|The sum of human wisdom is not contained in any one language, and no single language is capable of expressing all forms and degrees of human comprehension. - Ezra Pound|
No. 86, 06 May 1993
RUSSIA US-RUSSIAN JOINT STATEMENT. Following talks with US Secretary of State Warren Christopher on 5 May in Moscow, Russian President Boris Yeltsin urged the Bosnian Serb parliament to accept the proposed peace plan. Yeltsin warned: "Russia will render firm support to all those honestly following the peace way on the basis of the Vance-Owen plan, but will not indulge anyone in trying to escape the plan fulfillment. In this light we will actively support the U.N. peacemaking operation to implement the Vance-Owen plan, a decision on which will be taken by the U.N. Security Council." In a joint statement signed by Christopher and his Russian counterpart, Andrei Kozyrev, Washington and Moscow said that if the plan was rejected, they would "immediately resume their discussion on new and tougher measures," ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow KOZYREV ON REJECTION OF PLAN. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev was sharply critical of the Bosnian Serb parliament's rejection of the peace plan. On 6 May, Kozyrev said the rejection could result in "monstrous bloodshed." He also expressed the hope that the Serbian people of Bosnia would "correct" the parliament's decision, Reuters reported. Russia's assertion of its willingness to participate in military operations to implement the Vance-Owen plan represents a reversal of Russia's previous stance. Suzanne Crow OFFICIAL REFERENDUM RESULTS. On 5 May the Central Electoral Commission released official results of the April referendum, ITAR-TASS reported. 69.2 million of Russia's 107.3 million eligible voters participated. Of them, 58.7% had confidence in President Yeltsin; 53% approved of his economic reforms; 31.7% wanted early presidential elections and 43.1% favored early parliamentary elections. Thus, under the conditions set by the Congress and the Constitutional Court, the latter two questions were not passed since they had attracted under half the potential votes. Government spokesman Sergei Yushenkov told reporters that Yeltsin had been awaiting the official results to sign a series of decrees which included support for the media, changes to the government, and implementing "elements" of Yeltsin's 20 March speech, when he proposed to introduce special rule. -Wendy Slater DEPUTIES PLAN MASS EXODUS FROM CONGRESS. The parliament's pro-Yeltsin bloc, the Reform Coalition, called on deputies to bring about the dissolution of the Congress of People's Deputies and the parliament, Russian and Western agencies reported on 5 May. About 350 deputies would have to resign from the Congress to deprive it of a quorum; currently about 200-were prepared to resign their mandates. The deputies planned a meeting in mid-May discuss their plans. The coalition confirmed its support for Yeltsin's new draft constitution and for his plans to debate it in the Council of the Federation, which comprises local representatives, rather than at the Congress which is entitled to adopt a new constitution according to current law. -Wendy Slater GAIDAR TO RETURN TO GOVERNMENT? TWO TOP GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS HAVE OPENLY DISCUSSED THE POSSIBILITY THAT, FOLLOWING YELTSIN'S VICTORY AT THE REFERENDUM, THE REFORMIST EX-PRIME MINISTER EGOR GAIDAR, WHO WAS FORCED OUT OF OFFICE IN DECEMBER, MAY RETURN TO GOVERNMENT. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko told journalists on 5 May that Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin would meet soon with Gaidar to discuss the possibility of the latter's return to the cabinet, ITAR-TASS reported. Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin also considered Gaidar's return to office. Chernomyrdin also said that the government administration would be purged of former employees of Soviet structures whose presence was impeding reform. -Wendy Slater AFTERMATH OF 1 MAY DEMONSTRATIONS. The OMON officer seriously injured during the 1 May demonstrations died in the hospital on 5 May, Russian TV said. On the same day, the Moscow city authorities banned opposition groups from marching on 9 May (Victory Day). The National Salvation Front's co-chairman Mikhail Astafev said his organization would defy the ban. The Officers' Union and National Officers' Assembly were given permission to rally, although not in Red Square as they had requested, according to RIA. The prosecutor's office, meanwhile, requested that three of the defendants in the trial of the failed August 1991 coup, who had attended the May Day march, be "subjected to restrictions," according to ITAR-TASS. -Wendy Slater RUSSIA CALLS FOR NUCLEAR TEST BAN. Russia has renewed its call for a comprehensive nuclear test ban in a statement made at a meeting of the UN Disarmament Commission on 5-May. An RFE/RL correspondent noted that the Russian delegate also called for the ratification and implementation of the START-1 treaty, which is still under consideration in the Ukrainian parliament. Russia is currently observing a moratorium on nuclear testing which is due to expire in July The Russian statement comes during a period when Western media are reporting debates in US defense circles over whether to agree to a comprehensive test ban. -John Lepingwell NUNN, LUGAR MEET WITH RUSSIAN PARLIAMENTARIANS. US Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar met with Russian parliamentarians on 5 May to discuss the START-2 ratification process, according to a Reuters report. Senator Nunn observed that the START2 ratification process has been slowed down by the ongoing political struggles in Russia. According to Senator Lugar, there is no timetable for ratification of the treaty. The Russian parliamentarians reportedly raised the question of compensation for the cost of weapons dismantling. While Russia is to receive assistance under the Nunn-Lugar bill, estimates of the total cost of implementing the treaty are much higher than the aid allocated by the US. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV ADDRESSES MILITARY GATHERING. On 6 May, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev addressed a meeting of "servicemen-internationalists"-troops who have served in Afghanistan and other areas outside the former Soviet Union. The meeting was also attended by high-ranking officers and representatives from the parliament and president's office. According to an account published in Krasnaya zvezda on 6 May, Grachev outlined the current military reform program and drew special attention to the increasing personnel shortfall caused by the rise in draft-dodging. Characterizing the personnel situation as "almost catastrophic", he attributed part of the responsibility for it to the failure of the military-patriotic education system. Grachev also argued that the ongoing political struggle must not involve the army and stated that the military "must remain a force acting as the guarantor of the preservation of Russian statehood and stability in society." The meeting subsequently adopted a resolution calling for troops "not to fall for the provocations of bellicose politicos and extremists." -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA CONSTITUTION ADOPTED IN KYRGYZSTAN. Western and Russian news agencies reported on 5-May that Kyrgyzstan's Supreme Soviet had adopted the country's first post-independence constitution. Parliamentary debate of the draft had continued for several months, with deputies arguing with each other and with President Askar Akaev over nearly every article. The adoption of the constitution, reported to have been unanimous, was apparently the result of a compromise between the legislature and Akaev, who agreed that the new constitution will not go into effect until the mandate of the current Supreme Soviet expires in 1995. Akaev also agreed to give up his title of head of government and to allow the prime minister to take full responsibility for running the government. The Supreme Soviet, in turn, bowed to Akaev's wishes and dropped a phrase from the constitution requiring adherence to the moral values of Islam. -Bess Brown NAZARBAEV REJECTS CONFEDERATION OF CENTRAL ASIAN STATES. Speaking to a group of information media officials in Alta-Ata, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev said that there will be no confederation or single state uniting the Central Asian region on any other principles, because "every person wants to live not in a communal apartment but in his own room." The new states of Central Asian cherish their sovereignty, according to Nazarbaev, though the leaders of all these states are promoting regional economic cooperation. Nazarbaev also appealed for the creation of a strong political party in Kazakhstan committed to democratic reform. -Bess Brown ANOTHER UZBEK OPPOSITION LEADER ASSAULTED. Officials of Uzbekistan's opposition Erk Democratic Party and Birlik Popular Front Movement told RL's Uzbek Service on 5 May that Birlik Co-Chairman Shokhrat Ismatullaev was beaten in Tashkent and hospitalized with a fractured skull. A nurse at the hospital told the Service that Ismatullaev had been beaten but had suffered only cuts and bruises. The attack appeared to be a replay of an assault on Birlik's other Co-Chairman, Abdurakhim Pulatov, last June. Ismatullaev was one of several Birlik members who were forced by Uzbek authorities to sign promises that they would not attend a congress of Kazakhstan's Social Democratic Party at the beginning of May. The congress formally protested to Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov. Uzbekistan has also come under fire for human rights violations from the US-based Helsinki Watch, which has just released two reports on abuses in Uzbekistan. -Bess Brown KYRGYZSTAN'S PRESS IN ROW OVER UZBEK MILITARY EXERCISES. Several Kyrgyz newspapers are raising a scandal over a military exercise conducted by Uzbekistan on the territory of Kyrgyzstan in March, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 May. Kyrgyzstan's presidential press office confirmed that the Uzbek troops had conducted their exercises in Osh Oblast without having obtained the permission of Kyrgyzstan's State Defense Committee or any other government department. The commander of the exercises was reported to have told an inquisitive law enforcement officer that Uzbek use of Kyrgyz territory had been agreed upon by the akims (governors) of Osh and Fergana Oblasts. A member of Kyrgyz President Akaev's staff complained to ITAR-TASS that the presence of foreign troops should be a matter of agreement at the highest levels. In addition, the proximity of the area where the Uzbeks held their exercises to Tajikistan could have led to "negative consequences." -Bess Brown NAGORNO-KARABAKH ROUNDUP. In an extensive interview published in Nezavisimaya gazeta on 5-May, Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey expressed confidence that the population of Armenia was ready to accept a peace settlement in Nagorno-Karabakh that would guarantee the rights of the enclave's Armenian population but added that if extremist forces in Armenia did not agree to such a settlement Azerbaijan would continue fighting rather than become the first country to abandon the principle of the inviolability of existing frontiers since to do so "would plunge the whole world into chaos." Elchibey proposed a complete demilitarization of Karabakh, joint control over the Lachin corridor linking Armenia and Karabakh, and the deployment of peacekeeping forces. Meanwhile, in a letter to the UN Security Council, Armenia has accused Azerbaijan of violating the ceasefire that came into effect in mid-April by initiating largescale military operations against the civilian population of villages close to the Armenian-Azerbaijani frontier, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SERB ASSEMBLY FAILS TO RATIFY PEACE PLAN. In a stormy 17-hour session, deputies of the Assembly of the self-proclaimed Serb Republic of Bosnia, meeting in the resort village of Pale near Sarajevo, rejected the Vance-Owen peace plan for a third time. The Assembly decided instead to vote on a 26 April decision calling for a Bosnian Serb referendum either to reject or approve the peace plan. Scheduled for 15-16 May, it is not clear how the referendum will be held under conditions of war. Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadzic told reporters that the assembly's decision is not a rejection of the Vance-Owen plan; the referendum, he said, "will be the people's response to what the plan has to offer." Momcilo Krajisnik, chairman of the Assembly, commented that the Bosnian Serb leadership will "explain to the international community why our deputies made this decision. We will intensify diplomatic activities and contacts in an attempt to evade the threats facing us." During the debates, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic, federal Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic, Montenegrin President Momir Bulatovic and Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis all made personal appeals to the deputies to ratify the peace plan. Moments before the vote, Milosevic told the Bosnian Serbs, "you have to understand that I can't help you anymore," and Cosic remarked "we cannot continue fighting this war." Serbian and international media carried the reports on 6 May. -Milan Andrejevich FIRST REACTIONS FROM PALE, BELGRADE. Dobrica Cosic remarked that the assembly had taken the "worst possible decision" and added that Serbs are embarking on a road of "great uncertainty." Mitsotakis told reporters, "our efforts proved fruitless, the Vance-Owen plan was rejected, despite the last appeal by the Belgrade and EC leaders. He added, however, that Serbia-Montenegro " waged a decisive battle to avert this development. I believe this is a very important fact, which puts Serbia and Montenegro in the right direction. Belgrade's independent radio B92 and Studio B TV say the initial reactions among Belgrade residents is of bitter disappointment and resentment. Over the past week, state-owned Belgrade TV has been repeatedly showing footage of the Allied bombing of Belgrade in April 1944 and many residents fear a further tightening of sanctions. A Politika commentator told RFE/RL that the Bosnian Serbs "continue to hold Serbia hostage." -Milan Andrejevich OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE YUGOSLAV CRISIS. The 6 May Los Angeles Times quotes Mitsotakis as telling the Pale parliament that "the whole Balkans is in your hands," and, indeed, other developments on 5 May showed that problems abound on many fronts. The Washington Post on 6 May reports that Bosnian Serbs refused to admit UN observers to the embattled east Bosnian enclave of Zepa, which is considered to be a possible candidate to become a protected "safe haven" if the UN establishes such zones. Local Muslim ham radio operators and the Bosnian government said that the Serbs had shelled the town heavily, but the Serbs charged that the Muslims had provoked them in hopes of attracting international intervention. Meanwhile in Zvornik, UN commander Gen. Philippe Morillon said that he will travel to another Muslim enclave, Srebrenica, to complete its demilitarization by 10 May, Politika reports on 6 May. Elsewhere, international media state that US Secretary of State Warren Christopher will hold talks in Brussels with NATO and EC officials in the latest leg of his tour of key capitals to discuss possible military intervention in Bosnia. Finally, Serbian media report a clash on 5 May between ethnic Albanians and Serb police in the Djakovica area of Kosovo. The Serbs said that armed Albanians provoked the fight by running a police roadblock, but Reuters quotes Albanian leaders as charging that the Serbs set up the incident as an excuse to launch an assault with tanks, artillery, and helicopters on the village of Bregovac. The Albanians have often accused the Serbs of arranging such incidents and attacks as part of a campaign to intimidate Kosovo's more than 90% Albanian majority. -Patrick Moore GREEK-MACEDONIAN NEGOTIATIONS. Bilateral discussions between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia under the auspices of the UN continue. According to Greek journalists and MILS, Greece is demanding that Macedonia change its name, its flag, and the wording of its constitution concerning Macedonians residing outside of the republic. Greece also demands a halt to "anti-Greek propaganda". For its part, Macedonia says that Greece should abide by international agreements it has signed and wants to conclude an understanding to regulate traffic on the Macedonian-Greek border. Skopje also wants Athens to respect the rights of Macedonians living in Greece. Officials in the Macedonian capital argue that the constitution cannot be changed, while Greeks deny the existence of a Macedonian minority within its borders. As to the names, evidently the front-running choices are "New Macedonia" and "Upper Macedonia." Officials in both capitals are unwilling to predict whether the negotiations will be successful. The current political turmoil in Greece may auger ill for the outcome of these talks. -Duncan Perry TWO POLISH MINISTERS RESIGN. The two remaining ministers from the Peasant Alliance (PL), the small party that withdrew from the ruling coalition in protest at the government's agricultural policy, resigned on 5-May. The two will likely not be much missed: Zygmunt Hortmanowicz, the environment minister, faced near-universal criticism, while Jerzy Kaminski held a low-profile liaison post created to give the PL its share of cabinet seats. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka has not yet acted on the resignations, which are bound up in ongoing negotiations over the party's possible return to the coalition. The PL continued to equivocate on 5 May, despite a conciliatory gesture from the government on grain prices. The PL convenes again on 6 May. Meeting late into the night on 5 May, the remaining coalition parties pledged closer cooperation in achieving government's five priority programs. The PL's parliamentary leader attended the meeting as an observer, but PAP reports that former agriculture minister and PL chairman Gabriel Janowski, who prompted the party's departure from the coalition, was refused admittance. -Louisa Vinton SOLIDARITY THREATENS GENERAL STRIKE. Solidarity claimed that more than 300,000 teachers and health care workers answered the union's strike call on 5 May. The government set participation at a lower level. The union is demanding that the government submit a revised 1993 budget to parliament with increased spending on education and health care. A general strike by the budzetowka (employees paid from the state budget) is threatened for 10-May. In a letter to the prime minister on 5 May, Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski charged the government with deliberately antagonizing the union and "playing with fire." He threatened to call a general strike or ask the Sejm to hold a no-confidence vote in the government. Labor Minister Jacek Kuron responded on TV's "Panorama" that the strike is a sign of weakness rather than strength and charged that Solidarity has failed to find a way both to pursue reform and defend workers. Krzaklewski is to meet with President Lech Walesa on 6 May. -Louisa Vinton LIECHTENSTEIN SEEKS COMPENSATION FROM CZECHS. Liechtenstein's ruler, Prince Hans-Adam II, told journalists on 5 May that his country is still seeking compensation for land seized by the former Czechoslovakia 75 years ago, CTK reports. He stressed that if the matter were handled in strict accordance with international law, the claim would now be worth some $1-billion. He conceded, however, that this sum is not realistic and that Liechtenstein is willing to discuss compensation of 300 million Swiss francs (about $210-million). The 1,600 sq km of land involved in the dispute is ten times larger than the Principality of Liechtenstein itself. Prince Hans-Adam said that if no agreement can be reached between the two states, the dispute should be put to the International Court of Justice in the Hague for a ruling. -Jan Obrman CZECHS NOTE RISE IN ILLEGAL BORDER CROSSINGS. According to Western agency reports from 5-May, in April alone, Czech border police detained close to 5,500 people who tried to cross the Czech Republic's border illegally. An Interior Ministry spokesman said that the vast majority of them were heading into Germany. According to the reports, Yugoslavs made up the largest group, followed by Romanians and Bulgarians. In the first four months of 1993, Czech police detained almost 17,500 illegal migrants. It is unknown how many people actually succeeded in reaching German territory, but it is estimated that the number by far exceeds that of people who were prevented from crossing the border. -Jan Obrman MORE ON ROMANIAN STRIKES. On 5 May hundreds of thousands of workers responded to calls for strike by some of Romania's main trade union confederations. Participation in the strikes, however, differed widely from branch to branch and county to county. Drivers were among the most active, with some 100,000 walking out nationwide. More than 10,000 dock workers and sailors were said to be on strike in Black Sea and Danube ports, and work stopped at three of Romania's largest oil refineries in the Ploiesti region. In Bucharest, subway workers continued a strike started on 3 May, while health care personnel struck in some hospitals. Talks between unions and the government on averting a general strike that could cripple the economy continued with some success. Union representatives stated yesterday night that they had won some concessions from the government, but they postponed for 12 hours a final decision on calling off the general strike scheduled to start on 7 May. Miron Mitrea, the leader of the Fratia confederation, said that the current strikes will go on until the agreement with the government is perfected. Romania's Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu told reporters after the talks that the agreement will hold only as long as the unions do not resort to new work stoppages. -Dan Ionescu SHUSHKEVICH BEGINS ROMANIAN VISIT. On 6-May President Stanislau Shushkevich of Belarus begins a two-day official visit to Romania. Radio Bucharest reported that his agenda includes talks with Romania's President Ion Iliescu and meetings with Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and other high-ranking Romanian officials. Romania and Belarus are expected to sign a mutual cooperation treaty initialed on 1 March in Minsk during a visit paid there by Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu. In July 1992 Iliescu made a one-day stopover in Minsk. -Dan Ionescu QUEEN ELIZABETH IN HUNGARY. MTI quoted Elizabeth II as telling the Hungarian parliament in a televised speech that, after a peaceful political change, Hungary has now relit the flame that was brutally suppressed in 1956. The country now has to struggle with the years of destruction. She called the European Community the central force securing the continent's security and prosperity and expressed the hope that Hungary will be able to join, "because you have the right to occupy your place in the mainstream of European history and culture." The Queen's speech was warmly received by the deputies. -Karoly Okolicsanyi COUNCIL OF EUROPE CHAIRMAN IN SOFIA. BTA reports on the visit by Miguel Martínez, Chairman of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, to Sofia. In an address to parliament on 5 May, marking one year since the country's election into the Council of Europe, Martínez said Bulgaria has emerged as a "recognized, active and responsible" member of the council. He also praised Sofia's handling of sharp domestic political differences, as well as problems linked to ethnic and religious minorities. -Kjell Engelbrekt KRAVCHUK PROPOSES SECURITY COOPERATION WITH SLOVAKIA. In an interview published by the Slovak daily Pravda on 5 May, Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk said that he favors an informal security alliance between Ukraine, Slovakia, and "other states of the region." Kravchuk made it clear that no new organizational structure, nor a close security system was needed. He made it clear, however, that "Slovakia and Ukraine as well as other Eastern and Central European countries should coordinate their efforts in the promotion of their common interests." He pointed out that the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) represents the best forum for their common activities. The change of this forum into an effective security system is within their common interest, he said. Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar repeatedly stressed his interest in close cooperation with Ukraine. -Jan Obrman UKRAINE ON CIS. In the same interview, Kravchuk said that at the moment the development of the CIS should be preserved. Should the CIS fail to justify its existence, he said, a new form of relations among the former Soviet republics will have to be found. Kravchuk once again reiterated Ukraine's well-known position, namely, that Kiev favors economic integration but is opposed to political and military ties. The interview was summarized by ITAR-TASS on 5-May. -Roman Solchanyk MOLDOVAN POPULAR FRONT LEADERS QUIT. On 5 May the Executive Committee of the Popular Front accepted the request of Mircea Druc, the former Prime Minister of Moldova, to be relieved of his position as chairman in connection with his move to Romania and assumption of Romanian citizenship, Basapress reports. At the same meeting the nine-man Executive Committee announced that four of the committee's former members and founding leaders of the front, including Druc's predecessor as chairman, Ion Hadirca, plus the chairman of the front's parliamentary group and the editor in chief of the Writers' Union weekly Literatura si arta (until recently the Popular Front's unofficial organ and the most influential publication in Moldova), had forfeited their membership in the front. Those individuals recently joined the Congress of Moldovan Intellectuals, which also promotes unification with Romania but, unlike the front, accepts the need for gradualism. Front Vice-Chairman Iurie Rosca, head of the faction that calls for immediate unification with Romania and rejects Moldovan statehood, became acting chairman. The departure of these leaders marks another milestone in the front's isolation and disintegration. -Vladimir Socor US ON NEW ESTONIAN DEFENSE CHIEF. On 5 May State Department spokesman Joe Snyder confirmed to reporters that the request by retired US Col. Alexander Einselm for permission to head the Estonian defense forces had been rejected, a RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reports. Permission is required from both the Defense Department (which had given its approval) and the State Department. The US government has not decided whether it will take any action against Einselm, such as depriving him of his US citizenship or his military pension. Snyder said that the State Department refusal was made since the US is "very concerned about any steps that could be misinterpreted about US intentions in the region." -Saulius Girnius EUROPARLIAMENT DELEGATION IN LATVIA, LITHUANIA. Kirsten Jensen, head of a European Parliament delegation visiting Latvia, told the press on 5-May that the group has established that there are no grounds for the recent accusations by Russian President Boris Yeltsin and other Russian leaders of massive and grave violations of human rights in Latvia. This was the main topic for the parliamentarians' two-day visit, BNS reports. The delegation also visited Lithuania, where on 4 May parliament unanimously passed a resolution on Lithuania's membership in the Council of Europe and the following day ratified the council's 1949 statute, BNS reports. -Dzintra Bungs LOCAL STATIONS IN ESTONIA AND LITHUANIA REPLACE RUSSIAN TV. On 5 May Estonian Culture and Education Minister Paul-Eerik Rummo handed out licenses for broadcasting on the channels previously used by Russian and St. Petersburg TV, BNS reports. Eesti Video and Taska Ltd. will share the St. Petersburg slot while RTV received the Russian slot. Tele-3, headed by Lithuanian-American Liucija Baskauskaite, who won the Russian TV slot, began its own broadcasts on 1 May. Programs were chosen on the results of questionnaires and will include movies and features from Western satellite channels. Some of the more popular Russian TV programs will also be retained. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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