|Being entirely honest with oneself is a good exercise. - Sigmund Freud|
No. 87, 07 May 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN ON HIS MANDATE FOLLOWING REFERENDUM. Russian President Boris Yeltsin went on TV on 6 May to set out his plans following the April referendum. He said that the vote had given him a mandate to call new parliamentary elections no later than autumn, to remove officials who oppose economic reform, and to go ahead with the adoption of a new constitution. He said he was drafting a new electoral law for a bicameral parliament to replace the Congress of People's Deputies. Yeltsin appears to be prepared to disregard the fact that according to the law the referendum question proposing early parliamentary elections was not approved, saying that "the will of the . . . majority of the electorate is higher than the will of the parliament or the Congress of People's Deputies." Yeltsin also said he had lost confidence in Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi and criticised as illegal parliamentary chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov's convening of a session of the parliamentary constitutional commission on 6 May. Yeltsin nominally chairs the commission but has recently neglected it to prepare his own draft constitution. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN, CHURKIN ON BOSNIA. Yeltsin issued a statement on the crisis in Bosnia on 6-May saying "Russia will extend firm support to all those who will honestly follow the path of peace on the basis of the Vance-Owen plan, but will not back anyone who would seek to avoid it." Meanwhile, Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin traveled to Belgrade on 6 May and held talks with rump Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic. Speaking to reporters following the talks, Churkin said the results of the 15-16 May referendum on the Vance-Owen plan will be of "extreme importance," and he urged a "yes" vote by Bosnian Serbs. Churkin was scheduled to continue meetings on 7 May with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and Bosnian Serb leaders, ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow SKOKOV'S STATUS. Russian television and radio carried numerous reports on 6 May quoting the Russian Information Agency as saying Boris Yeltsin fired Security Council Secretary Yurii Skokov. According to reports, Yeltsin's decision was based on Skokov's disagreement with Yeltsin's appeal to the citizens of Russia on 20 March and his plan to introduce presidential rule. The Russian president's staff has not confirmed these reports. -Suzanne Crow PARLIAMENT DEBATES 1 MAY DEMONSTRATIONS. On 6 May a joint sitting of the chambers of the parliament debated the violent 1 May demonstrations in Moscow, ITAR-TASS reported. The sitting also discussed demonstrations planned for 9 May. Interior Minister Viktor Erin warned deputies that at these demonstrations the authorities would use more force than they had on 1 May if groups banned from demonstrating defied the ban. Speaking on Russian TV on 4 May, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov linked the violence to the split in society which he said had been deepened by the 25 April referendum. The parliamentary debate concluded that the Moscow city authorities had not taken sufficient measures to ensure that the march had been peaceful. Meanwhile, at a news conference on 6-May Vasilii Shakhnovsky, chief administrator of the Moscow City Council, expressed his fears that provocateurs from organizations banned from demonstrating on 9 May would infiltrate the authorized rallies. -Wendy Slater CONTROVERSY OVER PARLIAMENTARY REPORTING. The Union of Parliamentary Journalists issued a strongly worded statement on 6 May protesting against the previous day's ruling by Yurii Marchenkov, newly-appointed head of the parliamentary press service, that major news agencies ITAR-TASS, RIA, and Interfax would no longer be allowed to cover meetings of the parliamentary presidium. Marchenkov claimed that the agencies "interpret issues discussed at the presidium in their own way." However, he told RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent on 6 May that the agencies were banned from covering the sessions "for technical reasons." The journalists' union accused parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov of being connected to the ban and called on correspondents to boycott information prepared by the parliamentary press service as "unreliable" if the ban were not lifted. -Wendy Slater GROMOV ON AFGHAN VETS IN ARMED FORCES. Addressing a gathering, Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov, who led the withdrawal from Afghanistan, gave a report on the current situation of Afghan vets, according to an account published in Krasnaya zvezda on 6-May. Gromov noted that 620,000 troops performed military service in Afghanistan, of whom approximately 260,000 now live in Russia. Of these, some 30,000 are still serving in the Russian armed forces, including 200-generals. Gromov stated that amongst the Afghan vets there are now almost 15,000 senior officers and 8,000 junior officers. Calling these troops the "backbone of the army" Gromov noted that training should be based on their combat experience. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN ACCEPTS KARABAKH PEACE PLAN, ARMENIA HAS RESERVATIONS. Speaking at a news conference in Baku on 6 May, Azerbaijani Prime Minister-designate Panakh Guseinov stated that Azerbaijan accepts the terms of the US/Russian/Turkish peace plan for Nagorno-Karabakh, Western agencies reported. In Erevan, Armenia's First Deputy Foreign Minister Gerard Libaridian described his government's reaction to the plan as "positive," but added that Armenia could not accept the plan unconditionally as the parliament of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic had asked for clarification of several points. It expressed concern that the plan required a full withdrawal of Armenian forces from the region of Kelbadzhar which they occupied in late March, but made no provision for the deployment of observers to preclude a resumption of hostilities by Azerbaijan. -Liz Fuller GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT NOMINATES NEW DEFENSE MINISTER. At a session of the Georgian parliament in Tbilisi on 6 May, deputies voted to approve parliament Chairman Eduard Shevardnadze's proposed candidate for minister of defense, 27-year old General Giorgi Karkarashvili, the Georgian Information Agency reported. Karkarashvili replaces Tengiz Kitovani, who has repeatedly been suspected of conspiring to overthrow Shevardnadze. Shevardnadze also announced the abolition of the Council for National Security and Defense, of which Kitovani and his arch-rival, Mkhedrioni militia leader Dzhaba Ioseliani, were both members. Kitovani reportedly refused Shevardnadze's offer to allow him to retain his post as deputy prime minister responsible for military affairs. -Liz Fuller KYRGYZSTAN TO INTRODUCE OWN CURRENCY ON 10 MAY. Kyrgyzstan's legislature, having voted to take the country out of the ruble zone and introduce a national currency, announced that the exchange of rubles for the new currency, the som, is to begin on 10-May and be completed by 14 May, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 May. After that date the ruble will no longer be legal tender in Kyrgyzstan. The exchange rate is set at one som for 200 rubles. The Supreme Soviet agreed to the currency change as a result of arguments by President Askar Akaev and government officials, who cited pressure from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, both of which have promised Kyrgyzstan large doses of financial assistance if the country agreed to leave the ruble zone. Several industrialized states, including the US, West European countries, and Japan, have also offered aid to what is widely perceived as the most democratically-oriented state in Central Asia. -Bess Brown KYRGYZSTAN'S CONSTITUTION HAS GONE INTO EFFECT. A correspondent of RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service in Bishkek reported on 6 May that despite accounts on the adoption of Kyrgyzstan's new constitution that said the document would not go into effect until 1995 as part of a compromise between President Askar Akaev and the Supreme Soviet, the compromise actually involved the terms of office of the country's top leaders, not the timing of the constitution's implementation. The constitution went into effect on 5 May. According to a statement by Akaev, the terms of office of himself, the current vice-president, and Supreme Soviet chairman will end in 1995. -Bess Brown OPPOSITION LEADERS ALLOWED TO VISIT INJURED BIRLIK OFFICIAL. Mamura Usmanova, head of Tomaris, a women's group close to the Uzbek opposition movement Birlik, told the RFE/RL Uzbek Service on 6 May that she and other Birlik and Erk Democratic Party leaders had been permitted to visit Birlik Co-Chairman Shokhrat Ismatullaev in a Tashkent hospital where he is being treated for injuries sustained in an attack on a Tashkent street. Usmanova said that Ismatullaev had sustained three skull fractures in the attack, which closely resembles an assault on Birlik's other co-chairman in 1992. Members of the Uzbek opposition are convinced that the attacks were orchestrated by the government, which has been harassing the democratic-oriented opposition since mid-1992. While Birlik was banned for three months earlier in 1993, no further legal steps have been taken against the organization to date, although several members were placed under house arrest at the end of April to prevent them attending a conference in Kazakhstan. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BELGRADE CUTS ASSISTANCE TO BOSNIAN SERBS. In response to the Bosnian Serb assembly's failure to endorse the Vance-Owen peace plan and decision to hold a referendum on 15-16 May, the government of Serbia announced on 6 May that it will cut all aid to Bosnia's Serbs except humanitarian relief. The government statement explains that "reasons no longer exist for further assistance in money, fuel, and raw materials." The statement also describes the Bosnian Serb decision to hold the referendum as "irresponsible, because it is not the people who participated in the many months of negotiations," and because the people should not be put in the position of having to shield the leadership from critical decisions. The statement went on to blame the Bosnian Serb leadership for "the asphyxiation" of Serbia's economy brought about by international sanctions. On the other hand, Vojislav Seselj, head of the Radical Party, told reporters that he is satisfied with the Bosnian Serb decision, and announced he will continue to provide assistance for them and to send volunteers to Bosnia. Belgrade media carried the reports on 6 and 7 May. -Milan Andrejevich OTHER REACTIONS IN SERBIA. The Bosnian Serb actions were received with bitter disappointment in Serbia. It was widely believed that the Bosnian Serbs would understand why the war must end, since all political parties in Serbia-Montenegro, apart from the Serbian Radical Party, were in agreement about the need to establish peace. Democratic Party head Dragoljub Micunovic, said he thinks the UN will ignore the decision and send troops to Bosnia. Serb resistance, he said, would bring a continuation of the war and a catastrophe. Micunovic said he thinks the talk about a referendum is nonsense, because "never before has an entire nation decided questions of war and peace." He reiterated what most critics have said, that "Serbia will now become hostages of the Bosnian Serbs." Vuk Draskovic, head of the Serbian Renewal Movement, says the only way out of the situation is for the international community not to recognize the legitimacy of the so-called Bosnian Serb assembly and treat Radovan Karadzic's signature on the Vance-Owen plan as legal. Draskovic said that nothing could now save the Bosnian Serbs: military intervention can be avoided only if the "main culprits of this war-Dobrica Cosic and Slobodan Milosevic-resign." "What was created over the past six years," he emphasized, "could not have been annulled in six days." A poll published in Politika on 7 May shows that 61.7% of the population in Serbia proper feels the Bosnian Serbs should have ratified the peace plan. Some 40% favor-and 33% oppose-foreign military intervention. -Milan Andrejevich REACTIONS IN MONTENEGRO. President Momir Bulatovic told Radio Montenegro on 6 May that the Bosnian Serb assembly's decision came "as a double shock" to him, first, because of the manner in which the decision was made, and second, because of the decision itself. Bulatovic said that, after more than 12 hours of debate, assembly deputies admitted that they had never been given access to three of the four documents of the Vance-Owen plan and that they had learned about their content only from the media. Bulatovic said that "such a degree of irresponsibility on the part of both the leadership and the deputies cannot be found anywhere in the world today." Bulatovic also described the referendum as "complete nonsense," saying that the assembly "had no right to abrogate its responsibility by letting the people decide." Political parties are also condemning the decision. Svetozar Marovic, a leader of the ruling Democratic Socialist Party, slammed the Bosnian Serbs for failing to accept the decisions of "those republics [i.e., Serbia and Montenegro] that are suffering with them." Slavko Perovic, head of the opposition Liberal Party has suggested that the republic close its border with Bosnia-Herzegovina. -Milan Andrejevich INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BOSNIAN CRISIS. Reuters on 6 May reported President Bill Clinton's remarks to a conference of the Export-Import Bank in Washington. He described the Bosnian Serb parliament's call for a referendum as "a delaying tactic," and noted that "the Serbs' actions over the past year violate the principle that internationally recognized borders must not be violated or altered by aggression from without. Their actions threaten to widen the conflict and foster instability in other parts of Europe in ways that could be exceedingly damaging. And their savage and cynical ethnic cleansing offends the world's conscience." The president called "for the international community to unite and to act quickly and decisively." Meanwhile at the UN, the Security Council voted 15-0 to make Sarajevo, Tuzla, Zepa, Gorazde, and Bihac safe areas, requiring the Serb besiegers to pull back so that they do not threaten the towns or their populations, and to allow free access for humanitarian relief. Srebrenica was similarly established as a safe area in April. The Croatian news agency Hina reports on 7 May, however, that Serb forces the previous day broke through the defenses of Zepa and are advancing, and that Serbian artillery shelled Bihac, killing 11. -Patrick Moore SERBIAN GENERALS SACKED. Borba and Politika reported on 5 May that the head of the Federal Yugoslav Army's intelligence service and the deputy commander of the armed forces have been "unexpectedly retired." Officials provided no explanations for the actions except to say that they were carried out on 30 April by a federal presidential decree "in line with the army's needs." Air Force Maj. Gen. Nedeljko Boskovic, the chief of intelligence, had been called back from early retirement in May 1992 after heading KOS, the counterintelligence service. He succeeded Gen. Aleksandar Vasiljevic, who was dismissed during a major shakeup of the former Yugoslav Army shortly after the creation of the rump Yugoslavia. Boskovic is said to be close to Vojislav Seselj, head of the nationalist Serbian Radical Party. Politika suggests that these supposed ties "apparently led to a serious reconsideration of the existence of an extremist wing in the military" by the ruling Socialists. The deputy commander of the armed forces, Lt. Col. Gen. Ljubomir Domazetovic, was close to former Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Panic and supported his ideas to modernize the army. Domazetovic, according to rumors, also was working behind the scenes in hopes of becoming commander of the Army. He has been replaced by Gen. Dragoljub Simonovic. Boskovic's replacement was not identified by the press. -Milan Andrejevich ROMANIAN CONCERN. On 6 May Radio Bucharest broadcast a government statement deploring the rejection of the Vance-Owen peace plan by the Bosnian Serbs. In a separate statement, Traian Chebeleu, a spokesman for President Ion Iliescu, expressed fears that the rejection of the international peace plan could lead to an escalation of war in Bosnia and a spillover in the Balkan region. Chebeleu announced that Iliescu will visit Croatia and Slovenia next week with a stopover in Belgrade for talks with Slobodan Milosevic and Dobrica Cosic. On several occasions Romania has offered to mediate in the crisis. In a separate development, port authorities in Galati said that Ukrainian ships detained there on suspicion of violating UN sanctions are threatening to block that Danube port. Fourteen Ukrainian tugboats pulling 75 barges loaded with iron ore have been detained in Galati since 13 March. Their captains refuse to sail back to the Ukraine despite the fact that the ships lack UN approval to sail upstream to Serbia. -Dan Ionescu FIVE ARRESTED IN PLOT TO KILL HAVEL. Czech Interior Minister Jan Ruml revealed that five foreigners had been arrested after police uncovered a possible plot to assassinate President Vaclav Havel, Czech TV reported on 6 May. According to agency reports, at least two more potential assassins are at large. The five were reportedly detained in their cars, which were packed with weapons. Czech TV said the suspects are believed responsible for a number of "acts of violence, blackmail, and murder." While the identities of the detained were not released, Czech TV speculated that the possible plot was connected with Havel's remarks on the Serb aggression in Bosnia. Several Czech dailies received anonymous letters on 4 May that warned that a Montenegrin radical group plans to assassinate the president and called on security agencies to prevent it. While Havel refused comment, his spokesman said that there is no final evidence yet that such a connection exists, nor convincing proof that the arrested really had the intention to kill Havel. -Jan Obrman KLAUS OPPOSED TO "ONE-SIDED" CRITICISM OF SERBS. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus declared at a press conference on 6 May that he is opposed to the "ideologization" of the Yugoslav question, CTK reported. He said that in his view it is a "simplification to declare the Serb leadership to be "communist, postcommunist, bad, and mean, while, at the same time, describing the other post-Yugoslav governments as noncommunist, and thus civilized and good." At the same time Klaus said that, despite his doubts, the Czech republic will support UN sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia. The prime minister's remarks are apparently aimed at President Vaclav Havel, who has repeatedly demanded a more determined approach to the solving of the Yugoslav crisis and has publicly said that air strikes against Serb artillery positions represent an option in the West's approach to the conflict. -Jan Obrman KLAUS REJECTS LIECHTENSTEIN DEMANDS. The Czech Prime Minister has rejected Liechtenstein's demands for the compensation of confiscated property in Bohemia and Moravia. In an interview published by Rude pravo on 6 May, Klaus said that he turned down the claims last year in a letter to Liechtenstein's ruler Prince Hans-Adam II. The Prince told reporters on 5-May that his country still seeks compensation for some 1,600 sq km of land, confiscated after the disintegration of the Austrian Empire. -Jan Obrman BULGARIAN BUDGET ADOPTED ON FIRST READING. After four days of intensive debates, the National Assembly on 6 May passed the government's 1993 budget, BTA reports. Of the 223 deputies present, 139-voted in favor, 83 against, and one abstained. The budget was opposed by the Union of Democratic Forces, whose group leader Stefan Savov warned that cuts in defense and law enforcement could have negative effects on public safety. UDF legislator and former finance minister Ivan Kostov argued that structural economic reforms can never be achieved by increased spending on state enterprises. Another former finance minister, Stefan Stoilov, said the Bulgarian Socialist Party is particularly satisfied with the fact that the government decided to assume a significant part of the debts of state companies. -Kjell Engelbrekt HUNGARIAN OFFICIAL ON TREATY WITH UKRAINE. The Hungarian-Ukrainian state treaty awaiting ratification by Hungary's parliament links the guarantees for minority rights with all other aspects of bilateral relations, Istvan Szent-Ivanyi, a deputy chairman of the parliamentary foreign relations committee and a member of the opposition Alliance of Free Democrats party, told Magyar Hirlap on 6 May. In his view, any proposals to modify a treaty already signed and ratified by Ukraine's parliament does not make sense; Hungary's parliament can now only ratify or reject the treaty. Any delay or obstruction in the ratification process could only affect Hungary's international prestige in neighboring countries and international organizations by creating the impression that some deputies still entertain the "illusion of territorial acquisitions" whereas Hungary has always made it clear that it had no territorial claims against anyone. -Alfred Reisch REVIEW OF HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN TREATY. In a closed session attended by Deputy State Secretary for Foreign Affairs Ivan Baba and Hungarian Ambassador to Romania Erno Rudas the Hungarian parliament's foreign relations committee on May 5 discussed the state of the state treaty with Romania, under negotiation since 1991. According to the chairman and two deputy chairmen of the committee, the two issues still requiring settlement are the border and minority problems. For the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum, the Romanian request for a border guarantee is not justified since both countries have signed a bilateral peace treaty as well as the 1975 Helsinki Final Act; the opposition feels that a compromise formula should be sought over the border issue that would result in no loss of face for both countries. All parties agreed that Hungary must continue its efforts to improve its relations with Romania in all fields at the bilateral level and in international organizations, and to pay attention to any "positive political developments" in that country. -Alfred Reisch NO GENERAL STRIKE IN ROMANIA. Romania's main trade union confederations called off plans for a general strike to begin on 7 May after reaching a last-minute agreement with the government. On the evening of 6 May, Radio Bucharest broadcast the text of a protocol signed by government representatives and leaders of five union organizations: the National Confederation of Romania's Free Trade Unions, Fratia, Alfa, Univers, and Ceres. A sixth confederation, the National Trade Union Bloc, which includes electrical, cultural and dock workers, refused to sign the agreement and announced that it is continuing its strike until a solution is found to claims related to port activities. The protocol provides for nearly doubling the minimum wage, from 17,600 to 30,000 lei. Government spokeswoman Doina Jalea said that the cabinet reluctantly agreed to a deal that is expected to accelerate inflation. Besides wage concessions, the new pact commits the government to creating a better mechanism to link salaries to the costs of living and to productivity in individual companies. Jalea said, however, that the cabinet is pleased to have defused a labor conflict that would have had a serious impact on the economy. -Dan Ionescu POLISH STRIKE UPDATE. Solidarity unionists claimed on 6 May that the national teachers' strike is affecting 90% of Polish schools, while the labor ministry reports that only 12% of schools and 30% of teachers are striking. The strikers are demanding increased funding, but refuse the employment reductions the government views as necessary to streamline education and health care. The government's response has been stern, even testy. Labor Minister Jacek Kuron appealed to teachers and health care workers to negotiate rather than strike, but stressed that the 1993 budget cannot be revised. "No strike will force the Sejm to change the budget," he said. Responding to a letter from Solidarity leader Marian Krzaklewski, Kuron argued it is not the government's fault that relations with the union have gone sour. "Strikes by teachers and health care workers organized to force revisions in the Polish legal order are hardly actions oriented to the greater good," Kuron said. "If we fired all the teachers who are not working," he added, "the rest could make great money." Meanwhile, the deputy minister responsible for restructuring in the Walbrzych region called off a scheduled visit there, apparently to avoid creating the impression that a strike organized there by Solidarity is forcing the government's hand. Solidarity says 40 firms are on strike in the Walbrzych region; the government counts only 13. -Louisa Vinton ESTONIA'S PRESIDENT IN POLAND. Speaking to reporters in Warsaw on 6 May, Lennart Meri said he would toast independence with champagne only when the last Russian soldier leaves Estonian soil; Poles and Estonians could then toast the moment together. During the official portion of his two-day visit, Meri discussed regional security and economic cooperation with President Lech Walesa, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, and the speakers of the Sejm and Senate. Meri travels to Gdansk on 7 May for the final day of his visit, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton ESTONIA OPPOSES NEW RUSSIAN PORT. Western media reported on 6 May that Estonian officials are concerned about Russian plans to build a gigantic new port at Luzhskaya Guba, southwest of St. Petersburg. The Estonians have pointed out that the site, closer to the Estonian town of Narva than St. Petersburg, is not well suited for a port because constant dredging would be required. They also fear that such a port would divert business from existing ports of the Baltic States. St. Petersburg mayor Anatolii Sobchak has asked the EBRD to help finance the new facility. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA-IMF AGREEMENT. On 6 May at a press conference in Vilnius, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius and head of the IMF's Baltic department Adalbert Knobl presented the results of their week-long talks, Radio Lithuania reports. Knobl said that Lithuania's main problem in introducing the litas, the continuing high rate of inflation, should be reduced by budget cuts and lower money emissions by the Bank of Lithuania. Slezevicius noted that salary increases would not be 40% as previously planned, but 30% for teachers, 25% for cultural workers, 20% for health workers, and 10% for other state employees. The government and central bank prepared a joint letter to the IMF pledging to observe the conditions of Lithuania's 1992 economic memorandum. -Saulius Girnius PREELECTION DEBATES IN LATVIA. RFE/RL and Radio Riga reported on 6 May that preparations are under way for a series of debates, organized by the RFE/RL Latvian Service, among representatives of all political parties and groups fielding candidates in the June parliamentary elections. The first debate will take place in Cesis on 7 May and will be broadcast the following day by RFE/RL and Radio Riga, which rebroadcasts one hour of RFE/RL programming daily. The debates have received the official approval from the Latvian Central Election Commission, which insists that all parties receive equal time. In its nine-part series leading up to the elections, RFE/RL will present the views of all parties that wish to participate. -Dzintra Bungs UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. Russian First Deputy Foreign Minister Anatolii Adamishin met for talks with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev on the first leg of a tour of CIS countries, Ukrinform-TASS and Radio Ukraine report on 6 May. Adamishin told reporters afterwards that for Russia relations with Ukraine were not only a priority but "one of the most important if not the most important." The Russian diplomat said that his main task is to listen to what he is being told in Kiev and noted that both sides agree that relations must be improved. Adamishin is on a tour of the CIS countries at the request of Russian President Boris Yeltsin. -Roman Solchanyk UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT BANS PRICE INCREASES. The legislature adopted a resolution blocking price increases until it hears a report on the economy from the cabinet of ministers on 18 May, Ukrainian TV reported on 6 May. The legislators criticized the government's economic performance and were incensed at the proposed price increases scheduled to go into effect on 10-May. The government argues that the price increases are necessitated by steep increases in the cost of energy. -Roman Solchanyk [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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