True heroism consists not in fighting under a flag but in not fighting at all. - Freidrich Nietzsche
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 82, 30 April 1993







RUSSIA



YELTSIN ADDRESSES GOVERNMENT SESSION. An expanded meeting of
the Council of Ministers on 29-April, including representatives
of the parliamentary leadership and regional leaders, was addressed
by President Yeltsin, according to ITAR-TASS. He characterized
the vote of confidence in his economic reform policies as "the
sensation of the referendum" and said that opposition to them
from the legislature was equivalent to opposing the will of the
people. However, he said, mistakes had been made, and reforms
must now aim to create "a socially-oriented market economy."
He warned of forthcoming changes in the cabinet, to oust those
opposed to the reform course. He also pointed to "a new regional
strategy" which would preserve the differences between Russia's
regions, saying that in future only those regions which pursued
reform could expect investment from the center. -Wendy Slater


YELTSIN PROMOTES NEW CONSTITUTION. At the same meeting, Yeltsin
for the first time supported a proposal put forward by the Democratic
Russia Movement to set up a Constituent Assembly for the adoption
of a new Constitution. Under Russian law only Congress has the
right to adopt a Constitution. Yeltsin said Russia's regions
and republics should send delegates to a Constituent Assembly.
The full draft of the Constitution was released on 29 April by
ITAR-TASS. -Vera Tolz

YELTSIN FURTHER DOWNGRADES RUTSKOI. President Boris Yeltsin has
put himself in charge of the Interdepartmental Commission of
the Security Council for Struggle Against Crime and Corruption
thus releasing Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi from these duties,
according to ITAR-TASS on 28 April. A few days ago, Yeltsin had
removed Rutskoi from his duties as chief-supervisor of agriculture.
Meanwhile Parliament voted to set up its own investigation commission
which will work with the procurator general. Rutskoi charged
that some documents on corruption in the higher echelons of state
power have already been destroyed. Although he had promised to
provide evidence of government corruption before the referendum
Rutskoi now stated that the full account would be ready only
in June. -Alexander Rahr

MILITARY AFFAIRS IN THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION. The Russian constitution
proposed by President Yeltsin largely confirms the existing structure
of civil-military relations. According to a draft transmitted
by ITAR-TASS on 29 April, the Russian president would also be
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and would have the power
to appoint both ministers and top-ranking officers, apparently
without confirmation by the legislative branch. The draft also
provides for a Security Council which is to be headed by the
president. Other statutory members of the Security Council would
be the prime minister, and the ministers of defense, internal
affairs, and justice. This definition of the council excludes
statutory membership for the deputy chairman of the parliament,
which is provided for by the current law. The new parliament,
the Federal Assembly, would have the right to ratify treaties,
declare war, and "decide the question of the possible use of
Russian forces outside the borders of the Russian Federation."
-John Lepingwell

SUPREME SOVIET SPEEDS UP ALTERNATIVE DRAFT CONSTITUTION. After
Yeltsin unveiled the key points of a new draft Russian Constitution
worked out under the supervision of the prominent lawyer Sergei
Alekseev, the Russian Supreme Soviet ordered its Constitutional
Commission to speed up work on the commission's own new draft.
Although Yeltsin is technically chairman of this commission,
in fact its work is supervised by executive secretary Oleg Rumyatsev.
This commission has already worked out several drafts of the
Constitution, which neither Yeltsin nor leaders of Russia's republics
agreed to support. Russian news agencies reported on 29 April
that the Russian parliament called on regional leaders to seriously
consider yet another draft Constitution that is to be made public
by the parliamentary commission by 20 May and refrain from passing
judgement on Yeltsin's until then. -Vera Tolz

NEW RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT. The latest and apparently
final version of the "concept" of Russian foreign policy has
been signed by Boris Yeltsin, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on
29 April. The document, entitled "Fundamental Positions of the
Concept of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation," apparently
marks the end of the 14-month long search for a set of guidelines
for Russia's international affairs. Work on this final version
was directed by Yurii Skokov, secretary of the Russian Security
Council. The final product reflects elements of the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs concept, as well as the "Strategy for Russia"
document presented by the Council for Foreign and Defense Policy,
and other proposals. -Suzanne Crow

WHO MAKES POLICY? THE CONCEPT ESTABLISHES A NEW MECHANISM OUTLINING
HOW FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONS ARE TO BE MADE. According to Oleg
Osobenkov, chief of the Department of Analysis and Preparation
of Foreign Policy Decisions of the Security Council, it will
no longer be possible say, for "one person" to make foreign policy
decisions "on board his airplane," Rossiskaya gazeta reported
on 29 April. The one person Osobenkov seems to have had in mind
is Foreign Minister Kozyrev. Asked how the new concept sat with
the Russian Foreign Ministry, Osobenkov said only that all opinions
were heard during the debate about the text. -Suzanne Crow

DIPLOMATIC PRIORITIES. One of the fundamental principles of the
concept is Russia's status as a great power. Despite its internal
crisis, Russia maintains immense influence in world affairs.
Because of this status, it is important for Russia to be active
in international political and economic organizations. In addition,
the document identifies as part of Russia's vital interests the
maintenance of the Federation's unity. The concept also highlights
the importance of integration in the CIS, the protection of human
rights in the former Soviet Union, and the elimination of armed
conflicts as necessary to ensure the maintenance of Russia's
international position, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 29-April.
-Suzanne Crow

REFERENDUM RESULTS IN MOSCOW PUBLISHED. While the official results
of the referendum on the entire territory of Russia will be announced
only in the beginning of May, the referendum results of Moscow
were made public on 29 April. According to the official numbers,
4,46 out of 6,95 million Moscovites went to the polls, ITAR-TASS
reported. Of these 3,33 million voted for President Boris Yeltsin
in the first question, 1,032-million-against him. A majority
of 3,09 million Moscovites supported Yeltsin's economic policy.
-Alexander Rahr

FISCAL AND MONETARY TIGHTENING PROMISED. On 29 April, a day when
it was announced that the budget deficit for the first quarter
was 10% of GNP, i.e., twice as high as planned, when the G-7
nations once again urged Russia to get its fiscal act together,
and when the ruble fell to 823 to the dollar, the cabinet promised
to do better. According to Russian and Western agencies, President
Yeltsin declared an end to easy credits; Prime Minister Chernomyrdin
announced that bankruptcy procedures would be initiated , fuel
prices raised, technical credits to former Soviet republics halted,
and arms exports boosted; and Deputy Prime Minister Fedorov proposed
a six-month moratorium on new spending for social programs. -Keith
Bush

PARLIAMENT PASSES LAW ON ARMS-RELATED EXPORTS. On 29 April the
Russian parliament passed a law making it a criminal offense
to export materials, components, or services that might be used
to create nuclear, chemical, or other weapons of mass destruction.
The law also reportedly forbids exports that might contribute
to the construction of missile delivery systems for such arms.
Western states have been urging that Russia take such an action
in order to prevent the flow of equipment and technology to states
involved in nuclear, chemical, or missile proliferation. Passage
of such a law was also an informal condition for the further
lifting of Western limits on technology exports to Russia. -John
Lepingwell

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA



ECONOMIC DECLINE CONTINUES IN KAZAKHSTAN. Kazakhstan's State
Committee on Statistics announced on 29 April that economic indicators
were worse for the first quarter of 1993 than for the same period
in 1992, ITAR-TASS reported. National income was down 16.3% and
output of almost half of the country's industrial firms declined.
Output of coal, pig iron, steel, electricity, oil and gas was
down, and agricultural output was unable to meet the country's
food needs. While prices for food and industrial goods rose 2.5
to 3 times, inflation affected municipal services and housing
rents more severely, and the report described the rise in medical
costs and prices of consumer services as catastrophic. Average
wages rose by only 1.5-times in comparison with the earlier period,
leading the Committee to conclude that there has been a critical
decline in the living standard of the majority of the population.
-Bess Brown

ARMENIAN FORCES BEGIN WITHDRAWAL FROM KELBADZHAR. Nagorno-Karabakh
self-defense forces have begun a partial withdrawal from the
Kelbadzhar raion they occupied late last month, ITAR-TASS reported
on 29 April citing a statement by the Press and Information Department
of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan
said the move testified to the "good will" of the Karabakh authorities;
his press secretary Aram Abramyan told ITAR-TASS that it demonstrated
that the Karabakh Armenians had no intention of seizing Azerbaijani
territory and were concerned only with safeguarding their borders.
In Baku, deputies of the Supreme Soviet dissolved after the Azerbaijani
Popular Front took power in May, 1992, have called for the Supreme
Soviet to reconvene to debate Azerbaijan's recent military defeats
in Karabakh, according to a correspondent for RL's Azerbaijani
BD. The National Assembly rejected this demand as "unconstitutional."
-Liz Fuller

NEW AZERBAIJANI PRIME MINISTER APPOINTED. Panakh Guseinov was
appointed Azerbaijani Prime Minister at a session of the Azerbaijani
National Assembly on 28 April, AzerTadzh reported the following
day. The 36 year old Guseinov, one of the founding members of
the ruling Azerbaijan Popular Front, had for the past year been
secretary of state. Ali Masimov, who had served as acting prime
minister for the past three months, was appointed deputy prime
minister and economics minister. -Liz Fuller

SHEVARDNADZE IN SUKHUMI. On 29 April, the second day of his visit
to Abkhaz, capital of Sukhumi, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard
Shevardnadze warned that if the Abkhaz leadership ignored the
Georgian parliament's proposal (details of which are not known)
for a peaceful settlement of the Abkhaz conflict and continued
to bombard Sukhumi Georgian troops would retaliate by increasing
the bombing of the towns Gudauta and Tkvarcheli, ITAR-TASS reported.
Tkvarcheli has a large Russian population. -Liz Fuller

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE



TOP YUGOSLAV-AREA PROTAGONISTS TO MEET. International media report
on 30-April that peace negotiators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen
will host a meeting in Athens on 1-2 May. Participating are the
presidents of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia, together with the
Bosnian Serb and Croat leaders. The session was prompted by the
announcement by the Bosnian Serb parliament that it will reconsider
the Vance-Owen plan in light of "newly available information"
on 5 May. That body has rejected the document twice in unanimous
votes, but the negotiators want to discuss plans to set up a
neutral corridor in northern Bosnia to permit contact between
Serbia proper and Serb-held territories in Croatia and Bosnia.
The Bosnian Serbs have called the peace plan unacceptable, presumably
because it would thwart their plans for uniting the contiguous
territories they have taken into one state. They are now, however,
under strong pressure from the Belgrade leadership to accept
it to ward off further sanctions on Serbia-Montenegro and to
remove a major argument for Western military intervention. The
29 and 30 April issues of Borba report on the strong concern
in Montenegro over the possible effect of the sanctions. It remains
to be seen, however, what any Bosnian Serb acceptance of the
peace plan would mean in practice, given the track record of
cease-fires and many other agreements in the Yugoslav conflict.
-Patrick Moore

CROAT AND MUSLIM COMMANDERS TRY TO ENFORCE THE CEASE-FIRE. Reuters
reported on 29-April that the top generals of the two nominally
allied forces visited some of their men together with UN forces
to persuade the fighters to respect the current cease-fire. Generals
Milivoj Petkovic and Sefer Halilovic will continue touring the
scattered sites of fighting in an effort to end the combat that
started earlier in April and led to massacres and other atrocities
on both sides as both armies sought to consolidate and expand
military gains. The top leaderships have each blamed the other
side for the fighting, and conspiracy theories abound. Meanwhile,
France has removed its peace-keeping forces from near Belgrade
and transferred them to Zagreb lest they be targets for Serb
reprisals for any Western military intervention in the Yugoslav
area. And in Tirana, Albania has asked the Security Council to
intervene after Yugoslav border guards killed eight Albanians
in what Tirana described as provocations. Finally, Western news
agencies reported on 29 April that a Bosnian refugee is in critical
condition in a London hospital following an attempt at self-immolation
in front of Parliament as part of a protest to demand Western
military intervention in that republic. -Patrick Moore

HUNGARY TO ENFORCE SANCTIONS. The Hungarian government on 29
April decided that the UN's stricter punitive measures against
Serbia and Montenegro are to take effect immediately, Radio Budapest
reports. It has instructed the Justice Ministry to draft the
necessary law modifications that will make the violation of the
relevant international obligations a criminal offense. -Alfred
Reisch

POLISH MASS PRIVATIZATION PASSES, AT LAST. After feverish negotiations
lasting well into the night, the Sejm approved the government's
revised mass privatization legislation on 30 April, following
more than two years of debate. The vote was 215 to 178, with
22 abstentions, PAP reports. The comfortable margin of victory
was unexpected, given the reservations voiced during debate on
29 April. The victory for mass privatization, achieved in part
because of support from the postcommunist Democratic Left Alliance,
staves off a government crisis. The coalition's liberals had
threatened to leave the coalition if the bill failed, and many
parties seemed already to have begun to maneuver with an eye
to new elections. Before the final vote, the Sejm rejected amendments
that would have included children in the program and banned the
participation of foreign management firms. It accepted amendments
giving firms the right to refuse to take part in mass privatization.
-Louisa Vinton

SKUBISZEWSKI PRESENTS FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES. In a policy
speech to the Sejm on 29-April, Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski
said that Poland's integration with the EC and NATO, reinforcing
national security, and promoting friendly relations with neighboring
countries remained priority goals. He called upon the EC to "remain
faithful to the ideals of its founders . . . and not transform
itself into a fortress closed off to the rest of Europe," PAP
reports. Skubiszewski condemned "genocidal acts" and "massive
human rights violations" in former Yugoslavia and called for
"limited use of military force" in Bosnia. Responding implicitly
to domestic criticism of his policies, Skubiszewski said that
a consensus among major political forces on Polish raison d'etat
was essential to the country's international credibility. Finally,
Skubiszewski urged realism, noting that Poland's foreign partners
are increasingly pragmatic in approach and that the "time of
sympathies and preferential treatment has ended." -Louisa Vinton


POLAND CHASTISES EC FOR "DISCRIMINATION." The Polish government
issued a statement on 29-April criticizing the EC for the limitations
it has imposed on meat and livestock imports from Central and
Eastern Europe, PAP reports. Poland at first viewed the restrictions
as temporary measures genuinely designed to protect Europe from
hoof-and-mouth disease, the statement said. "The EC's actions
demonstrate, however, that the [restrictions] are merely an arbitrary
instrument of discrimination and a concealed trade barrier that
violate the terms of the association agreement covering trade
between Poland and the EC." Poland has proved compliance with
EC standards for meat, the statement continued, and thus requests
that the restrictions-"dishonest trade practices aimed at limiting
Polish exports"-be lifted. -Louisa Vinton

EC LIFTS BAN ON HUNGARIAN MEAT EXPORTS. The EC's animal hygiene
committee on 28 April decided to lift within a few days the ban
imposed earlier this month on Hungarian exports of live animals
and meat products, Radio Budapest reports. Hungary has accepted
all of the EC's conditions, albeit under protest, and has requested
further consultations in the matter. According to State Secretary
for Agriculture Gyorgy Rasko, the EC requirement to quarantine
live animals for 15 days prior to shipment abroad would raise
costs by 10% to 12% for private farmers and would be intolerable
in the long run. Austria, on its part, has not yet lifted its
own ban on Hungarian meat and dairy products and is awaiting
from Brussels an official notification of the EC's decision.
-Alfred Reisch

HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN ACCORD ON BORDER CROSSING OPERATIONS. On 29
April top Hungarian and Romanian border guard and customs officials
signed an agreement aiming at preventing and eliminating long
waiting times at the border crossing points between the two countries,
MTI reports. The two parties will inform each other about any
expected traffic growth at their border crossings, simplify border
control procedures, and set specific numbers for the number of
trucks to be processed at three determined border crossing points.
A new border crossing will be opened this year at Mehkerek-Salonta
and the modernization of the Romanian side of the Artand-Bors
border station will also be started. -Alfred Reisch

UNIONISTS HOLD TALKS WITH ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT. Prime Minister
Nicolae Vacaroiu and other members of the government held talks
on 29-April with several trade union confederations planning
a general strike for 5 May. The talks, broadcast live on Radio
Bucharest, did not produce any breakthroughs. The unions reiterated
the demand that President Ion Iliescu mediate in the conflict,
which is the result of the elimination of subsidies and the raise
in prices going into effect on 1 May. -Michael Shafir

PRIVATIZATION IN ROMANIA. A spokeswoman for the State Ownership
Fund told Western correspondents in Bucharest on 29 April that
TAROM, Romania's national airline, will be the first large enterprise
to be privatized this year. The fund listed 379 small, 106-medium,
and 6 large enterprises for privatization in 1993. Many of these
will be sold to their management and staff. Fund Chairman Emil
Dima said he hopes this process will trigger a chain reaction.
On another matter, Dima, who is a Senator for the ruling Democratic
National Salvation Front, said he plans to vote in the Senate
against a bill allowing foreign companies to acquire land in
Romania. The bill had already been passed by the parliament's
other house, the Chamber of Deputies. -Michael Shafir

FORMER ROMANIAN OFFICIAL CLAIMS "MAFIA" RULES MINISTRIES. Retired
Maj. Gen. Gheorghe Florica, recently dismissed as general commissioner
of the Financial Guard, claims several key positions in the Romanian
administration are in the hands of a mafia. In an interview with
the daily Evenimentul zilei on 24-April, Florica said the campaign
conducted by the government against corruption is therefore bound
to fail. Florica claims Minister of Finance Florin Georgescu,
important officials in the Ministry of the Interior, as well
as prominent members of the ruling Democratic National Salvation
Front are members of this local organized crime ring. -Michael
Shafir

ROMANIA'S FOREIGN DEBT. Romania's foreign debt at the end of
1992 was $2.3 billion, more than double the 1991 figure. A spokeswoman
for the National Bank told Reuters on 29-April that most of the
borrowing consisted of loans from international lenders to support
the market economy reforms. On 28 April, however, Rompres quoted
the daily Adevarul that the middle and long-term credits contracted
by the state in 1992 totaled $2.946 billion dollars. Nearly 66%
of this debt had been contracted by the state, most of it being
geared at financing the country's negative balance of trade.
-Michael Shafir

KLAUS AND MECIAR TO DISCUSS CZECH-SLOVAK DISPUTES. Czech Prime
Minister Vaclav Klaus and Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar
are to meet on 30 April to try to resolve the intensifying Czech-Slovak
conflict over the division of the former Czechoslovakia's assets.
Czech and Slovak media report that the meeting was initiated
by Klaus after Slovakia declined to participate in talks aimed
at solving outstanding property issues. The Czech government
claims that Slovakia owes the Czech Republic some 24 billion
koruny which it withdrew from the Czechoslovak State Bank prior
to the split of the federation in an effort to finance its budget
deficit. Slovak officials acknowledge the existence of this debt
but claim that the Czech Republic also owes Slovakia large sums
of money for expropriating, for example, federally-owned data
bases, the Czechoslovak flag, and other federal assets and symbols.
In March the Czech government announced it would block issuing
shares in Czech companies purchased by Slovaks under the voucher
privatization in 1992, unless Slovakia pays back its debts. In
explaining his refusal to attend the next round of talks, Meciar
cited this decision as an unacceptable from of pressure on Slovakia.
Slovak Finance Minister Julius Toth said in 29 April that if
an agreement on the division of federal assets cannot be reached,
Slovakia might demand an audit by an international organization.
-Jiri Pehe

OPPOSITION TO CIS SECURITY PACT IN BELARUS. A campaign has been
launched by opposition deputy Syarhei Navumchyk to hold a referendum
on Belarus's participation in a CIS security pact, the RFE/RL
Belarus Service reported on 29 April. Navumchyk says 101-deputies
support the referendum. Under Belarus law if one third of the
deputies (116 of 347) support the proposal, the Supreme Soviet
is obliged to set a date for the referendum. The referendum was
called for by Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich earlier
this month after parliament voted in favor of signing a CIS security
pact. Shushkevich is opposed to Belarus participation in such
a pact, stating that Belarus should remain a neutral state and
not be part of any military alliance. -Ustina Markus

BRAZAUSKAS CONGRATULATES YELTSIN. Lithuanian President Algirdas
Brazauskas has issued a statement stressing that his country,
as a friendly state to Russia, welcomes Russian president Boris
Yeltsin's success in the 25 April referendum. Brazauskas said
that the results of the referendum would foster democracy and
stability in Russia and further strengthen Lithuanian-Russian
relations, BNS reported on 28 April. That same day Baltic media
reported that the Lithuanian president plans to make officials
visits to Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Germany and that the
next round of Lithuanian-Russian talks may start early in May.
Lithuanian ambassador to Moscow Romualdas Kozyrovicius noted
the possibility of a Lithuanian-Russian summit meeting also in
May. On 29 April Russian ambassador to Lithuania Nikolai Obertyshev
presented an official invitation for President Brazauskas to
visit Moscow and the invitation was accepted, though the exact
dates of the visit remain to be specified. -Dzintra Bungs

FUTURE OF THE LITAS. On 29 April Bank of Lithuania Chairman Romualdas
Visokavicius reported on the previous day's Litas Committee meeting,
Radio Lithuania reports. Although not giving a date for the introduction
of the litas, he stated that it would be this year and that the
planned conversion rate of the coupon (the temporary currency)
to the litas remains a state secret. The rate will apparently
be high, since coins of value less than a litas have already
been minted. The conversion will be applied equally to all coupons
and there will be no forced conversion of hard currencies to
litas. Citizens will be able to convert litas to other currencies
at any time at the day's exchange rate. The litas will be the
official currency, and hard-currency stores will be closed. -Saulius
Girnius

TEACHERS' STRIKE IN VILNIUS. On 29 April teachers in many schools
in Vilnius staged a one-day warning strike, Radio Lithuania reports.
The teachers, whose current wages are 7,000 coupons per month,
are not satisfied with the government decision to raise their
wages by 40% from 1 May and demand that wages be raised to 20,000
coupons and summer pay be indexed to inflation. If their demands
are not met in seven days, they will urge all teachers in Lithuania
to strike. The initial government response was negative and an
IMF mission, headed by Adalbert Knoebl, currently visiting Lithuania
objected to the government's plans to use foreign loans to finance
the salary hikes. -Saulius Girnius

POLITICAL POLL IN LITHUANIA. The results of an opinion poll of
1,174 citizens taken by the Lithuanian Radio and TV Sociological
Department were published in Lietuvos rytas of 29 April. President
Algirdas Brazauskas remains the most popular political figure,
although his popularity dropped 8.7 points from a similar poll
in January to 37.7%. Seimas Deputy Chairman Egidijus Bickauskas
was second, and former Prime Minister Bronislovas Lubys third.
Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius was 11th, and opposition leader
Algirdas Landsbergis 18th. The Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party
dropped to fifth place in popularity behind the Center Movement,
the Social Democratic Party, the Christian Democratic Party,
and the Bishop Valancius Temperance Movement. -Saulius Girnius


ESTONIA, GERMANY SIGN COOPERATION ACCORDS. On 29 April in Bonn
Foreign Ministers Trivimi Velliste and Klaus Kinkel signed treaties
specifying the principles of relations between the two countries
as well as accords on educational and cultural cooperation. The
two ministers also discussed ways to promote economic relations,
Estonia's security problems, and its integration into Europe.
Germany signed similar accords with Latvia last week and is expected
to sign a basic treaty with Lithuania in the near future, Western
agencies reported on 29 April. -Dzintra Bungs

RUSSIA WANTS VISAS FROM ESTONIANS, LATVIANS. Baltic media reported
on 28 April that Russia has finally informed Estonia and Latvia
of the introduction of visas, effective from 12 May, for Estonians
and Latvians wishing to visit Russia. The Russian Foreign Ministry
notes were dated 23 April, although such notes, according to
international practice, should have been sent out 30 days before
the visa introduction date. For the time being, the visa regime
will not apply to persons with USSR passports (provided these
passports do not contain stamps indicating that the bearer of
the passport is a citizen of another country); these persons
will have to decide by 6 February 1995 if they want to become
citizens of Russia or of some other country. The Russian embassy
in Riga started to accept visa applications on 30 April. -Dzintra
Bungs

[As of 1200 CET]

Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull



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