|The absence of alternatives clears the mind marvelously. - Henry Kissinger|
No. 89, 11 May 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN REPORTS ON PROGRESS IN THE WORK ON NEW CONSTITUTION. A working group of representatives of republics and regions of the Russian Federation is meeting in Moscow on 11 May to discuss amendments to the presidential draft of a new Russian constitution, the Russian media reported. The text of the draft was published by Izvestiya on 30 April. It has already been criticized by the President of the republic of Sakha for allegedly violating the Federal Treaty. ITAR-TASS quoted Yeltsin as saying on 10 May that amendments could be submitted until 20 May. He said by 1 June the draft with all the amendments would have been discussed, and by 1 July, a final document would emerge. The president also reiterated his view that a Constituent Assembly should be set up to adopt a constitution. By law this right belongs to the Congress of People's Deputies. Yeltsin's supporters argue, however, that after the majority of participants in the referendum voted for the reelection of people's deputies, the Congress has de facto lost its legitimacy. Meanwhile the parliamentary Constitutional Commission is also working on its own draft constitution. -Vera Tolz GOVERNMENT CHANGES EXPECTED. Former Acting Prime Minister Egor Gaidar does not exclude his return to the cabinet of ministers, Radio Rossii "Novosti" reported on 8 May. According to Ostankino TV "Itogi" on 9 May, Gaidar may soon be appointed First Deputy Prime Minister. Vladimir Shumeiko, First Deputy Prime Minister in charge of cadres predicted a reshuffling of the government apparatus aimed at getting rid of former Communist Party officials. "Itogi" also stated that President Boris Yeltsin had himself indicated at a recent press conference that the Secretary of the Security Council, Yurii Skokov, will be replaced soon. "Itogi" added that as democrats had supported Yeltsin at the referendum, the President could reward them by including more of their representatives into the government. -Alexander Rahr ABDUCTION OF OPPOSITION LEADER. The hardline opposition leader of the Russian Communist Workers' Party and the Working Russia movement Viktor Anpilov, whose disappearance was announced at the 9 May Victory Day rally, reappeared on 10 May claiming that he had been abducted by ten unknown men, beaten up, and abandoned in woods 40 km. from Moscow, Reuters reported. Anpilov disappeared after being questioned on 8 May by the prosecutor's office over his participation in the 1 May disturbances in Moscow in which the RCWP and Working Russia had been involved. Duty Prosecutor at the prosecutor general's office, Vyacheslav Glukhov, told Krim-Press on 10-May that Anpilov had two broken fingers and other injuries. A Moscow district prosecutor has begun an investigation into the incident. Anpilov claimed that his abductors belonged to "a parallel security structure not subordinate to the authorities and the constitution." -Wendy Slater WARNING OF ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT AGAINST YELTSIN. Mikhail Barsukov, chief of the Main Administration for the Protection of the President, agreed with a statement recently made by a leading official of the presidential apparatus, Sergei Yushenkov, concerning the threat of an assassination attempt against President Boris Yeltsin. Yushenkov had claimed that according to information he obtained from the Ministry of Security, an assassination attempt on Yeltsin was planned for the May holidays. Barsukov told ITAR-TASS on 10 May that in 1992, more than 100 warnings of terrorist acts against Yeltsin were received. He said that in the first five months of this year, more than 45-threats of this kind were registered. -Alexander Rahr FEDOROV PROPOSES NEW MEASURES TO STABILIZE RUBLE. In an article in Izvestiya 8-May, Minister of Finance Boris Fedorov called for new measures to control inflation. Aside from his routine demand for the Central Bank to curtail its liberal credit policies, Fedorov urged that some recently proposed increases in state spending be delayed two to four months and that overall planned budgetary expenditures be reduced by 40%. Fedorov also proposed raising the price for coal, subsidies for which now absorb 20% of the state revenues. With regard to stabilizing the ruble exchange rate, Fedorov rejected a fixed rate, and argued that policies increasing the flow of hard currency into the country were the answer. He also advised changing regulations so that the share of hard currency revenue that enterprises are required to exchange for rubles be sold directly on the currency market. Much of these revenues presently must be sold to the Central Bank at considerable loss to enterprises due to rapid depreciation of the ruble over lengthy payment processing. -Erik Whitlock THE STRUGGLE FOR PRIVATIZATION. The parliament's opposition to, and frustration at, the current course of privatization is neatly summed up in Kommersant, 29 April. Pegged to the inconclusive session of 28 April, the report notes the legislature's fury at the rapid and widespread privatization check auctions and its downgrading of its own Committee for Economic Reform and Property Matters that was seen to be in the Yeltsin camp. In marked contrast is the "Novaya volna" interview on Radio-1 on 4 May, given by Dmitrii Vasilyev, the deputy chairman of the State Committee for Management of State Property. He is exuberant over the unprecedented scale of privatization already achieved and stresses the current emphasis on the sale of large industrial enterprises via vouchers. New features include incentives for labor collectives to welcome outside investment, the sale of plots of land to privatized firms, and government support for post-privatization operation. -Keith Bush DRAFT LAW GIVES EXTENSIVE INVESTIGATIVE POWERS TO FORMER KGB. According to Moscow News no. 18, the Russian Ministry of Security, formerly the KGB, has prepared a draft law, aimed at giving freeing itself from legal restrictions. Contrary to the provisions of the Russian Constitution, the law would entitle the Ministry of Security to search apartments, bug telephones and scan private correspondence without any warrant from either court or public prosecutors. If adopted, it also would make it obligatory for the employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to take part in MS operations against foreign spies and commits all citizens to serve as the Ministry's secret agents should the latter deem this necessary. Moreover, "Moscow News" revealed that the draft law includes a provision exempting MS agents from prosecution for crimes they could commit in order to preserve their anonymity. -Julia Wishnevsky GRACHEV DISCUSSES BOSNIAN SITUATION IN TURKEY. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev arrived in Turkey on 10 May to discuss the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the war in the former Yugoslavia, and arms sales with Turkish officials. Speaking to reporters before meeting with the Turkish defense minister, Grachev argued that air strikes against Bosnian Serb targets would be ineffective and would cause civilian casualties. Grachev also objected to suggestions that the arms embargo against Bosnian Muslims be lifted, and suggested that the economic blockade on the former Yugoslavia be extended to cover aid supplies. Grachev also suggested that Bosnian Serbs be allowed to establish land corridors between their enclaves and Serbia, a demand recently voiced by the Serbian side. Overall, Grachev's comments suggest that the Russian military continues to oppose any military intervention in Bosnia if the Vance-Owen plan fails, although Grachev is not supporting the demands by Russian conservatives that Russia directly support the Serbs in the conflict. His remarks were reported by Western news agencies and ITAR-TASS. -John Lepingwell CHERNOMYRDIN IN THE NORTH CAUCUSES. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin visited both Ingushetia and North Ossetia on 10 May, ITAR-TASS reported. Chernomyrdin, who is heading a high-level delegation that is going on to Kabardino-Balkaria and Dagestan, told the North Ossetian leaders in Vladikavkaz that Russia must avoid a repeat of the conflict that broke out between North Ossetians and Ingush last year. Earlier in the Ingush capital Nazran he pledged Russian aid and investments for Ingushetia. Ingush President Ruslan Aushev, who had said that a visit by one of the top leaders of Russia was an urgent necessity, repeated that progress must be made on the problem of returning Ingush refugees to the Prigorodnyi raion of North Ossetia, otherwise fighting could break out again. -Ann Sheehy COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA CIS SUMMIT BROUGHT FORWARD. The routine summit meeting, earlier scheduled for 26-May, has been brought forward to 14 May, the Chairman of the Belarusian Supreme Soviet Stanislau Shushkevich told a press conference in Minsk on 10 May. Belinform-TASS reports that only Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk has not confirmed his attendance. Shushkevich told journalists that the decision to bring the summit forward was due to Kyrgyzstan's decision to introduce its own currency in violation of CIS rules which demand advance notification. According to AFP, Shushkevich said the summit would discuss problems of the ruble zone. -Ann Sheehy SHEVARDNADZE TO PROPOSE UN PEACEKEEPERS FOR ABKHAZIA. Speaking on Georgian Radio on 10 May, Parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze disclosed that at his upcoming summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on 14 May he will propose the deployment of UN peacekeeping forces in Abkhazia "to allow Russian troops to withdraw from the region in orderly fashion", Reuters reported. Shevardnadze further expressed the hope that the meeting would mark an improvement in Russian-Georgian relations, which he termed a precondition for resolving Georgia's ongoing problems with its autonomous regions. -Liz Fuller CURRENCY EXCHANGE BEGINS IN KYRGYZSTAN. ITAR-TASS reported on 10 May that Kyrgyzstan's exchange of currency began on schedule, at 4 am. An unlimited amount of rubles may be exchanged for Kyrgyzstan's new currency, the som, at a rate of 200-rubles for one som. The report noted that though the exchange is supposed to be completed within four days, many citizens of Kyrgyzstan are in no hurry to trade in their rubles, hoping that the ruble will become a convertible currency within Kyrgyzstan. Whether bazaar traders from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan who now throng Kyrgyz markets will be willing to accept the som, which they cannot use in their own countries, remains to be seen. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CROATS AND MUSLIMS CONTINUE FIGHTING. International media reported on 10 and 11-May that the two sides have failed to keep a cease-fire in the Mostar area. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman appealed on 10 May to both sides to hold to the agreement, saying that "these clashes-.-.-. could lead to tragic consequences for the two nations and benefit only the Serb aggressor," according to Reuters. Much new destruction was evident in the already badly damaged Herzegovinian capital, and UN officials expressed concern for the safety of Muslim civilians taken away in buses or sent to a local stadium. A UN refugee affairs spokesman said that the Mostar developments marked "the beginning of a second wave of ethnic cleansing." The Security Council condemned the Croats for the fighting and demanded an end to it. Meanwhile in eastern Bosnia, UN observers arriving in the Muslim enclave of Zepa found it largely deserted, the 40,000 residents and refugees having taken to the woods in the face of a successful Serb offensive. Finally, the 11 May Washington Post reports on the Serbs' demolition of two important sixteenth-century mosques in Banja Luka on 7 May. -Patrick Moore INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS. The BBC reported on 10 May that the EC has "invited" the United States and Russia to provide troops to help guard the six projected "safe areas" declared by the UN in Bosnia-Herzegovina, including Sarajevo. RFE/RL's Washington correspondent said that a White House spokeswoman told reporters that the US does not expect to take any action on Bosnia in the immediate future. A State Department spokesman noted that America's allies want to wait for the outcome of the Bosnian Serb referendum slated for the coming weekend before making any decision. The 11 May Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports that the EC has underscored its opposition to military intervention in Bosnia, where several of its members already have troops on the ground in peace-keeping forces. -Patrick Moore SERBIA'S REFUGEES. Official figures released by Serbia's Red Cross show that more than half of the 600,000 refugees registered in Serbia are from Bosnia-Herzegovina, 217,000 from Croatia, 37,000 from Slovenia, and 3,000 from the Republic of Macedonia. Ethnic Serbs account for 84% of the refugees in Serbia. About 215,000 refugees are under 18 and half of them are under 7. Nearly 96% of the refugees have been housed in private homes. Serbian Red Cross officials say UN sanctions have brought untold economic hardships on these households, however, and warn that the Red Cross does not have the wherewithal to provide shelter for the 200,000 refugees they estimate will be forced out of private accommodations. To add to the grim situation, many Serbian sponsors have shown a contemptuous attitude toward the refugees for various reasons, and law enforcement officials say that the steep rise in crime since June 1991, specifically in Belgrade, can be attributed to the influx of refugees. In addition to the figures for Serbia proper, over 60,000 refugees are registered in Montenegro. Radio Serbia carried the report on 9 May marking Red Cross Week in Serbia. -Milan Andrejevich SOLIDARITY SEVERS STRIKE TALKS. Solidarity unionists representing employees paid from the state budget broke off talks with the government on 10 May when their wage demands were rejected. This outcome was predictable: the government has consistently stressed that the 1993 budget is not open to revision, while encouraging talks on systemic reforms in education and health. Deputy Prime Minister Pawel Laczkowski told Polish TV that the union wants the government to spend an additional 4 trillion zloty ($240 million) that it simply does not have. Saying he feels "cheated" by the government, Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski announced that the union leadership will meet on 12 or 13-May to decide on further action. Some activists are calling for the union to overthrow the government. Meanwhile, the general strike by an estimated 600,000 teachers and health workers continues. The health minister appealed to doctors not to endanger patients' lives. The education ministry predicts that the strike will force the postponement of graduation exams in one-third of Poland's high schools. The Union of Polish Teachers, the former official union with a membership larger than Solidarity's, condemned treating the exams as "bargaining chip" in a wage struggle and continued talks with the government. Louisa Vinton SUCHOCKA MEETS WALESA, FIRES MINISTER. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka met with the president on 10 May to discuss the strike situation as well as pressing legislation. PAP reports that Suchocka proposed giving the government the exclusive right to propose changes to the budget, once it has legal force, in order to avoid "irrational financial decisions by the parliament." Despite government requests to the contrary, Walesa suggested on 10 May that he plans to sign into law the pensions bill recently adopted by the parliament. The government says this would raise the deficit by 21 trillion zloty ($1.3 billion). Walesa acknowledged that the bill is fatal for the budget, but said his signature might force the government to uncover new funds. Meanwhile, Suchocka accepted the resignation of Environment Minister Zygmunt Hortmanowicz, but declined to remove Jerzy Kaminski from his post as minister for party contacts. Both ministers offered to step down after their party, the Peasant Alliance, left the governing coalition. Kaminski withdrew from his party in protest. -Louisa Vinton SKUBISZEWSKI OPTS TO STAY. At the last minute on 10 May, Poland's Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski withdrew his candidacy to the International Court of Justice in the Hague. The deputy chairman of the Hungarian Constitutional Court, Geza Herczegh, was elected instead. Skubiszewski had been the clear favorite for the UN post, and there had already been speculation in Poland over his likely successor at the foreign ministry. A spokesman announced on 10 May that Skubiszewski had decided to put public service before personal interest. Polish TV suggested that the government and president had pressured Skubiszewski into staying. Suchocka thanked Skubiszewski, saying that his decision had great significance for Polish foreign policy. Skubiszewski has been Poland's foreign minister since the collapse of communism in 1989. -Louisa Vinton CZECH PREMIER IN SPAIN. Speaking to reporters in Madrid on 10 May after a meeting with Spanish Prime Minister Felipe Gonzáles, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus said that he and Gonzáles discussed the issue of the Czech Republic's EC membership and that both feel that the EC should make a "symbolic gesture" showing that it is interested in accepting the Czech Republic and other countries. Spain has previously said it might hold up consideration of enlarging the 12-member EC until the Maastricht treaty on political and monetary union is ratified. Klaus, who is on a three-day official visit to Spain, met also with King Juan Carlos and Finance Minister Carlos Solchaga on 10 May. -Jiri Pehe SPECULATIONS ABOUT EARLY ELECTIONS IN SLOVAKIA. On 10 and 11 May, several major Slovak dailies speculated about the possibility of holding early general elections in Slovakia in light of the fact that the minority government of Vladimir Meciar appears to be increasingly isolated. Smena wrote that "early elections are almost certain" but warned that, with or without elections, Slovakia needs political consensus, as no party is likely to be able to rule single-handedly. Most opposition parties in Slovakia would be willing to accept a share of responsibility in governing the country, the Bratislava daily writes, but "their biggest problem" is Prime Minister Meciar. Pravda argued that early elections would not calm the situation in Slovakia. The daily speculated that the minority government may stay in office if it is able to make necessary adjustments or "it will be replaced by a broadly-based coalition," formed in the aftermath of early parliamentary elections. Narodna obroda wrote on 10 May that Meciar's government either succeeds in creating a coalition with the Slovak National Party and the Party of the Democratic Left or there will be early parliamentary elections." -Jiri Pehe BULGARIAN DRAFT LAWS ON POLICE, SECURITY SERVICE. On 10 May the government approved draft legislation concerning the National Police and the National Security Service as well as a separate bill on the use of special intelligence devices, BTA reports. Replacing legislation from 1976, the new law on police is designed to regulate law enforcement authorities' behavior toward individual citizens, both when fighting crime and maintaining public order. In the future the National Security Service is to focus primarily on terrorism, drugs and arms trafficking, nuclear safety, foreign intelligence activity, and other threats to Bulgaria's internal security. The draft bill on NSS further provides for the establishment of new units responsible for the training of staff, analysis and planning, information processing, coordination and operative command. According to the third piece of legislation, special intelligence devices-surveillance equipment, cameras, etc.-may only be used when law enforcement agencies suspect major crimes, or activity directed against national security. -Kjell Engelbrekt NEW BALKAN TRANSPORT LINK AGREED. On 10-May the transport ministers of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Albania signed a protocol on the creation of a combined rail and road link between the Adriatic and the Black Sea, BTA reports from Skopje. The three states are hoping for funding from international financial institutions, and a special team will be set up to draft a concrete proposal. Italy and Turkey have indicated that they may join the project later. -Kjell Engelbrekt ROYALISTS RALLY IN BUCHAREST. Hundreds of Romanians marched through central Bucharest on 10-May calling for the return of former King Michael from exile. Participants waved the national flag with the royal crest outside King Michael's former palace. The rally was organized by the National Royalist Party to mark Romania's traditional national day, abolished by the Communists in the late 1940s. -Dan Ionescu G-24 GROUP IN SUPPORT OF ROMANIAN REFORMS. A two-day conference on economic reforms in Romania ends in Brussels on 11 May with the adoption of an assistance package for that country. The meeting, which is organized by the G-24 Group jointly with the Consultative Group for Romania (which coordinates EC aid to Bucharest), is attended by a high-ranking Romanian delegation, including the Chairman of the Council for Economic Coordination, Strategy and Reform Misu Negritoiu, Finance Minister Florin Georgescu, and National Bank Governor Mugur Isarescu. Radio Bucharest reports that on 10 May Romania and the European Investment Bank signed accords for two separate loans: $75 million for modernizing major highways and $40-million for industrial restructuring, especially in the private and mixed sectors. On 11 May Romania and the EEC are expected to sign the so-called PHARE program for the current year, which provides for some $160 million in aid. -Dan Ionescu HUNGARY AND IMF AGREE ON CREDIT LINE. Finance Minister Ivan Szabo announced on 10 May that the International Monetary Fund has agreed to grant Hungary an 18-month standby credit if the country's 1994 budget deficit can be kept below 5.6% of GDP, MTI and Western agencies report. The new agreement replaces an earlier three-year credit agreement that was suspended when Hungary's 1992 budget exceeded the amount originally planned. The three-year agreement prescribed a deficit of 3.5% for 1994, something that Szabo termed "absurd" in view of the economic situation. He said that the agreed 5.6% deficit was "much higher than what the IMF proposed, but it would still be difficult for Hungary not to exceed it." Szabo said that the agreement came after "long and difficult negotiations" and that the IMF urged that the deficit be spent on state investment in the economy rather than on social benefits as is currently the case. -Edith Oltay TRANSCARPATHIAN VIEWS ON HUNGARIAN-UKRAINIAN TREATY. According to the 10-May issue of Nepszabadsag, Transcarpathia's Association of Rusyns (Ruthenians) is opposed to the state treaty between Ukraine and Hungary and has forwarded protest letters to the UN and to the Hungarian parliament. It argues that the status of the region ought to be reexamined in view of the demise of the Soviet Union. The oblast administration and the Transcarpathian Ukrainian People's Council, on the other hand, are urging ratification. The regional Hungarian Cultural Association is reported to have a basic interest in good relations between Hungary and Ukraine but no official opinion about the treaty and does not want the Magyar minority to be drawn into the debate surrounding the document. -Alfred Reisch TALBOTT IN KIEV. On 10 May US Ambassador at Large Strobe Talbott met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk, Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko, and the Minister of Defense Konstantin Morozov, Western agencies report. Talbott was originally scheduled to meet only with lower-ranking officials, reportedly in response to President Clinton's refusal to meet Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma earlier this year; US-Ukrainian relations have been strained over Ukraine's failure to ratify START-1 and sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Following his meeting with Kravchuk, Talbott said he understands Ukraine's concerns over scrapping the nuclear weapons on its territory without security guarantees or adequate funds for their dismantling and stated that the promised $175-million for dismantling the weapons is a starting point, not the final offer. Talbott also stated that US-Ukrainian relations should not focus exclusively on the nuclear issue but should embrace a wider range of subjects. As it is on good terms with both Russia and Ukraine, Talbott continued, the US could serve as a mediator in their troubled relations. Talbott invited Minister of Defense Konstantin Morozov to the US to meet with his US counterpart, Les Aspin. -Ustina Markus HIGH-LEVEL MOLDOVAN DELEGATION IN ISRAEL. On 6 May Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli, Foreign Minister Nicolae Tiu, parliamentary majority leader Dumitru Motpan, Agriculture Minister Vitalie Gorincioi, and other officials completed a week-long visit to Israel. Separate meetings were held with Israeli President Chaim Herzog, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and other Israeli officials, and the Moldovans visited kibbutzim and met with representatives of the quarter-million-strong community of Bessarabian Jews in Israel. Sangheli and Tiu told a news conference on their return to Chisinau that the Israeli leaders "highly appreciate Moldovan policy toward national minorities, particularly the Jews," Basapress reported on 7 May. (This is not the first Israeli statement of its kind but is the first publicly reported to have been made on the highest level.) The sides decided to establish diplomatic relations at the embassy level in the near future and signed an agreement on Israeli technical assistance, particularly in agriculture. Leaders of the majority Agrarian Party have for some time expressed interest in the kibbutz as a possible model for reforming Moldova's agriculture. -Vladimir Socor KEBICH TO UNITED ARAB EMIRATES, INDIA. Belarusian Prime Minister Vyacheslau Kebich arrived in Abu Dhabi on 10 May, the first stop of a week-long visit to the United Arab Emirates and India, Reuters reports. The Emirates news agency reports that he is accompanied by Foreign Minister Petr Krauchenka. The visits are intended to strengthen economic and trade links and to discuss technical cooperation. -Ustina Markus LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWAL TALKS. On 10 May the head of the Lithuanian delegation on Russian troop withdrawal, Virgilijus Bulovas, held a press conference in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania reports. Bulovas said that his informal talks in Moscow the previous week with his Russian counterpart, Viktor Isakov, indicated that the next round of talks in Vilnius on 18-19 May would make progress in the signing of the main treaty on troop withdrawal and separate agreements on the transit through Lithuania of Russian troops from Germany and the repatriation of Lithuanians deported to Russia. Problems may arise, he said, on pensions and social guarantees for retired Russian soldiers and Lithuania's demands for compensations for the damages inflicted on Lithuania by 50-years of Soviet occupation. -Saulius Girnius UNEMPLOYMENT IN ESTONIA. On 1 May Estonia registered 22,309 persons-2.6% of the the country's working-age population-as unemployed. The greatest per capita concentration of the unemployed is found in the northeastern towns of Narva and Kohtla-Jaerve, where the population is prediominantly Slavic. Tartu, in central Estonia, ranks third, BNS reported on 10 May. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.