|Man's yesterday may ne'er be like his morrow; Naught may endure but Mutability. - Percy Shelley|
No. 85, 05 May 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN AND SUPPORTERS CONDEMN INSTIGATORS OF RIOTS. In a joint statement reported by Russian TV's "Vesti" program on 4 May, President Boris Yeltsin and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin promised to punish the instigators of the "provocation" which caused violence at the 1 May demonstrations in Moscow. They linked what they called the "open attempt of extremist forces" to disrupt Russian society with the referendum, the results of which these forces were attempting to negate by violent means. Separately, the Moscow city government in a statement carried by ITAR-TASS accused the parliamentary leadership of protecting the instigators of the violence and of deliberately making a false assessment of the events in order to discredit the federal government and the city authorities. -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV SPEAKS OF PROVOCATION. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov defended himself on Russian TV on 4 May against allegations by members of the presidential staff that the parliamentary leadership had provoked the street riots during the 1-May demonstrations. He accused the Moscow city administration of having provoked these confrontations in order to divert the prosecutor's office, the interior and security ministries away from corruption investigations. He also stated that the new Russian Constitution would be adopted by the Congress "without haste" and in consultation with a broad variety of political forces, and pledged that deputies would conduct economic reform together with the president. He added that the parliament had always supported "the most resolute reform steps." Alexander Rahr PARLIAMENTARY INVESTIGATION BEGINS. The commission set up by Khasbulatov to investigate the "use of force against participants in a peaceful demonstration on 1 May" held a session on 4 May, ITAR-TASS reported. The head of the Moscow health department told the commission that 579 people had asked for medical help after the disturbances. There had been no fatalities, but one police officer was in a critical condition. In a separate meeting the same day reported by ITAR-TASS deputies from reformist factions in the parliament decided to ask the parliamentary session due on 5 May to strip those deputies who organized the demonstrations of their parliamentary immunity. Vyacheslav Volkov, deputy head of the presidential administration, told Ekho Moskvy that the deputies had urged the Moscow Mayor's office to prevent a further demonstration planned for 9 May (Victory Day). -Wendy Slater CHRISTOPHER IN MOSCOW. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher arrived in Moscow on 4 May for talks with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on the crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Christopher's stop in Moscow follows visits to other European leaders in an effort to find support for possible Western military intervention in Bosnia. Deputy Foreign Minister and special Yugoslav talks envoy Vitalii Churkin complained on 4 May that Washington had not yet offered Moscow any details of US ideas on intervention. He also assured reporters that the talks between Christopher, Kozyrev, and Yeltsin would consist of "a dialogue, not a monologue," AFP reported on 5 May. The talks between Christopher and Russian officials started on 5 May. -Suzanne Crow SIDOROVA ON RUSSIAN POSITION. Russia is hopeful that the agreement reached in Athens on a settlement to the conflict in former Yugoslavia will prompt the Serbs to fulfill the Vance-Owen peace plan, Galina Sidorova, an adviser to the Russian Foreign Minister said on 4 May. Sidorova would not comment on possible alternative actions which might be necessary should the Bosnian Serbs fail to ratify or fulfill agreements reached. Asked what Russia's position would be in the UN Security Council on a possible vote to use military force in Bosnia, Sidorova said only, "the Foreign Ministry will be guided by President [Yeltsin's] position," RIA reported. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIA TESTING SECOND SUB FOR IRAN. Reuters reported on 4 May that a second Russian Kilo class submarine is currently undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea. The news agency quoted Western sources as questioning whether the deal would go through, as Iran has paid for only one submarine so far and Russia was under Western pressure to halt the sale. However, there is also substantial pressure within Russia for continued arms sales. Russian officials have expressed resentment at Western attempts to limit arms sales and have called for preferential treatment for Russian arms in world markets. -John Lepingwell RADIATION HAZARD FROM REACTORS ON SEABED ASSESSED. Two researchers from the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report that radioactive materials may have leaked from 16 sunken Soviet nuclear reactors. Leaked materials could contaminate fish, which might then be consumed by humans. But while the total contamination in the Arctic region may be as high as 900,000 curies, the scientists noted that the risk to humans remains quite low. The study was reported by Reuters on 4 May. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIAN TROOPS BEGIN WITHDRAWAL FROM KELBADZHAR. In compliance with last week's UN Security Council resolution, Armenian troops have begun to withdraw from the Kelbadzhar region of Azerbaijan which they occupied in late March, AzerTadzh reported on 4-May, but the Azerbaijani presidential press service claimed that Armenia continued to subject villages in the Kazakh and Zangelan raions to artillery fire. Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov met in Ankara with his Turkish counterpart Hikmet Cetin on 4-May to discuss the new US/Turkish/Russian peace plan for Karabakh, AFP reported. -Liz Fuller SABOTAGE AT WEST GEORGIAN POWER STATION. An explosion at Inguri HES in western Georgia, which supplies up to 40% of Georgia's electricity, caused widespread power blackouts in Tbilisi and elsewhere in Georgia during the night of 4-5 May, Western agencies reported. Unnamed Georgian officials were quoted as stating that the explosion was probably the work of supporters of ousted Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia. -Liz Fuller FIGHTING IN TAJIKISTAN. An Su-24 fighter plane shot down on 3 May by a Stinger missile fired from Afghanistan was part of Tajikistan's Air Force, not that of Uzbekistan as originally reported, Tajikistan's Ministry of Defense announced on 4 May according to Khovar-TASS. The ministry also complained of "incompetent reporting" that had misidentified the plane. Western agencies on 3 May quoted a report from Russian border troops in Tajikistan that 50 opposition fighters had been killed in fighting near the Tajik-Afghan border. The 50 were reported to be part of a group of 300 opposition Tajiks and their Afghan supporters who had slipped over the border at the end of April. In a press briefing on 4-May, Tajik Prime Minister Abdumalik Abdullodzhonov repeated a government charge that opposition leaders have set up a government-in-exile in Afghanistan. -Bess Brown NEW EDUCATIONAL POLICY IN TURKMENISTAN. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov told a group of educational specialists that the country's educational system needs to be overhauled in order to create the "brain bank" needed by an independent state, ITAR-TASS reported on 4 May. Part of Niyazov's plan is a requirement that all citizens of Turkmenistan be competent in Turkmen, English, and Russian. The system of special secondary education is to be abolished, and entrance exams for higher education are to be replaced by a system of selecting likely candidates in their local schools. The educational reform is to coincide with the introduction of a Latin alphabet for the Turkmen language in 1996. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SERBS PREPARE TO VOTE ON PEACE PLAN. On 4 May deputies of the Assembly of the self-declared Serb Republic of Bosnia held stormy consultative meetings in the run-up to its two-day session that begins on the 5th. The assembly will take another vote on whether to accept the Vance-Owen peace plan for Bosnia-the plan was rejected twice earlier. Most Bosnian Serb leaders are wary of predicting the outcome of the vote, but statements by Assembly President Momcilo Krajisnik suggest a grudging acceptance of the Vance-Owen plan even by hard-liners such as Krajisnik himself. In an interview with Radio Serbia on 4 May, Krajisnik admitted that the leadership feels compelled to bow to the threat of outside military intervention. He added that there are positive arguments for accepting the plan, such as "guarantees" that UN rather than Croatian or Muslim forces would be sent to areas currently populated by Serbs or held by the Bosnian Serb army and the possibility of renegotiating the borders of the ten proposed provinces. He earlier told a radio talk show, "we have to change the way we act. We should not use force anymore. We should choose the diplomatic way to achieve our goals." Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic, other top federal, Serbian and Montenegrin leaders, and Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis have been invited to attend the Assembly session. Mitsotakis arrived in Belgrade on 4 May, for high-level meetings with Serbian officials. -Milan Andrejevich BELGRADE PRESSES ON THROUGH BROADCAST MEDIA. In an effort to demonstrate its backing for the Vance-Owen plan, Belgrade is also applying pressure on the Bosnian Serbs through the broadcast media in Serbia-Montenegro. In recent days, political leaders and commentators have been unanimously praising the plan, welcoming the prospect of peace, and urging the Bosnian Serbs to vote for the plan. Exaggerated attention is being paid to supporters of the plan, while opponents, such as Vojislav Seselj, have been virtually ignored on TV and radio broadcasts. Goran Hadzic, president of the self-declared Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia and a strong ally of the Bosnian Serbs (as well as of Milosevic) is also calling for the Bosnian Serbs to accept the peace plan. Hadzic and most Serb leaders earlier criticized the plan saying that it punishes the Serbs and ignores "legitimate Serb interests." -Milan Andrejevich SANCTIONS CHOKE BULGARIAN-ROMANIAN BORDER. An RFE/RL correspondent in Sofia reports that the tightened United Nations embargo, prohibiting all forms of freight traffic through rump Yugoslavia, is already causing serious jams at Bulgarian- Romanian crossing points. The correspondent said that on 4 May 10kilometer-long queues of vehicles accumulated on both sides of the Danube bridge at the Ruse-Giurgiu crossing, and that a similar situation arose at the Vidin-Calafat ferry. On the same day Bulgarian and Romanian customs officials met in Giurgiu to discuss the increasingly difficult traffic situation. -Kjell Engelbrekt CZECH GENERAL STAFF COMMANDER RESIGNS. Defense Minister Antonin Baudys announced on 4 May that the commander of the Czech Army General Staff, Lt. Gen. Karel Pezl, has resigned, CTK reports. No official reason was given for Pezl's resignation but Baudys told journalists that "new men are needed" in the army leadership to "formulate a new long-term military policy." The defense minister announced that he is preparing the creation of a rapid deployment force and stressed that the armed forces need additional funds. He said that the current budget of 23 billion koruny is not sufficient to maintain the necessary training standards of the army and air force, not to speak of the required modernization of the armed forces. Baudys pointed out that his ministry would need at least an additional 5 billion koruny this year. Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus ruled out any increases of the military budget several weeks ago. -Jan Obrman CZECH REPUBLIC UNABLE TO COPE WITH REFUGEES? THE INTERIOR MINISTRY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC HAS INDICATED THAT THE COUNTRY MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO COPE WITH THE TIDE OF REFUGEES EXPECTED AFTER GERMANY ALTERS ITS ASYLUM LAWS, REUTERS REPORTED ON 4 MAY. Ministry spokeswoman Beata Bernikova said that "supportive measures" are under preparation, but they will not be effective by the time Germany plans to introduce its new legislation this summer. Bernikova announced that a camp is under construction to hold illegal immigrants expelled from Germany. But she said the single most important step is a tightening of the Czech-Slovak border. She added that negotiations with Slovakia on this issue "are going nowhere." -Jan Obrman MELESCANU IN SLOVAKIA. Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu arrived for a two-day official visit in Slovakia, TASR reported on 4 May. Melescanu met with Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar and was scheduled to hold talks with President Michal Kovac. After the meeting Meciar told reporters that a cooperation treaty with Romania is under preparation to be signed during a visit by Romania's President Ion Iliescu to Slovakia in the near future. Meciar also plans to visit Romania soon. Melescanu said that Romania will, like Slovakia, only sign a treaty with Hungary if it includes a provision on the inviolability of the borders. Both officials confirmed the mutual interest in an extension of economic cooperation. Radio Bucharest stressed that the relations between the two states are free of conflicts and that Romania was among the first countries to recognize Slovakia. -Jan Obrman and Dan Ionescu ROMANIA RECEIVES EC FINANCIAL AID FOR REFORMS. Karen Fogg, an official of the European Community's aid program for reforming Eastern European economies, said on 4-May in Bucharest that Romania is likely to receive over $160 million in aid from the program this year. Fogg told reporters that aid from the EC program, known as PHARE, will concentrate on medium- and long-term support for economic reforms, with special focus on enterprise reform, privatization, and the development of financial infrastructure. The new aid program to cover the period 1993-95 is expected to be signed in Brussels on 11 May. In another development, an additional protocol to the association agreement between Romania and the EC was signed on 4 May in Brussels. The protocol regulates the imports of Romanian textiles in the EC over the next five years. After this period, textile imports will be completely liberalized. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN STRIKE UPDATE. A general strike scheduled to begin on 5 May was delayed for 48 hours by four of Romania's main trade union confederations. The grace period is designed to allow a possible understanding between the government and the unions over offsetting the effects of the final price liberalization round which took place on 1 May. Two other federations, however, decided to go ahead with plans for a strike. Tens of thousands of drivers and medical workers are expected to work off their jobs today to press pay demands to compensate for the recent price rises. In the meantime, the strike of Bucharest's subway workers continues. -Dan Ionescu QUEEN ELIZABETH IN HUNGARY. Queen Elizabeth-II continues her four-day state visit to Hungary, MTI reports. At a gala dinner in the parliament building on the evening of 4 May, President Arpad Goncz termed the visit a "prominent event in Hungarian-British relations," while the Queen spoke of her Hungarian great-great-grandmother and of the historic ties between the two countries. -Edith Oltay VAN DEN BROEK IN HUNGARY. On 5 May, EC Commissioner for External Relations and Security Hans van den Broek paid a one-day visit to Hungary, MTI reports. Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky told van den Broek that Hungary hopes the EC will help the Visegrad Group join the community. Prime Minister Jozsef Antall pledged that Hungary would do its best to adjust its political, legal, and economic system of institutions to the standards of the EC "already in the association period." Van den Broek told reporters following his talks that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe should be patient in their bid to join the EC, and that setting dates for entry talks would be premature, Western news agencies report. In a separate development, the Hungarian Prime Minister's Office issued a statement announcing the lifting of a ban on meat and milk imports from EC countries effective 5 May. Hungary introduced the ban last month after the EC imposed a similar ban on East European meat and milk products following an outbreak of hoof-and-mouth disease. The EC conditionally lifted its ban late last month. -Edith Oltay HUNGARIAN-GERMAN MILITARY TIES. Fritz Wittmann, chairman of the Bundestag's defense committee, held talks in Budapest on 3 and 4 May on security problems in Central Europe and the former Yugoslavia with Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur, Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, and Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky, MTI reports. He also met with the parliamentary defense committee and informed Jeno Laszlo, Chairman of Hungary's Military Industry Office, that Germany would soon start shipping the parts from the stocks of the former East German Army that Bonn agreed to give Budapest earlier this year; according to Wittmann, the topic of a cooperation between the two countries' arms industries did not come up. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES TREATY WITH UKRAINE. Hungary's parliament held a "sharp" three-hour plenary debate on the 1991 friendship treaty with Ukraine, which is up for ratification, MTI and Radio Budapest report. Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky stressed the importance of the treaty in ensuring good relations between the two countries, and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk's "personal assurances" regarding the rights and cultural autonomy of Transcarpathia's Magyar minority. Jozsef Torgyan, chairman of the Smallholders' Party, and several Hungarian Democratic Forum deputies proposed to amend the treaty because of an article stating that both sides renounced all territorial claims against each other, while several opposition deputies favor ratification of the treaty. The ratification debate has been postponed to a later, not yet announced date. -Alfred Reisch UKRAINE RETURNS GERMAN CULTURAL TREASURES. Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma met with German President Richard von Weizsaecker and other federal officials in Bonn on 4-May and returned to Germany cultural treasures that had been taken by the Soviet Union during World War-II, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports. Kuchma is at the head of a Ukrainian delegation visiting Germany in connection with the days of Ukraine in Bavaria that begin on 5 May. According to the newspaper, Kuchma was also laying the groundwork in Bonn for Chancellor Helmut Kohl's planned visit to Kiev in June. -Roman Solchanyk LALUMIéRE IN BELARUS. Secretary General of the Council of Europe Catherine Lalumire arrived in Belarus on an official visit, Postfaktum Radie reported on 3 May. During her stay she met with Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich, Minister of Foreign Affairs Petr Krauchenka, national deputies, and representatives of political parties and movements. The visit focused on questions relating to Belarus's entry into the European Community. Responding to a question from Lalumire, Shushkevich responded that he does not see entry into EC as conflicting with Belarus maintaining its traditional close ties with Russia. -Ustina Markus POLISH COALITION WOOS PEASANT ALLIANCE. The cabinet agreed on 4 May to raise minimum purchase prices on rye and wheat, provided the Peasant Alliance returns to the ruling coalition, Polish TV reports. This concession, essentially a promise of increased subsidies for farmers, would satisfy one of the Peasant Alliance's four conditions for returning to the government. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski acknowledged that the bargain is "risky" and could result in higher food prices. But he suggested that the decision was worth taking if it restores the coalition to its previous strength. If the Peasant Alliance turns down the offer, minimum grain prices will remain at their current level. The coalition meets on 5 May to discuss the issue. The daily Nowa Europa criticized the government's decision as an "economic absurdity" and called the proposed bargain "especially disturbing proof of the primacy of politics over economics." -Louisa Vinton PUBLIC SERVANTS, WALBRZYCH REGION ON STRIKE. Polish teachers began a general strike on 5-May to demand cost-of-living increases and the retraction of a government decision to cut the wage fund by 5% in 1993. Teachers in many regions walked out a day early, PAP reports. The strike is sponsored by Solidarity as part of a national protest by employees paid from the state budget, whose earnings now amount to about 85% of the national average. Education Minister Zdobyslaw Flisowski appealed to teachers to return to work to allow students to take their final exams. Other education officials argued that many of the teachers' demands have already been met and that the 1993 budget allows little leeway for additional wage increases. Meanwhile, some 40 firms answered Solidarity's call for a general strike in the Walbrzych region on 4 May. The strike is legal; 80% of the work force in 140 firms voted to strike in a referendum. The strikers are demanding more rapid government action to restructure the region, which faces high unemployment because of mine closings. -Louisa Vinton POLISH ECONOMIC GROWTH CONTINUES. Polish industrial production was 5.5% higher in the first quarter of 1993 than in the comparable period the previous year, PAP reports. At a press conference on 30-April, officials from the main statistical office (GUS) reported that GDP, profits, and productivity all rose in the first three months of 1993. Negative trends persisted in agriculture, construction, and foreign trade, while inflation and unemployment remained high. Poland posted a first-quarter trade deficit of $380 million; prices rose 10% (compared to 11.5% in the first quarter of 1992); and real wages dropped 1.5%. The central planning office (CUP) predicted on 30 April that real wages will drop 5% in 1993: a recipe for labor unrest. CUP also confirmed that Polish GDP was 0.5-2.0% higher in 1992 than in 1991. Polish officials pointed out proudly that Poland was one of the few countries in the world to post markedly improved economic results in 1992. -Louisa Vinton WORLD BANK APPROVES $750-MILLION LOAN FOR POLAND. The World Bank's executive board on 4 May approved $750 million in loans to support Poland's economic transformation program, Western agencies report. The decision followed the Sejm vote to accept the government's mass privatization program; this was treated as a litmus test of Poland's political will to pursue reform. The bank approved a $300-million loan designed to ease the transition of Poland's agricultural sector and a $450-million loan to support the government's enterprise restructuring program. This program is intended to ease the debt woes of state-owned enterprises, remedy banking system portfolio problems, and clarify the governance and ownership requirements of stockholder-owned enterprises. The World Bank said the loans raise its commitment to Poland to a total of $3.5 billion since 1990. -Louisa Vinton WORLD BANK: VARIABLE RECOVERY RATES IN BALTICS. John Hansen, senior economist of the World Bank, told BNS on 27 April that the three Baltic States are each following their own pace on the road to economic recovery: Estonia leads the other two by almost a year, with Latvia coming in second, and Lithuania bringing up the rear. He added that the pace of recovery hinges on how quickly each country is able to get off the starting block as well as its discipline and commitment to make changes. With the collapse of the USSR, Hansen said, Lithuania lost its petroleum supplier and its partner for 85% of its trade. Hansen cautioned that despite exemplary progress in some areas, Estonia is still not out of the woods; the country must still complete its privatization drive and economic restructuring-changes that will probably result in rising unemployment. On 30 April IMF official Ernesto Hernndez-Cata, told the press in Riga that the Baltic States have achieved considerable progress in stabilizing their economies in contrast to the rest of the former USSR, where he sees little prospect for improvements in the near future. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA YIELDS TO IMF ON SALARY INCREASES. After several talks with an IMF delegation on a visit in Lithuania until 7 May to view Lithuania's adherence to the economic memorandum approved last year, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius indicated that the promised 40% increase in pay and benefits would probably be reduced to 10-15%, Radio Lithuania reports. Moreover, the reduced increases, costing about 1-1.5 billion coupons, would be paid from the Lithuanian budget and not from IMF credits. More disagreements with the IMF are likely since the memorandum stresses the need for tight monetary control to speed up the introduction of a national currency while the government has been raising salaries and benefits to compensate for inflation. -Saulius Girnius LITHUANIANS IN HOT WATER? ON 4 MAY AT A MEETING WITH RAION LEADERS, PRIME MINISTER ADOLFAS SLEZEVICIUS ADMITTED THAT HE HAD ISSUED A DECREE CALLING FOR THE RESTORATION OF HOT WATER SUPPLIES WITHOUT PROPERLY INVESTIGATING THE CONSEQUENCES, THE RFE/RL LITHUANIAN SERVICE REPORTS. Water usage is not metered, and fees are not based on the quantity used, but on an assumed usage rate of 110 liters a day per household member. Because of the high costs of hot water, many people would simply refuse to pay, and the authorities in many raions thus did not restore hot water supplies. Slezevicius said he supports supplying hot water for two-day periods twice a month, but this may not be economical due to the increased costs of frequently stopping and restarting water heaters. -Saulius Girnius LATVIAN AGRICULTURE MINISTER VOTED DOWN. Following the proposal of the Supreme Council's Agriculture and Forestry Commission to review the work of Agriculture Minister Dainis Gegers, on 4 May in a vote of 62-16-42, the Supreme Council expressed no confidence in Gegers. BNS and Diena reported that day. Deputy Anna Seile said that the voting also reflected the deputies' opinion of the government's agricultural policies. Gegers was blamed in particular for the government's inability to repay its debts to farmers, the policy on grain imports, shortage of fuel for spring sowing, and the lack of consultation with farmers on crucial issues. Some deputies, however, argued that this vote was a preelection ploy that would not really help resolve Latvia's agricultural problems. In another personnel shift, Diena reported on 4 May of the resignation of Ilze Jurkane as president of Latvia's Investment Bank. The acting president will be Aivars Jurcans, heretofore the bank's legal counselor. -Dzintra Bungs RETIRED US OFFICER TO HEAD ESTONIA'S ARMED FORCES. On 4 May by a vote of 82-0-1 the Estonian parliament appointed a retired US officer, 61-year-old Estonian-America Col. Alexander Einselm, as commander-in-chief of the Estonian defense forces, Western agencies report. The US embassy in Tallinn reported that Secretary of State Warren Christopher had denied Einselm's request for US governmental approval for this move. Einselm, a veteran of the Korean and Vietnam wars, emphasized his view that the defense forces should stay out of politics. Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.6 May 1993 1 6 May 1993 1 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 86 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 86 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 86
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