Если когда-нибудь, гоняясь за счастьем, вы найдете его, вы, подобно старухе, искавшей свои очки, обнаружите, что счастье было все время у вас на носу. - Б. Шоу
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 89, 11 May 1993


A working group of representatives of republics and regions of
the Russian Federation is meeting in Moscow on 11 May to discuss
amendments to the presidential draft of a new Russian constitution,
the Russian media reported. The text of the draft was published
by Izvestiya on 30 April. It has already been criticized by the
President of the republic of Sakha for allegedly violating the
Federal Treaty. ITAR-TASS quoted Yeltsin as saying on 10 May
that amendments could be submitted until 20 May. He said by 1
June the draft with all the amendments would have been discussed,
and by 1 July, a final document would emerge. The president also
reiterated his view that a Constituent Assembly should be set
up to adopt a constitution. By law this right belongs to the
Congress of People's Deputies. Yeltsin's supporters argue, however,
that after the majority of participants in the referendum voted
for the reelection of people's deputies, the Congress has de
facto lost its legitimacy. Meanwhile the parliamentary Constitutional
Commission is also working on its own draft constitution. -Vera

GOVERNMENT CHANGES EXPECTED. Former Acting Prime Minister Egor
Gaidar does not exclude his return to the cabinet of ministers,
Radio Rossii "Novosti" reported on 8 May. According to Ostankino
TV "Itogi" on 9 May, Gaidar may soon be appointed First Deputy
Prime Minister. Vladimir Shumeiko, First Deputy Prime Minister
in charge of cadres predicted a reshuffling of the government
apparatus aimed at getting rid of former Communist Party officials.
"Itogi" also stated that President Boris Yeltsin had himself
indicated at a recent press conference that the Secretary of
the Security Council, Yurii Skokov, will be replaced soon. "Itogi"
added that as democrats had supported Yeltsin at the referendum,
the President could reward them by including more of their representatives
into the government. -Alexander Rahr

ABDUCTION OF OPPOSITION LEADER. The hardline opposition leader
of the Russian Communist Workers' Party and the Working Russia
movement Viktor Anpilov, whose disappearance was announced at
the 9 May Victory Day rally, reappeared on 10 May claiming that
he had been abducted by ten unknown men, beaten up, and abandoned
in woods 40 km. from Moscow, Reuters reported. Anpilov disappeared
after being questioned on 8 May by the prosecutor's office over
his participation in the 1 May disturbances in Moscow in which
the RCWP and Working Russia had been involved. Duty Prosecutor
at the prosecutor general's office, Vyacheslav Glukhov, told
Krim-Press on 10-May that Anpilov had two broken fingers and
other injuries. A Moscow district prosecutor has begun an investigation
into the incident. Anpilov claimed that his abductors belonged
to "a parallel security structure not subordinate to the authorities
and the constitution." -Wendy Slater

chief of the Main Administration for the Protection of the President,
agreed with a statement recently made by a leading official of
the presidential apparatus, Sergei Yushenkov, concerning the
threat of an assassination attempt against President Boris Yeltsin.
Yushenkov had claimed that according to information he obtained
from the Ministry of Security, an assassination attempt on Yeltsin
was planned for the May holidays. Barsukov told ITAR-TASS on
10 May that in 1992, more than 100 warnings of terrorist acts
against Yeltsin were received. He said that in the first five
months of this year, more than 45-threats of this kind were registered.
-Alexander Rahr

in Izvestiya 8-May, Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov called
for new measures to control inflation. Aside from his routine
demand for the Central Bank to curtail its liberal credit policies,
Fedorov urged that some recently proposed increases in state
spending be delayed two to four months and that overall planned
budgetary expenditures be reduced by 40%. Fedorov also proposed
raising the price for coal, subsidies for which now absorb 20%
of the state revenues. With regard to stabilizing the ruble exchange
rate, Fedorov rejected a fixed rate, and argued that policies
increasing the flow of hard currency into the country were the
answer. He also advised changing regulations so that the share
of hard currency revenue that enterprises are required to exchange
for rubles be sold directly on the currency market. Much of these
revenues presently must be sold to the Central Bank at considerable
loss to enterprises due to rapid depreciation of the ruble over
lengthy payment processing. -Erik Whitlock

THE STRUGGLE FOR PRIVATIZATION. The parliament's opposition to,
and frustration at, the current course of privatization is neatly
summed up in Kommersant, 29 April. Pegged to the inconclusive
session of 28 April, the report notes the legislature's fury
at the rapid and widespread privatization check auctions and
its downgrading of its own Committee for Economic Reform and
Property Matters that was seen to be in the Yeltsin camp. In
marked contrast is the "Novaya volna" interview on Radio-1 on
4 May, given by Dmitrii Vasilyev, the deputy chairman of the
State Committee for Management of State Property. He is exuberant
over the unprecedented scale of privatization already achieved
and stresses the current emphasis on the sale of large industrial
enterprises via vouchers. New features include incentives for
labor collectives to welcome outside investment, the sale of
plots of land to privatized firms, and government support for
post-privatization operation. -Keith Bush

According to Moscow News no. 18, the Russian Ministry of Security,
formerly the KGB, has prepared a draft law, aimed at giving freeing
itself from legal restrictions. Contrary to the provisions of
the Russian Constitution, the law would entitle the Ministry
of Security to search apartments, bug telephones and scan private
correspondence without any warrant from either court or public
prosecutors. If adopted, it also would make it obligatory for
the employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to take part
in MS operations against foreign spies and commits all citizens
to serve as the Ministry's secret agents should the latter deem
this necessary. Moreover, "Moscow News" revealed that the draft
law includes a provision exempting MS agents from prosecution
for crimes they could commit in order to preserve their anonymity.
-Julia Wishnevsky

Minister Pavel Grachev arrived in Turkey on 10 May to discuss
the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the war in the former Yugoslavia,
and arms sales with Turkish officials. Speaking to reporters
before meeting with the Turkish defense minister, Grachev argued
that air strikes against Bosnian Serb targets would be ineffective
and would cause civilian casualties. Grachev also objected to
suggestions that the arms embargo against Bosnian Muslims be
lifted, and suggested that the economic blockade on the former
Yugoslavia be extended to cover aid supplies. Grachev also suggested
that Bosnian Serbs be allowed to establish land corridors between
their enclaves and Serbia, a demand recently voiced by the Serbian
side. Overall, Grachev's comments suggest that the Russian military
continues to oppose any military intervention in Bosnia if the
Vance-Owen plan fails, although Grachev is not supporting the
demands by Russian conservatives that Russia directly support
the Serbs in the conflict. His remarks were reported by Western
news agencies and ITAR-TASS. -John Lepingwell

CHERNOMYRDIN IN THE NORTH CAUCUSES. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin
visited both Ingushetia and North Ossetia on 10 May, ITAR-TASS
reported. Chernomyrdin, who is heading a high-level delegation
that is going on to Kabardino-Balkaria and Dagestan, told the
North Ossetian leaders in Vladikavkaz that Russia must avoid
a repeat of the conflict that broke out between North Ossetians
and Ingush last year. Earlier in the Ingush capital Nazran he
pledged Russian aid and investments for Ingushetia. Ingush President
Ruslan Aushev, who had said that a visit by one of the top leaders
of Russia was an urgent necessity, repeated that progress must
be made on the problem of returning Ingush refugees to the Prigorodnyi
raion of North Ossetia, otherwise fighting could break out again.
-Ann Sheehy



CIS SUMMIT BROUGHT FORWARD. The routine summit meeting, earlier
scheduled for 26-May, has been brought forward to 14 May, the
Chairman of the Belarusian Supreme Soviet Stanislau Shushkevich
told a press conference in Minsk on 10 May. Belinform-TASS reports
that only Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk has not confirmed
his attendance. Shushkevich told journalists that the decision
to bring the summit forward was due to Kyrgyzstan's decision
to introduce its own currency in violation of CIS rules which
demand advance notification. According to AFP, Shushkevich said
the summit would discuss problems of the ruble zone. -Ann Sheehy

on Georgian Radio on 10 May, Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze
disclosed that at his upcoming summit with Russian President
Boris Yeltsin on 14 May he will propose the deployment of UN
peacekeeping forces in Abkhazia "to allow Russian troops to withdraw
from the region in orderly fashion", Reuters reported. Shevardnadze
further expressed the hope that the meeting would mark an improvement
in Russian-Georgian relations, which he termed a precondition
for resolving Georgia's ongoing problems with its autonomous
regions. -Liz Fuller

10 May that Kyrgyzstan's exchange of currency began on schedule,
at 4 am. An unlimited amount of rubles may be exchanged for Kyrgyzstan's
new currency, the som, at a rate of 200-rubles for one som. The
report noted that though the exchange is supposed to be completed
within four days, many citizens of Kyrgyzstan are in no hurry
to trade in their rubles, hoping that the ruble will become a
convertible currency within Kyrgyzstan. Whether bazaar traders
from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan who now throng Kyrgyz
markets will be willing to accept the som, which they cannot
use in their own countries, remains to be seen. -Bess Brown


CROATS AND MUSLIMS CONTINUE FIGHTING. International media reported
on 10 and 11-May that the two sides have failed to keep a cease-fire
in the Mostar area. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman appealed
on 10 May to both sides to hold to the agreement, saying that
"these clashes-.-.-. could lead to tragic consequences for the
two nations and benefit only the Serb aggressor," according to
Reuters. Much new destruction was evident in the already badly
damaged Herzegovinian capital, and UN officials expressed concern
for the safety of Muslim civilians taken away in buses or sent
to a local stadium. A UN refugee affairs spokesman said that
the Mostar developments marked "the beginning of a second wave
of ethnic cleansing." The Security Council condemned the Croats
for the fighting and demanded an end to it. Meanwhile in eastern
Bosnia, UN observers arriving in the Muslim enclave of Zepa found
it largely deserted, the 40,000 residents and refugees having
taken to the woods in the face of a successful Serb offensive.
Finally, the 11 May Washington Post reports on the Serbs' demolition
of two important sixteenth-century mosques in Banja Luka on 7
May. -Patrick Moore

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS. The BBC reported on 10 May that the
EC has "invited" the United States and Russia to provide troops
to help guard the six projected "safe areas" declared by the
UN in Bosnia-Herzegovina, including Sarajevo. RFE/RL's Washington
correspondent said that a White House spokeswoman told reporters
that the US does not expect to take any action on Bosnia in the
immediate future. A State Department spokesman noted that America's
allies want to wait for the outcome of the Bosnian Serb referendum
slated for the coming weekend before making any decision. The
11 May Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports that the EC has
underscored its opposition to military intervention in Bosnia,
where several of its members already have troops on the ground
in peace-keeping forces. -Patrick Moore

SERBIA'S REFUGEES. Official figures released by Serbia's Red
Cross show that more than half of the 600,000 refugees registered
in Serbia are from Bosnia-Herzegovina, 217,000 from Croatia,
37,000 from Slovenia, and 3,000 from the Republic of Macedonia.
Ethnic Serbs account for 84% of the refugees in Serbia. About
215,000 refugees are under 18 and half of them are under 7. Nearly
96% of the refugees have been housed in private homes. Serbian
Red Cross officials say UN sanctions have brought untold economic
hardships on these households, however, and warn that the Red
Cross does not have the wherewithal to provide shelter for the
200,000 refugees they estimate will be forced out of private
accommodations. To add to the grim situation, many Serbian sponsors
have shown a contemptuous attitude toward the refugees for various
reasons, and law enforcement officials say that the steep rise
in crime since June 1991, specifically in Belgrade, can be attributed
to the influx of refugees. In addition to the figures for Serbia
proper, over 60,000 refugees are registered in Montenegro. Radio
Serbia carried the report on 9 May marking Red Cross Week in
Serbia. -Milan Andrejevich

SOLIDARITY SEVERS STRIKE TALKS. Solidarity unionists representing
employees paid from the state budget broke off talks with the
government on 10 May when their wage demands were rejected. This
outcome was predictable: the government has consistently stressed
that the 1993 budget is not open to revision, while encouraging
talks on systemic reforms in education and health. Deputy Prime
Minister Pawel Laczkowski told Polish TV that the union wants
the government to spend an additional 4 trillion zloty ($240
million) that it simply does not have. Saying he feels "cheated"
by the government, Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski announced
that the union leadership will meet on 12 or 13-May to decide
on further action. Some activists are calling for the union to
overthrow the government. Meanwhile, the general strike by an
estimated 600,000 teachers and health workers continues. The
health minister appealed to doctors not to endanger patients'
lives. The education ministry predicts that the strike will force
the postponement of graduation exams in one-third of Poland's
high schools. The Union of Polish Teachers, the former official
union with a membership larger than Solidarity's, condemned treating
the exams as "bargaining chip" in a wage struggle and continued
talks with the government. Louisa Vinton

met with the president on 10 May to discuss the strike situation
as well as pressing legislation. PAP reports that Suchocka proposed
giving the government the exclusive right to propose changes
to the budget, once it has legal force, in order to avoid "irrational
financial decisions by the parliament." Despite government requests
to the contrary, Walesa suggested on 10 May that he plans to
sign into law the pensions bill recently adopted by the parliament.
The government says this would raise the deficit by 21 trillion
zloty ($1.3 billion). Walesa acknowledged that the bill is fatal
for the budget, but said his signature might force the government
to uncover new funds. Meanwhile, Suchocka accepted the resignation
of Environment Minister Zygmunt Hortmanowicz, but declined to
remove Jerzy Kaminski from his post as minister for party contacts.
Both ministers offered to step down after their party, the Peasant
Alliance, left the governing coalition. Kaminski withdrew from
his party in protest. -Louisa Vinton

SKUBISZEWSKI OPTS TO STAY. At the last minute on 10 May, Poland's
Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski withdrew his candidacy
to the International Court of Justice in the Hague. The deputy
chairman of the Hungarian Constitutional Court, Geza Herczegh,
was elected instead. Skubiszewski had been the clear favorite
for the UN post, and there had already been speculation in Poland
over his likely successor at the foreign ministry. A spokesman
announced on 10 May that Skubiszewski had decided to put public
service before personal interest. Polish TV suggested that the
government and president had pressured Skubiszewski into staying.
Suchocka thanked Skubiszewski, saying that his decision had great
significance for Polish foreign policy. Skubiszewski has been
Poland's foreign minister since the collapse of communism in
1989. -Louisa Vinton

CZECH PREMIER IN SPAIN. Speaking to reporters in Madrid on 10
May after a meeting with Spanish Prime Minister Felipe GonzЗles,
Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said that he and GonzЗles discussed
the issue of the Czech Republic's EC membership and that both
feel that the EC should make a "symbolic gesture" showing that
it is interested in accepting the Czech Republic and other countries.
Spain has previously said it might hold up consideration of enlarging
the 12-member EC until the Maastricht treaty on political and
monetary union is ratified. Klaus, who is on a three-day official
visit to Spain, met also with King Juan Carlos and Finance Minister
Carlos Solchaga on 10 May. -Jiri Pehe

May, several major Slovak dailies speculated about the possibility
of holding early general elections in Slovakia in light of the
fact that the minority government of Vladimir Meciar appears
to be increasingly isolated. Smena wrote that "early elections
are almost certain" but warned that, with or without elections,
Slovakia needs political consensus, as no party is likely to
be able to rule single-handedly. Most opposition parties in Slovakia
would be willing to accept a share of responsibility in governing
the country, the Bratislava daily writes, but "their biggest
problem" is Prime Minister Meciar. Pravda argued that early elections
would not calm the situation in Slovakia. The daily speculated
that the minority government may stay in office if it is able
to make necessary adjustments or "it will be replaced by a broadly-based
coalition," formed in the aftermath of early parliamentary elections.
Narodna obroda wrote on 10 May that Meciar's government either
succeeds in creating a coalition with the Slovak National Party
and the Party of the Democratic Left or there will be early parliamentary
elections." -Jiri Pehe

government approved draft legislation concerning the National
Police and the National Security Service as well as a separate
bill on the use of special intelligence devices, BTA reports.
Replacing legislation from 1976, the new law on police is designed
to regulate law enforcement authorities' behavior toward individual
citizens, both when fighting crime and maintaining public order.
In the future the National Security Service is to focus primarily
on terrorism, drugs and arms trafficking, nuclear safety, foreign
intelligence activity, and other threats to Bulgaria's internal
security. The draft bill on NSS further provides for the establishment
of new units responsible for the training of staff, analysis
and planning, information processing, coordination and operative
command. According to the third piece of legislation, special
intelligence devices-surveillance equipment, cameras, etc.-may
only be used when law enforcement agencies suspect major crimes,
or activity directed against national security. -Kjell Engelbrekt

NEW BALKAN TRANSPORT LINK AGREED. On 10-May the transport ministers
of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Albania signed a protocol on the
creation of a combined rail and road link between the Adriatic
and the Black Sea, BTA reports from Skopje. The three states
are hoping for funding from international financial institutions,
and a special team will be set up to draft a concrete proposal.
Italy and Turkey have indicated that they may join the project
later. -Kjell Engelbrekt

ROYALISTS RALLY IN BUCHAREST. Hundreds of Romanians marched through
central Bucharest on 10-May calling for the return of former
King Michael from exile. Participants waved the national flag
with the royal crest outside King Michael's former palace. The
rally was organized by the National Royalist Party to mark Romania's
traditional national day, abolished by the Communists in the
late 1940s. -Dan Ionescu

on economic reforms in Romania ends in Brussels on 11 May with
the adoption of an assistance package for that country. The meeting,
which is organized by the G-24 Group jointly with the Consultative
Group for Romania (which coordinates EC aid to Bucharest), is
attended by a high-ranking Romanian delegation, including the
Chairman of the Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy and
Reform Misu Negritoiu, Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, and
National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu. Radio Bucharest reports
that on 10 May Romania and the European Investment Bank signed
accords for two separate loans: $75 million for modernizing major
highways and $40-million for industrial restructuring, especially
in the private and mixed sectors. On 11 May Romania and the EEC
are expected to sign the so-called PHARE program for the current
year, which provides for some $160 million in aid. -Dan Ionescu

announced on 10 May that the International Monetary Fund has
agreed to grant Hungary an 18-month standby credit if the country's
1994 budget deficit can be kept below 5.6% of GDP, MTI and Western
agencies report. The new agreement replaces an earlier three-year
credit agreement that was suspended when Hungary's 1992 budget
exceeded the amount originally planned. The three-year agreement
prescribed a deficit of 3.5% for 1994, something that Szabo termed
"absurd" in view of the economic situation. He said that the
agreed 5.6% deficit was "much higher than what the IMF proposed,
but it would still be difficult for Hungary not to exceed it."
Szabo said that the agreement came after "long and difficult
negotiations" and that the IMF urged that the deficit be spent
on state investment in the economy rather than on social benefits
as is currently the case. -Edith Oltay

to the 10-May issue of Nepszabadsag, Transcarpathia's Association
of Rusyns (Ruthenians) is opposed to the state treaty between
Ukraine and Hungary and has forwarded protest letters to the
UN and to the Hungarian parliament. It argues that the status
of the region ought to be reexamined in view of the demise of
the Soviet Union. The oblast administration and the Transcarpathian
Ukrainian People's Council, on the other hand, are urging ratification.
The regional Hungarian Cultural Association is reported to have
a basic interest in good relations between Hungary and Ukraine
but no official opinion about the treaty and does not want the
Magyar minority to be drawn into the debate surrounding the document.
-Alfred Reisch

TALBOTT IN KIEV. On 10 May US Ambassador at Large Strobe Talbott
met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, Foreign Minister
Anatolii Zlenko, and the Minister of Defense Konstantin Morozov,
Western agencies report. Talbott was originally scheduled to
meet only with lower-ranking officials, reportedly in response
to President Clinton's refusal to meet Ukrainian Prime Minister
Leonid Kuchma earlier this year; US-Ukrainian relations have
been strained over Ukraine's failure to ratify START-1 and sign
the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Following his meeting with
Kravchuk, Talbott said he understands Ukraine's concerns over
scrapping the nuclear weapons on its territory without security
guarantees or adequate funds for their dismantling and stated
that the promised $175-million for dismantling the weapons is
a starting point, not the final offer. Talbott also stated that
US-Ukrainian relations should not focus exclusively on the nuclear
issue but should embrace a wider range of subjects. As it is
on good terms with both Russia and Ukraine, Talbott continued,
the US could serve as a mediator in their troubled relations.
Talbott invited Minister of Defense Konstantin Morozov to the
US to meet with his US counterpart, Les Aspin. -Ustina Markus

Andrei Sangheli, Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu, parliamentary
majority leader Dumitru Motpan, Agriculture Minister Vitalie
Gorincioi, and other officials completed a week-long visit to
Israel. Separate meetings were held with Israeli President Chaim
Herzog, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and other Israeli officials,
and the Moldovans visited kibbutzim and met with representatives
of the quarter-million-strong community of Bessarabian Jews in
Israel. Sangheli and Tiu told a news conference on their return
to Chisinau that the Israeli leaders "highly appreciate Moldovan
policy toward national minorities, particularly the Jews," Basapress
reported on 7 May. (This is not the first Israeli statement of
its kind but is the first publicly reported to have been made
on the highest level.) The sides decided to establish diplomatic
relations at the embassy level in the near future and signed
an agreement on Israeli technical assistance, particularly in
agriculture. Leaders of the majority Agrarian Party have for
some time expressed interest in the kibbutz as a possible model
for reforming Moldova's agriculture. -Vladimir Socor

Vyacheslau Kebich arrived in Abu Dhabi on 10 May, the first stop
of a week-long visit to the United Arab Emirates and India, Reuters
reports. The Emirates news agency reports that he is accompanied
by Foreign Minister Petr Krauchenka. The visits are intended
to strengthen economic and trade links and to discuss technical
cooperation. -Ustina Markus

of the Lithuanian delegation on Russian troop withdrawal, Virgilijus
Bulovas, held a press conference in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania
reports. Bulovas said that his informal talks in Moscow the previous
week with his Russian counterpart, Viktor Isakov, indicated that
the next round of talks in Vilnius on 18-19 May would make progress
in the signing of the main treaty on troop withdrawal and separate
agreements on the transit through Lithuania of Russian troops
from Germany and the repatriation of Lithuanians deported to
Russia. Problems may arise, he said, on pensions and social guarantees
for retired Russian soldiers and Lithuania's demands for compensations
for the damages inflicted on Lithuania by 50-years of Soviet
occupation. -Saulius Girnius

UNEMPLOYMENT IN ESTONIA. On 1 May Estonia registered 22,309 persons-2.6%
of the the country's working-age population-as unemployed. The
greatest per capita concentration of the unemployed is found
in the northeastern towns of Narva and Kohtla-Jaerve, where the
population is prediominantly Slavic. Tartu, in central Estonia,
ranks third, BNS reported on 10 May. -Dzintra Bungs

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull

assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA).
The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU),
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