|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 88, 10 May 1993
RUSSIA SITTING OF CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION. On 7-May the parliament's Constitutional Commission held a session, convened and chaired by parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov, to discuss President Yeltsin's draft for a new constitution, various Russian and western agencies reported. Yeltsin had refused to attend the commission, of which he is nominally chairman. The resolution said that Yeltsin's draft contained suggestions which should be considered in elaborating a new constitution, and offered to cooperate with the president in this; it also said, however, that the presidential draft "curbs the political, economic and civil rights of Russian citizens." The presidential draft was also criticized by participants of the session: deputy parliamentary speaker Nikolai Ryabov said that it "practically establishes a constitutional monarchy," and the secretary of the constitutional commission, Oleg Rumyantsev, likened it to authoritarian rule, "which even Latin America rejected 40 or 50 years ago." -Wendy Slater RUTSKOI DECLARES CANDIDACY. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi speaking at a meeting of Russian war veterans in Moscow on 7 May said that he had decided to run for president in the next elections, an RFE/RL correspondent and various agencies reported. Rutskoi said he had made his decision as a result of Yeltsin's 6-May TV address, in which the president said that he had lost confidence in his deputy. In an interview with Nezavisimaya gazeta on 8-May, Rutskoi said that Yeltsin's draft for the new Russian Constitution was aimed at "a dictatorship" and could only be imposed by force. The same day, the head of Yeltsin's administration Sergei Filatov told ITAR-TASS that Rutskoi, together with the president's other political rivals, should resign following the support evinced for Yeltsin in the April referendum. -Wendy Slater VICTORY DAY DEMONSTRATIONS PASS PEACEFULLY. The 9 May Victory Day demonstrations in Moscow passed off without incident, despite fears that they could repeat the violence of the 1 May opposition demonstrations, various Western and Russian media reported. On 7 May the funeral of the police officer injured at those demonstrations was held, attended by President Yeltsin. After some confusion over which route it would be allowed to take, the Victory Day parade of up to 20,000 people marched to Red Square carrying placards denouncing Yeltsin and his policies. The president, meanwhile, laying a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier, claimed that "chauvinist and pro-Bolshevik forces have very little impact on society." -Wendy Slater JOURNALISTS READMITTED TO PARLIAMENTARY PRESIDIUM SESSIONS. On 9 May ITAR-TASS reported that the head of the parliament's press service Yurii Marechenkov had lifted the ban on news agencies ITAR-TASS, RIA and Interfax from covering sessions of the parliament's presidium. The ban had been imposed on 5 May and had caused protests from the Union of Parliamentary Journalists and the Ministry of the Press and Information as an infringement on freedom of speech [see RFE/RL Daily Report 7 May]. Marechenkov explained that the ban had been a one-off measure necessitated by the large numbers of people invited to attend the 5 May session of the presidium. -Wendy Slater BUDGET DEFICIT PROJECTIONS. Deputy Chairman of the Russian Central Bank Aleksandr Khandruyev has forecast a budget deficit well over the targets set by the government and approved by the International Monetary Fund. In a statement quoted by Reuters on 7 May, Khandruyev accused the Finance Ministry of deliberately understating actual budget expenditures and submitting additional expenditure items to parliament. He reckoned that the second quarter deficit may exceed 2.2 trillion rubles, whereas initial estimates put the deficit at 1.3 trillion rubles. Specialists were quoted as saying that the deficit for the whole year could reach 17-trillion rubles, or about 15-20% of GNP. -Keith Bush INFLATION RATE DOWN. Consumer prices rose by 93% during the first quarter of 1993, according to the Russian Goskomstat, cited by "Mayak" on 3 May. The subsistence minimum climbed to over 8,000 rubles a month in March, and was said to represent the income of every third Russian citizen. It was also calculated that about 42% of families with children under 16 years of age are on or below the poverty line. The monthly rates of inflation were 27%, 25%, and 21% in January, February, and March. In April, the rate dropped to 16%, but is expected to grow to 25% by the end of May, according to Vladimir Sokolin of the government's Economic Analysis and Forecasting Center, as quoted by Reuters on 7 May. -Keith Bush RUBLE'S FUTURE EXCHANGE RATE DEBATED. At a conference in Monaco on 9 May, several Russian luminaries gave their views on the future exchange rate of the ruble, ITAR-TASS reported. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais reckoned that the ruble would continue to fall-the current rate is 829 rubles to the dollar-until it stabilized at around 1,400 to the dollar. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin thought that the rate should not be allowed to fall below 1,000 to the dollar. This could be achieved by intervention on the part of the Russian Central Bank, which currently disposes of a convertible currency reserve of nearly $1-billion, or by using a stabilization fund underwritten by the West. Academician Abel Aganbegyan advocated the introduction of a Russian ruble, and called for the implementation of bankruptcy legislation. -Keith Bush GRACHEV ON PACE OF MILITARY REFORM. Speaking with reporters from ITAR-TASS and Nezavisimaya gazeta on 7 May, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev claimed that the military reform program was proceeding successfully and that the Russian military might eventually be reduced to an all-volunteer force of about 1 million troops. The backbone of such a force would be the special command for mobile forces which is to be formed between mid-1994 and 1995. The defense burden for this force would be in the range of 6-7% of GNP, according to Grachev. While Grachev claimed that such a defense burden was typical for most countries, it would be as high, or higher, than that of the US during the Cold War, and would be a substantially higher than that of other European countries. One concern expressed by Grachev was that the arms procurement system had not yet been fully restructured and that this was causing problems, particularly for the Russian Navy. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV ON CONSCRIPTION, VOLUNTEER SERVICE. In his interview Grachev suggested that the increasing number of volunteer troops might allow a reduction in the draft term to one year from the current term of 18 months. The number of volunteers for the military has reportedly reached some 60,000 out of a planned 110,000 and the number of applicants is steadily increasing. According to Grachev, a new draft law on military service might soon be introduced to change provisions in the current law (enacted this year) that provide extensive draft deferments. The upper limit on the draft age would also be raised to 25, presumably to allow students to be drafted after completing their studies. Grachev did not specify when the bill would be introduced or when the new draft term might take effect. The new initiative appears to be an effort to stop worsening draft shortfalls by trading a shorter draft term for wider eligibility. Grachev also reported that disciplinary problems, particularly those involving the deaths of servicemen, have decreased this year by some 40%. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA LEADER OF GAMSAKHURDIA'S PRIVATE ARMY HOLDS PEACE TALKS WITH ABKHAZ. Loti Kobalia, leader of the armed supporters of ousted Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, met on 6 May with Abkhaz acting Defense Minister Sultan Soslanaliev to discuss ways of ending the war in Abkhazia, the Georgian Information Agency reported on 8-May. The two sides agreed on a halt to combat activities along the Gumista river as of 10-May, and the creation of a joint commission to draw up plans for a ceasefire and the return of refugees to their homes. Gamsakhurdia's supporters had concluded an informal truce with Georgian government forces earlier this year because of the fighting in Abkhazia. Gamsakhurdia issued an appeal to the Abkhaz people expressing his conviction that his restoration to the Georgian leadership is an essential precondition to ending the war, and that the Abkhaz would be willing to conduct negotiations with him, according to Radio Tbilisi of 7-May. -Liz Fuller UZBEKISTAN TO STAY IN RUBLE ZONE-FOR NOW. Uzbekistan's Supreme Soviet has ended its session at which the legislators adopted a package of laws on economic reform and its social effects, and on foreign relations. It also confirmed that the country will remain within the ruble zone at least for the foreseeable future, ITAR-TASS reported on 8 May. Uzbekistan is preparing its own currency, however, that could be put into circulation at any time that the country's leadership decides that it is no longer realistic to try to function within the economy of the CIS, according to the report. Uzbek President Islam Karimov and other government officials have issued warnings since 1992 that Uzbekistan might choose to introduce its own currency and leave the ruble zone, but so far among the Central Asian states only Kyrgyzstan has taken this step. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TAJIK GOVERNMENT EXPECTS ANOTHER ATTACK FROM AFGHANISTAN. A spokesman for Tajikistan's Foreign Ministry, Zafar Saidov, told ITAR-TASS on 9-May that Tajikistan's government expects another assault across the Afghan border by a Tajik anti-government group supported by the Afghan mujahidin. This group, according to Tajik government sources, is headed by former Deputy Prime Minister Davlat Usmon, a leader of the Tajik Islamic Renaissance Party, and other pro-Islamic leaders of the Tajik opposition. According to Saidov, military equipment and supplies are being assembled on the Afghan side of the border to support the planned assault. At the end of April a group of some 300 anti-government fighters slipped into Tajikistan from Afghanistan-according to Saidov, government troops assisted by Russian border guards are trying to round up those members of the group who have not been killed in clashes with pro-government forces. -Bess Brown FIGHTING BREAKS OUT BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND CROATS. The BBC reported on 9 May that hand-to-hand combat and shelling were taking place in Mostar, the capital of Herzegovina and a largely Muslim town slated for Croat control under the Vance-Owen plan. The fighting was so intense that Spanish UN troops literally had to take to the hills. UN observers said that the Croats started the shelling and moved out Muslim civilians in buses; the Croats, however, charged that the Muslims began this latest exercise in ethnic cleansing. Muslims responded that the Croats were trying to "stir up trouble" to discourage international intervention. Muslim commander Sefer Halilovic is currently seeking to put an end to the fighting, which threatens to upset the truce between Croats and Muslims in central Bosnia. Meanwhile at noon on 9 May a cease-fire between Muslims and Serbs came into effect in eastern Bosnia, and the agreement appears to be holding. The Washington Post quotes UN commander Gen. Philippe Morillon as saying: "It's not the first agreement that we have had, but-.-.-. it's certainly major progress." Finally, the UN reached an agreement on 8 May with Serb and Muslim forces that Srebrenica is to be demilitarized on 10 May and Zepa two days later. The BBC said that the Muslims fear that this is a prelude to the surrender of their few remaining enclaves in eastern Bosnia. -Patrick Moore REACTIONS TO BELGRADE'S CUTTING OF AID. The Serbian Radical Party on 8 May sharply condemned Belgrade's decision to limit the flow of goods and people between Serbia-Montenegro and the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb Republic. The Radicals, Serbia's second largest party, stated their readiness to break "any possible blockade imposed on our brothers." Party leader Vojislav Seselj asserted that despite the embargo Bosnian Serbs have enough weapons to wage a war for five years. Bosnian Serb commander Gen. Ratko Mladic said Belgrade is under tremendous pressure and denounced what he called the West's "infernal plan" to disunite and destroy the Orthodox world, claiming that Russia would become a main target of the plan very soon. Momcilo Krajisnik, president of the Serb Republic Assembly, told the Novi Sad daily Dnevnik on 9 May that he rejects notions of a split among the Serbs, avowing "the Serbian people have never been more united" and described Dobrica Cosic, Slobodan Milosevic, and Momir Bulatovic as "convinced defenders of Serbian interests." He also said he thinks it unlikely that Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic will resign, because such a move would lead to a split in the Bosnian Serb leadership. Biljana Plavsic, vice president of the Serb Republic, informed Politika TV on 9 May that all Bosnian Serb leaders are forbidden to cross into Yugoslav territory at border crossings on bridges between the Serb Republic and Serbia. -Milan Andrejevich HELP FOR BOSNIAN RAPE VICTIMS. Western news agencies said on 8 May that the US and Germany are planning projects to help trauma victims as a result of the violence in the former Yugoslavia. The US Agency for International Development and the Bureau for Refugee Programs will have $6.75 million to work with, while the German Kap Anamur charity wants to open residences in Zenica and Tuzla to care for 180 women and children. Both the US and German programs began in Croatia and are now being extended to Bosnia. -Patrick Moore NO EVIDENCE OF PLOT TO KILL HAVEL. Speaking to reporters on 7 May, Czech police officials said that they had found no evidence of a conspiracy to assassinate President Vaclav Havel. They said that five suspects detained on 6 May on suspicion of plotting to kill Havel will not be charged in the Czech Republic; instead, they will be deported for criminal activities not related to the alleged plot. Czech Interior Minister Jan Ruml said on 6 May that police had captured suspects-all from former Yugoslavia-in connection with an anonymous letter sent to newspapers warning that extremists from Montenegro were preparing to kill Havel. The letter said the plan was prompted by Havel's recent call for more resolute action to halt Serb aggression in Bosnia. -Jiri Pehe CZECH-SLOVAK PROPERTY TALKS. Czech and Slovak officials met on 7 May to discuss the division of the former Czechoslovak federation's assets between the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus told Czech TV on 8 May that the talks "were positive"; three partial agreements were prepared for signing. Klaus said, however, that the Czech republic still maintains its claim to some 24 billion koruny from the former Czechoslovak State Bank, which Slovakia allegedly withdrew prior to the split of Czechoslovakia in an effort to finance its budget deficit. Czech Finance Minister Ivan Kocarnik and Slovak Finance Minister Julius Toth told reporters on 8 May that both sides still have to discuss a "basic" property agreement, warning that without such an agreement, no legal framework will exist for all partial accords reached so far. CTK reported on 9 May that Presidents Vaclav Havel and Michal Kovac dropped the idea of holding a summit in the near future on the division of federal assets. Speaking on Czech Radio on 9 May, Havel said that good progress reached during the talks on 7 May justified the summit postponement. -Jiri Pehe POLISH STRIKES CONTINUE, UNION TALKS SCHEDULED. The strike by teachers, health care workers, and other employees paid from the state budget is expanding. Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski met with both President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka on 7 May. Krzaklewski said afterward that the government agreed to open talks with the union on 10-May. Separate talks are scheduled on budgetary employees and the Walbrzych region, which is also on strike. Krzaklewski said the strikes will continue despite the government's willingness to talk. Solidarity expects 300,000 health care workers to participate in a national protest called for 10 May; the union claims that 300,000 teachers are already on strike. Confusion prevails about this year's graduation exams, scheduled to begin on 11-May. Some union officials are demanding that the government postpone the exams as a precondition for negotiations; the education ministry says exams will take place as planned. Cardinal Jozef Glemp condemned the strikers on 9 May, saying that teachers' admittedly difficult material situation did not justify penalizing young people. -Louisa Vinton PEASANT ALLIANCE LEAVES COALITION FOR GOOD. The leadership of the small Peasant Alliance (PL) voted five to three to withdraw-once and for all-from the ruling coalition on 7-May, one day after the party's parliamentary caucus had voted to stay. Former agriculture minister and party chairman Gabriel Janowski endorsed the withdrawal, arguing that the coalition refused to implement an acceptable agricultural policy. Some observers attributed the PL's withdrawal to a desire to join the opposition in the expectation of new elections. Some politicians mocked the party's prolonged equivocation as political "cabaret," while coalition members expressed mixed feelings: disappointment that the government now controls only 177 of 460 seats in the Sejm, but hope that the PL's departure will give economic policy new coherence and allow the prime minister to appoint more competent officials to government posts vacated by the PL. -Louisa Vinton POLISH SENATE APPROVES MASS PRIVATIZATION. The Senate voted 37 to 24 on 7 May to approve the government's mass privatization legislation, PAP reports. The Senate opted not to propose amendments to the bill, so only the president's signature is now required. Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski predicted on 7 May that Walesa will sign the bill, despite the president's advocacy of more elaborate property distribution schemes. Because the legislation is designated as "urgent," the president has only a week to decide. -Louisa Vinton POLAND, GERMANY SIGN ASYLUM AGREEMENT. After four months of negotiations, Polish Internal Affairs Minister Andrzej Milczanowski and his German counterpart Rudolf Seiters signed an agreement on 7 May in Bonn that governs the expulsion of asylum-seekers entering Germany from Poland. The agreement is linked to revisions in Germany's asylum law, expected to take effect on 1 July. Under the agreement, Germany will provide Poland with DM 120-million in 1993 and 1994 for the construction of refugee facilities and border improvements. A maximum of 10,000 asylum-seekers may be returned to Poland in 1993. No such limit applies from 1994 on, but Germany agrees to cut back on expulsions if unexpected circumstances arise that threaten to swamp Poland with refugees. Only asylum-seekers who enter Germany after the agreement takes effect can be expelled, and only then if they have been in Germany for less than six months. Both sides hailed the agreement as a satisfactory compromise, and Seiters called it a "model" for repatriation talks with other countries. -Louisa Vinton GERMAN-HUNGARIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENT SIGNED. Environmental ministers Karl Toepfer and Janos Gyurko signed a five-year environmental cooperation agreement on 9 May in Munich, Hungarian Radio and German TV reported on 9 May. The Germans will help Hungary to set up the legal and organizational framework to protect Hungary's environment; air pollution is the most pressing problem. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER DEFENDS TREATY WITH UKRAINE. In an interview in the 7-May issue of Magyar Hirlap, Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky said the Hungarian-Ukrainian treaty is opposed only by a small number of parliamentary deputies. In his view, the treaty, which also enjoys public support, will be ratified in a few days by a large majority in parliament. Jeszenszky said the treaty does not go beyond the stipulations of the Helsinki Final Act, is beneficial to Hungary' interests, and improves the situation of Ukraine's ethnic Magyars by providing guarantees for minority rights and autonomy. The treaty is similar to the treaties signed by Germany with Poland and Czechoslovakia and by Poland with Russia and Ukraine, and merely restates the position that Hungary has no territorial claims against anyone. The section on minority rights should be closely studied by Romania and Slovakia as well, Jeszenszky said. On 3 May the parliamentary faction of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum voted-with only 9-against and 4 abstentions-in favor of ratifying the treaty, which also has the support of all three opposition parties in parliament. -Alfred Reisch SUZUKI PLANT OPENS IN HUNGARY. In the presence of Prime Minister Jozsef Antall and Suzuki Chairman Osamu Suzuki, the new $70-million assembly plant at Esztergom was officially opened, MTI reported on 7-May. It is the largest Japanese investment in Eastern Europe. Suzuki was accompanied by 500 Japanese businessman who will explore economic opportunities in Hungary. The plant, with 512-workers, actually started operation in October 1992. Permits have been applied for exporting the Swift subcompacts produced at the plant to Western Europe. Plans call for assembly of 20,000 cars in 1993, and the ultimate goal is 50,000 cars. Local content is about 40%. -Karoly Okolicsanyi HUNGARIAN FESTIVAL IN ROMANIA. On 9 May Radio Bucharest reported the inauguration of Magyar cultural days in Oradea, organized by the Roman-Catholic Bishopric with the assistance of the Reformed Bishopric and the local chapter of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania. The event began with a mass and a procession devoted to Saint Laszlo, which was attended by hundreds of believers and guests, including European Parliament deputy Otto von Hapsburg, the Hungarian ambassador in Bucharest, Erno Rudas, and HDFR Chairman Bela Marko. For the next eight days, Oradea will be the center of Magyar cultural activities, including a meeting of the editors-in-chief of Hungarian-language publications in Romania. -Dan Ionescu NEW ROMANIAN COMMUNIST PARTY FAILS TO ATTRACT FOLLOWERS. A bid to set up a New Romanian Communist Party failed to attract followers on 8 May. The launching ceremony, which took place at former communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu's supposed grave in Ghencea Cemetery, was attended by only about 15 persons, mostly elderly communists. Reuters reports that the attempt to revive the defunct communist party, which vanished after the December 1989 uprising, was organized by Valentin Burciu, a 23year-old unemployed metal worker. During the communist era, 8 May was a day of lavish celebrations in commemoration of the founding of the Romanian Communist Party in 1921. Several political formations, the most important being the Socialist Labor Party, claim to be the RCP's successors. -Dan Ionescu NEW BULGARIAN GYPSY ORGANIZATION LAUNCHED. On 8 May a Confederation of Roma in Bulgaria was founded in Sofia, BTA reports. The organization is nonpolitical but will act as a pressure group to improve the living conditions and standing of Bulgarian Gypsies. Having adopted a platform and statutes, the CRB urged the government to prepare a development scheme for the Roma community, to elaborate a special education plan, which envisages optional teaching of Romany in schools, and to allocate a building that could serve as a Roma Cultural Center. The CRB will have to compete for support with the Associated Roma Union, set up last October and led by Vasil Chaprazov. -Kjell Engelbrekt FIVE MORE BULGARIANS WOUNDED IN CAMBODIA. Five Bulgarians belonging to the UN peacekeeping force in Cambodia were injured during the night to 7 May, Kontinent reports. Under an attack by mortars, rocket-propelled grenades, and small arms-possibly carried out by a Khmer Rouge unit-the five were hit by shrapnel, one being seriously wounded. Four Bulgarians, and ten UN peacekeepers altogether, have died in action in Cambodia during the last few weeks. This is the first Bulgarian peacekeeping mission ever, and the frequent incidents have triggered a public debate on whether the National Assembly should recall the troops. -Kjell Engelbrekt SOVIET VETERANS MARK VICTORY DAY IN RIGA. The rally in Riga marking the 48th anniversary of the end of World War-II proceeded peacefully, Baltic media reported on 9 May. Policemen, who had been alerted to stop any potential incidents or acts of violence, did not need to intervene. Thousands of Russian-speaking participants, many with placards calling for 9 May to be reinstituted as an official holiday and demanding action on the granting of Latvian citizenship to non-Latvians, gathered at Victory Square in Riga for a demonstration that was permitted by the city authorities. Organized by Soviet veterans, the commemoration was attended by the Russian ambassador to Latvia Aleksandr Rannikh and Deputy Commander of Russia's Northwestern Group of Forces Lt.-Gen. Fedor Melnichuk. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIA AWAITS CE MEMBERSHIP. Kirsten Jensen, head of a European Parliament delegation visiting Tallinn, told the press on 6 May that Estonia is pursuing a flexible policy in relation to human rights and ethnic minorities and its laws are in line with European standards. This assessment is important since Estonia's membership in the Council of Europe is to be considered on 13 May by the CE's parliamentary assembly and on 14 May by the committee of ministers. An RFE/RL correspondent in Brussels also reports that Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev has expressed objections to CE Secretary-General Catherine Lalumiere about Estonia becoming a member, alleging discrimination against its Russian-speaking population. According to a CE spokesman, Kozyrev's complaint in unlikely to be upheld because Russia is not a council member. -Dzintra Bungs COUNCIL OF BALTIC SEA STATES MEETS. On 6-7-May representatives from the ten countries making up the Council of Baltic Sea States met in Tallinn, BNS reports. The meeting discussed ways of promoting economic and technical cooperation among the member states and nuclear security in the region, including the dismantling of the atomic reactors at the Paldiski base. The Russian proposal, made at the foreign ministers' meeting in Helsinki on 16-17 March, to establish a human rights and ethnic minorities commissioner was supplemented by a more comprehensive proposal from Estonia, but the financing of the commissioner's office has not yet been arranged. The council's next meeting is scheduled for 17-18-June in Parnu. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIA TO END BREAD SUBSIDIES. On 7 May the government decided to stop subsidizing some food products as of 12 May, Radio Lithuania reports. The policy of maintaining the price of two types of rye bread at 24 coupons per kilogram had been costing about 120-million coupons per month. The price of these two breads is expected to double. It is felt that subsidies were being abused as people from neighboring republics, especially Latvia, had been making frequent trips to Lithuania to buy bread. The decision to act now was probably prompted by the need to find funds from the state budget to pay for increased salaries and pensions of state employees. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.