moscow favors the implementation of the Vance-Owen peace plan regardless of the results of the referendum among Bosnia's Serb population. "We don't have to wait until the last Bosnian militant endorses the plan," Kozyrev said. He added that the Vance-Owen plan should be implemented gradually. Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin said in Moscow on 15 May upon returning from a tour through former Yugoslavia that Moscow will take decisive measures to move the peace process in Bosnia forward. He stressed that he did not have military action in mind, Russian and Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow JAPANESE-RUSSIAN RELATIONS: AN UPDATE. Japanese Foreign Minister Kabun Muto said in Tokyo on 14-May that the normalization of Japanese-Russian relations on the basis of a resolution of the Kuril Island dispute and the signing of a peace treaty is a top priority of the Japanese government, ITAR-TASS reported. Disagreement on the territorial issue has led Boris Yeltsin to cancel planned trips to Japan twice in the past year, and Tokyo has moved gradually in recent months to soften its earlier insistence that aid to Moscow be strictly linked to concessions by Russia on the issue. Japan will host a meeting of the G-7 nations in July, and aid to Russia is expected to figure prominently in the discussions. Meanwhile, former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone arrived in Moscow on 15 May to begin a week-long visit during which he is to meet with Boris Yeltsin. According to Reuter, Nakasone has expressed his readiness to mediate between Tokyo and Moscow on the territorial issue. -Stephen Foye COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES CIS HEADS CALL FOR ECONOMIC INTEGRATION. Following a plenary meeting in Moscow on 14 May, the heads of virtually all the republics of the Commonwealth of Independent States announced their intention of moving towards greater economic integration through reducing barriers on interrepublic trade and investment. Russian president Boris Yeltsin speaking at the press conference after the meeting said that "all state-participants of the Commonwealth expressed [support] for creating an economic union." Only Turkmenistan declined to sign the meeting's declaration, choosing to take more time to study the issue. Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk endorsed the objectives of further integration, but was wary of using the term "economic union." Yeltsin mentioned that the participants meant to produce the first formal documents and "practical steps" towards creating the economic union by 1 July. -Erik Whitlock TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TAJIK GOVERNMENT FORCES STILL FIGHTING INVADERS. Tajikistan's Foreign Ministry said on 15-May that Tajik government forces assisted by Russian border guards are still fighting a group of Tajik oppositionists who slipped across the border from Afghanistan at the beginning of May, ITAR-TASS reported. The opposition group was originally estimated at 350 persons, of whom 70 are known to have been killed in clashes with government troops and Russian border guards. Tajikistan's government is still expecting an attack across the border by opposition forces who have reportedly been assembling in the northern provinces of Afghanistan. In the 15 May statement, the Tajik Foreign Ministry claimed that the opposition was being supported in Afghanistan by "certain foreign special services." -Bess Brown YELTSIN, SHEVARDNADZE CALL FOR ABKHAZ CEASEFIRE. At their summit in Moscow on 14 May Russian President Yeltsin and chairman of the Georgian parliament Eduard Shevardnadze called for a cease-fire in Abkhazia beginning 20 May, and the withdrawal from the combat zone of heavy military equipment and artillery, Western agencies reported. A ban on overflights of the region would follow beginning 25 May. Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 16 May as stating that Abkhaz forces are prepared to cease fire "unconditionally" provided all Georgian troops withdraw from Abkhazia. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE KARADZIC: VANCE-OWEN PLAN "NOW DEAD." Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic announced on 16 May that the Vance-Owen peace plan for Bosnia-Herzegovina is "now dead" as a result of the overwhelming rejection in a two-day referendum by Bosnian Serbs. He made the statement after preliminary results released by election officials indicate that over 80% of eligible voters took part and that in most districts more than 90% rejected the plan. Voters reportedly approved a second proposition: whether the self-proclaimed Serb Republic of Bosnia should be independent and have the right to unite with other states formed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia [i.e., join with Serbia]. Officials results are not expected until 18 May, but the international community views the balloting as a sham, and Belgrade called it "ill-conceived." Karadzic called for negotiations on a new plan to be brokered by former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, saying they have a better understanding of the situation. Serbian and international media carried the reports on 16 and 17-May. Milan Andrejevich POLITICAL FIREWORKS IN BELGRADE. Serbian and international media reports on 14-May describe the tense joint session in Belgrade of the Serbian, Montenegrin, and federal assemblies as a clear indication of the rift between the Serbian-Montenegrin government and Bosnian Serbs and their supporters in Belgrade. One deputy from Serbia described the meeting to the RFE/RL Research Institute as "unusually stormy, even by Serbian standards." Nearly half the deputies walked out after a proposal by the Radical Party that deputies, rather than faction leaders, be heard was voted down. Those who left the assembly expressed opposition to the peace plan. The remaining deputies adopted a declaration supporting the Vance-Owen plan. Only small delegations of Serb officials from Croatia and Bosnia attended the pan-Serb session. -Milan Andrejevich MLADIC THREATENS WEST; ARMY CRITICIZES SESELJ. Reuters reports on 16 May that Gen. Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serb army commander, threatened retaliation if the West uses military action to force the Serbs to accept the Vance-Owen plan. Any Western troops on the ground would "leave their bones" in Bosnia, he reportedly said. "If [the West] bombs me, I'll bomb London." He apparently has in mind terrorist action, warning further, "there are Serbs in London, there are Serbs in Washington." For the fourth time in a week Serbian Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj threatened the West by remarking on 16 May that Serbian and Russian volunteers would attack Sarajevo if the West launched air strikes. Radio Serbia reported on 14 May that the Federal Yugoslav Army has issued a statement disavowing Seselj's recent threats of missile strikes against civilian targets in Western Europe, avowing that the armed forces of Serbia-Montenegro do not share his "enthusiasm for war." -Milan Andrejevich SLOVAKIA WILL NOT PARTICIPATE IN MILITARY ACTION IN BOSNIA. At a farewell ceremony for a 418member unit of the Slovak Army departing for their mission in Croatia, Slovak President Michal Kovac ruled out Slovak participation in any possible military action in Bosnia, TASR reported on 14 May. Kovac said that "Slovakia is too young to dare participate" in military action. He added that participation is also ruled out by the concern about the fate of the Slovak minority in the former Yugoslavia. -Jan Obrman BULGARIA IMPLEMENTS UN SANCTIONS. The government on 14 May froze all Serbian and Montenegrin financial assets in the country and announced it will start enforcing the tightened United Nations embargo. Although the cabinet already on 26 April declared the country's readiness to enforce the stricter sanctions, for unknown reasons it originally issued no new instructions to customs authorities. Since the beginning of May there have been growing signs that sanction-busters have used the delay to transport prohibited goods to rump Yugoslavia. A CSCE monitor said that raw materials, such as iron ore, steel, cement, and phosphates have lately reached Serbia via the Danube. Customs controls will now be reinforced, but last week's reports by BBC and domestic press that smugglers are systematically using back roads along the border with Serbia suggest that some supplies will continue to come through. -Kjell Engelbrekt NATO REJECTS HUNGARIAN REQUEST. Hungary's informal request several weeks ago to receive NATO security guarantees and antiaircraft missiles against possible Serbian attack, was quietly declined, Reuters reported on 14 May. Hungary was worried about the security of its only nuclear power station at Paks and reprisals against the 400,000 ethnic Hungarians living in the Vojvodina. NATO sources said that Hungary was told that it was protected by the UN Charter and that NATO could not go further. Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky is holding consultations with NATO officials about the matter between 17 and 19 May in Brussels. Hungary is a front-line state in the strengthened UN economic embargo against Serbia. -Karoly Okolicsanyi POLISH STAND-OFF CONTINUES. As Solidarity's parliamentary caucus drafted its motion of no-confidence in the government, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka attempted to reopen negotiations. Responding to a telephone request from the president, the prime minister proposed a new round of talks with Solidarity for 18-May. Solidarity rejected that date as "too late" and demanded that the government present its proposed "solutions" to the problems of striking teachers and health care workers before any negotiations begin. The prime minister's spokesman rejected all "preconditions." Suchocka and the labor and finance ministers met with the Solidarity caucus for two hours on 15 May, but apparently without bringing the two sides closer. Solidarity's national leadership meets in Gdansk on 17-May to decide whether to accept the government's offer of talks "without preconditions." Gazeta Wyborcza reports that the prime minister will address the nation on 17 May. A one-hour strike by railway workers is scheduled for 18 May. -Louisa Vinton SEJM REJECTS GOVERNMENT REPORT ON STRIKES. Reporting to the Sejm on the strike situation on 14 May, Deputy Prime Minister Pawel Laczkowski categorically ruled out wage increases for striking teachers and health care workers. The government welcomes negotiations, he said, but the unions must recognize the principle that "the government cannot spend more than what it has." Revising the budget, as the opposition demanded, would not increase the funds at the government's disposal. Yielding to wage demands would show "extreme irresponsibility." Threats by radical activists to overthrow the government, bypass the parliament, and oust the president, he warned, are inconsistent with democracy. In the debate that followed, the opposition charged the government with decimating education and health care. The government coalition charged Solidarity with "bolshevism" and aspiring to the "leading role" once held by the communist party. The Sejm rejected Laczkowski's report on 15-May by a vote of 169 to 151. The vote has no practical impact, but provided what Laczkowski called a "foretaste of a no-confidence vote." -Louisa Vinton MECIAR BEGINS US VISIT. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar has left for a five-day unofficial visit to the US, TASR reports on 17 May. In an interview with Slovak TV on the 16th, Meciar said that he will discuss issues such as "the future world order and security systems, international cooperation, and Slovakia's place in the world." Slovak officials have informed journalists that Meciar will meet with high-ranking representatives of the IMF and the World Bank and individual congressmen. Meciar is accompanied by Deputy Prime Minister Roman Kovac and Foreign Ministry State Secretary Jan Lisuch. -Jan Obrman QUESTIONS SURROUNDING PRIMAKOV VISIT TO PRAGUE. The four-day visit (12-15 May) to the Czech Republic of Evgenii Primakov, director of Russia's foreign intelligence service, attracted considerable interest in the Czech press. A joint press conference by Primakov and Czech Interior Minister Jan Ruml scheduled for 14 May was canceled, and spokesmen merely informed journalists about an agreement to share information on organized crime, including drug and arms trafficking. In a commentary published on 15-May, Mlada fronta dnes claimed that no other foreign intelligence official had spent so much time in Prague since the toppling of the communist regime and no other had been granted an audience with the Czech foreign minister and a deputy prime minister. The editorial pointed out that if the two sides exclusively discussed organized crime, then police officials should have been involved which, the daily said, was not the case. Rude pravo reported on the same day that Czech officials demanded a list of Czech KGB collaborators. According to the paper, Primakov turned down the request for the time being. -Jan Obrman HUNGARY ABOLISHES OFFICE OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY. The government decided the abolish the Defense Industry Office and incorporate its function into the Ministry for Industry and Trade, MTI reported on 14 May. The 40-member office was set up in December 1991, but most enterprises belonging to it are under bankruptcy procedures. Karoly Okolicsanyi ILIESCU IN SLOVENIA. On 14-16 May Romanian President Ion Iliescu paid the first ever official visit of a Romanian head of state to Slovenia. He held talks with President Milan Kucan and other Slovenian officials. Negotiations were begun on a basic treaty and embassies in each other's capitals. A considerable part of the discussion was developments in Bosnia-Herzegovina and other parts of former Yugoslavia. Radio Bucharest quoted Iliescu as stating that Romania is willing to back the efforts of the international community to find a peaceful solution to the Bosnian conflict; Iliescu and Kucan agreed that the Vance-Owen plan is the only possible point of departure. Iliescu was scheduled to meet Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic on 16 May. Izetbegovic could not come to Ljubljana, reportedly for security reasons, and Iliescu hopes to see him in Zagreb, where the Romanian president travels on 17-May. -Michael Shafir MACEDONIA AND THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. The Council of Europe granted the Republic of Macedonia nonvoting membership on 14 May. Macedonia's three representatives will be permitted to join in Council debates and participate on commissions but will not have a vote, according to AFP. -Duncan Perry MACEDONIA DEVALUES CURRENCY. The Macedonian denar was again devalued on 16-May, only a week after it became the sole currency of the republic, MILS and Western agencies reported. The new exchange rate is 12.94 denars to the German mark, as compared with the previous rate of 8.028. The new rate takes effect on 17 May. The devaluation is meant to bring the exchange rate in line with the black market rate. -Duncan Perry BULGARIAN JUSTICE MINISTER DIES. Misho Valchev has died after an heart attack, BTA reported on 15 May. An expert on commercial law and especially foreign trade issues, the 73-year-old Valchev was appointed minister in December 1992. -Kjell Engelbrekt SHUSHKEVICH CRITICAL OF CIS COLLECTIVE SECURITY PACT. In an article printed in a number of Belarusian newspapers on 14 May, Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich criticized Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich, Foreign Minister Pyotr Krauchenka, Defense Minister Pavel Kazlouski, 20-parliamentary deputies, and 3 directors of military-industrial enterprises for their support of the CIS collective security pact. The Supreme Soviet approved membership in the CIS security pact last month on the condition that Belarus retain control of its own troops. Since then Shushkevich has been calling for a national referendum on the issue. Shushkevich accused supporters of the pact of trading sovereignty for cheap oil. He said this would reduce Belarus to being a satellite and would still not guarantee the cheap oil or that Belarus would not have to participate in military operations in trouble spots outside the republic. The article was apparently the first time Shushkevich specifically and publicly named the supporters of the pact. -Ustina Markus KRAVCHUK AT THE MOSCOW SUMMIT. Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, appearing at the news conference of CIS heads of state after the summit, said that Ukraine had "always" favored economic integration of the CIS states. At the same time, he said he has reservations regarding the term "economic union," because there are those for whom the term "union" has negative connotations. As a result, he continued, Ukraine proposes that another formulation be arrived at without rejecting the idea of economic integration. The Ukrainian leader also noted that he is pleased with President Boris Yeltsin's stage-by-stage approach to the process of economic integration. On security issues, Kravchuk said that Ukraine will, for the time being, take part only in the military technical aspects of collective security. -Roman Solchanyk YELTSIN-SNEGUR MEETING. Yeltsin and Moldovan President Mircea Snegur held a previously scheduled official meeting on 15 May, in connection with the CIS summit. According to the communique as reported by Basapress, the two noted with satisfaction that the ceasefire on the Dniester is holding and "highly appreciated the activity of the Russian-Moldovan-Dniester peacekeeping forces." Yeltsin urged the parties to the conflict to agree expeditiously on "a special status of the Transdniester region within the structure of the Republic of Moldova" on the basis of a delimitation of powers between them. Yeltsin and Snegur agreed that "the withdrawal of Russian troops from Moldova will be synchronized with the establishment of the Transdniester's special status." Chisinau has long offered the Transdniester a substantial degree of autonomy, but the Russian insurgent leaders there, supported by Russia's 14th Army, insist on full statehood in a confederal arrangement with Moldova. Snegur's apparent endorsement of the Russian-dominated peacekeeping mechanism and linking the withdrawal of Russian troops with the political settlement of the Dniester conflict are major concessions, which the Moldovan leadership'are necessitated bylack of international attention and support for Moldova. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT TO DEBATE START-1. The Presidium of the Ukrainian Parliament has placed START-1 on the agenda for the 18-21 May session, with the debate likely to be conducted towards the end of the week, according to a Radio Ukraine report of 14-May. The parliament is also to discuss the draft military doctrine and foreign policy concept. The debate appears to have been brought forward in the wake of Ambassador Strobe Talbott's recent visit to Kiev, since earlier reports had indicated the treaty would not be discussed until June. The parliament was expected to conduct a number of hearings before voting on the treaty itself. It thus appears possible that the initial plenary debate on the treaty might not result in a final vote and that further hearings might be required. -John Lepingwell TALBOTT VISIT TO ESTONIA. After visiting Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, on 14 and 15 May a US delegation, headed by Strobe Talbott, President Bill Clinton's advisor on affairs in the former Soviet Union, spent two days in Estonia, BNS reports. The delegation held meetings with President Lennart Meri, Prime Minister Mart Laar, and representatives of the Russian-speaking community. Talbott stressed US support for the speedy and complete withdrawal of Russian troops without conditions. He praised Estonia's radical economic reforms, noting that could serve as a model for other former Soviet republics. -Saulius Girnius BELARUS, INDIA AGREE ON COOPERATION. Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich signed agreements with India on defense, science and technical and economic cooperation, Reuters reported on 14 May. Kebich was in New Delhi on a three-day official visit. Kebich earlier spent two days in the United Arab Emirates discussing trade and economic relations with a view toward promoting UAE investment in Belarus, Postfaktumradie reported on 12 May. -Ustina Markus VALUE OF LITHUANIAN COUPON RISES. The exchange rate for the coupon (Lithuania's provisional currency) has improved against hard currencies, Radio Lithuania reported on 14-May. For example, one US-dollar was worth about 500 coupons compared to 550-560 coupons earlier in the week. It is doubtful that the higher value of the coupon can be maintained, since the increase was not prompted by any improvements in Lithuania's economy, but by an increase in the supply of hard currencies. Reacting to the requirement that banks transfer 12% of their hard currency reserves to the Bank of Lithuania hard-currency account, many commercial banks sold hard currencies. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Erik Whitlock and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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