|Life is what happens to us while we're making other plans. - John Lennon|
No. 82, 30 April 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN ADDRESSES GOVERNMENT SESSION. An expanded meeting of the Council of Ministers on 29-April, including representatives of the parliamentary leadership and regional leaders, was addressed by President Yeltsin, according to ITAR-TASS. He characterized the vote of confidence in his economic reform policies as "the sensation of the referendum" and said that opposition to them from the legislature was equivalent to opposing the will of the people. However, he said, mistakes had been made, and reforms must now aim to create "a socially-oriented market economy." He warned of forthcoming changes in the cabinet, to oust those opposed to the reform course. He also pointed to "a new regional strategy" which would preserve the differences between Russia's regions, saying that in future only those regions which pursued reform could expect investment from the center. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN PROMOTES NEW CONSTITUTION. At the same meeting, Yeltsin for the first time supported a proposal put forward by the Democratic Russia Movement to set up a Constituent Assembly for the adoption of a new Constitution. Under Russian law only Congress has the right to adopt a Constitution. Yeltsin said Russia's regions and republics should send delegates to a Constituent Assembly. The full draft of the Constitution was released on 29 April by ITAR-TASS. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN FURTHER DOWNGRADES RUTSKOI. President Boris Yeltsin has put himself in charge of the Interdepartmental Commission of the Security Council for Struggle Against Crime and Corruption thus releasing Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi from these duties, according to ITAR-TASS on 28 April. A few days ago, Yeltsin had removed Rutskoi from his duties as chief-supervisor of agriculture. Meanwhile Parliament voted to set up its own investigation commission which will work with the procurator general. Rutskoi charged that some documents on corruption in the higher echelons of state power have already been destroyed. Although he had promised to provide evidence of government corruption before the referendum Rutskoi now stated that the full account would be ready only in June. -Alexander Rahr MILITARY AFFAIRS IN THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION. The Russian constitution proposed by President Yeltsin largely confirms the existing structure of civil-military relations. According to a draft transmitted by ITAR-TASS on 29 April, the Russian president would also be Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and would have the power to appoint both ministers and top-ranking officers, apparently without confirmation by the legislative branch. The draft also provides for a Security Council which is to be headed by the president. Other statutory members of the Security Council would be the prime minister, and the ministers of defense, internal affairs, and justice. This definition of the council excludes statutory membership for the deputy chairman of the parliament, which is provided for by the current law. The new parliament, the Federal Assembly, would have the right to ratify treaties, declare war, and "decide the question of the possible use of Russian forces outside the borders of the Russian Federation." -John Lepingwell SUPREME SOVIET SPEEDS UP ALTERNATIVE DRAFT CONSTITUTION. After Yeltsin unveiled the key points of a new draft Russian Constitution worked out under the supervision of the prominent lawyer Sergei Alekseev, the Russian Supreme Soviet ordered its Constitutional Commission to speed up work on the commission's own new draft. Although Yeltsin is technically chairman of this commission, in fact its work is supervised by executive secretary Oleg Rumyatsev. This commission has already worked out several drafts of the Constitution, which neither Yeltsin nor leaders of Russia's republics agreed to support. Russian news agencies reported on 29 April that the Russian parliament called on regional leaders to seriously consider yet another draft Constitution that is to be made public by the parliamentary commission by 20 May and refrain from passing judgement on Yeltsin's until then. -Vera Tolz NEW RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT. The latest and apparently final version of the "concept" of Russian foreign policy has been signed by Boris Yeltsin, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 29 April. The document, entitled "Fundamental Positions of the Concept of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation," apparently marks the end of the 14-month long search for a set of guidelines for Russia's international affairs. Work on this final version was directed by Yurii Skokov, secretary of the Russian Security Council. The final product reflects elements of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs concept, as well as the "Strategy for Russia" document presented by the Council for Foreign and Defense Policy, and other proposals. -Suzanne Crow WHO MAKES POLICY? THE CONCEPT ESTABLISHES A NEW MECHANISM OUTLINING HOW FOREIGN POLICY DECISIONS ARE TO BE MADE. According to Oleg Osobenkov, chief of the Department of Analysis and Preparation of Foreign Policy Decisions of the Security Council, it will no longer be possible say, for "one person" to make foreign policy decisions "on board his airplane," Rossiskaya gazeta reported on 29 April. The one person Osobenkov seems to have had in mind is Foreign Minister Kozyrev. Asked how the new concept sat with the Russian Foreign Ministry, Osobenkov said only that all opinions were heard during the debate about the text. -Suzanne Crow DIPLOMATIC PRIORITIES. One of the fundamental principles of the concept is Russia's status as a great power. Despite its internal crisis, Russia maintains immense influence in world affairs. Because of this status, it is important for Russia to be active in international political and economic organizations. In addition, the document identifies as part of Russia's vital interests the maintenance of the Federation's unity. The concept also highlights the importance of integration in the CIS, the protection of human rights in the former Soviet Union, and the elimination of armed conflicts as necessary to ensure the maintenance of Russia's international position, Nezavisimaya gazeta reported on 29-April. -Suzanne Crow REFERENDUM RESULTS IN MOSCOW PUBLISHED. While the official results of the referendum on the entire territory of Russia will be announced only in the beginning of May, the referendum results of Moscow were made public on 29 April. According to the official numbers, 4,46 out of 6,95 million Moscovites went to the polls, ITAR-TASS reported. Of these 3,33 million voted for President Boris Yeltsin in the first question, 1,032-million-against him. A majority of 3,09 million Moscovites supported Yeltsin's economic policy. -Alexander Rahr FISCAL AND MONETARY TIGHTENING PROMISED. On 29 April, a day when it was announced that the budget deficit for the first quarter was 10% of GNP, i.e., twice as high as planned, when the G-7 nations once again urged Russia to get its fiscal act together, and when the ruble fell to 823 to the dollar, the cabinet promised to do better. According to Russian and Western agencies, President Yeltsin declared an end to easy credits; Prime Minister Chernomyrdin announced that bankruptcy procedures would be initiated , fuel prices raised, technical credits to former Soviet republics halted, and arms exports boosted; and Deputy Prime Minister Fedorov proposed a six-month moratorium on new spending for social programs. -Keith Bush PARLIAMENT PASSES LAW ON ARMS-RELATED EXPORTS. On 29 April the Russian parliament passed a law making it a criminal offense to export materials, components, or services that might be used to create nuclear, chemical, or other weapons of mass destruction. The law also reportedly forbids exports that might contribute to the construction of missile delivery systems for such arms. Western states have been urging that Russia take such an action in order to prevent the flow of equipment and technology to states involved in nuclear, chemical, or missile proliferation. Passage of such a law was also an informal condition for the further lifting of Western limits on technology exports to Russia. -John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ECONOMIC DECLINE CONTINUES IN KAZAKHSTAN. Kazakhstan's State Committee on Statistics announced on 29 April that economic indicators were worse for the first quarter of 1993 than for the same period in 1992, ITAR-TASS reported. National income was down 16.3% and output of almost half of the country's industrial firms declined. Output of coal, pig iron, steel, electricity, oil and gas was down, and agricultural output was unable to meet the country's food needs. While prices for food and industrial goods rose 2.5 to 3 times, inflation affected municipal services and housing rents more severely, and the report described the rise in medical costs and prices of consumer services as catastrophic. Average wages rose by only 1.5-times in comparison with the earlier period, leading the Committee to conclude that there has been a critical decline in the living standard of the majority of the population. -Bess Brown ARMENIAN FORCES BEGIN WITHDRAWAL FROM KELBADZHAR. Nagorno-Karabakh self-defense forces have begun a partial withdrawal from the Kelbadzhar raion they occupied late last month, ITAR-TASS reported on 29 April citing a statement by the Press and Information Department of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan said the move testified to the "good will" of the Karabakh authorities; his press secretary Aram Abramyan told ITAR-TASS that it demonstrated that the Karabakh Armenians had no intention of seizing Azerbaijani territory and were concerned only with safeguarding their borders. In Baku, deputies of the Supreme Soviet dissolved after the Azerbaijani Popular Front took power in May, 1992, have called for the Supreme Soviet to reconvene to debate Azerbaijan's recent military defeats in Karabakh, according to a correspondent for RL's Azerbaijani BD. The National Assembly rejected this demand as "unconstitutional." -Liz Fuller NEW AZERBAIJANI PRIME MINISTER APPOINTED. Panakh Guseinov was appointed Azerbaijani Prime Minister at a session of the Azerbaijani National Assembly on 28 April, AzerTadzh reported the following day. The 36 year old Guseinov, one of the founding members of the ruling Azerbaijan Popular Front, had for the past year been secretary of state. Ali Masimov, who had served as acting prime minister for the past three months, was appointed deputy prime minister and economics minister. -Liz Fuller SHEVARDNADZE IN SUKHUMI. On 29 April, the second day of his visit to Abkhaz, capital of Sukhumi, Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze warned that if the Abkhaz leadership ignored the Georgian parliament's proposal (details of which are not known) for a peaceful settlement of the Abkhaz conflict and continued to bombard Sukhumi Georgian troops would retaliate by increasing the bombing of the towns Gudauta and Tkvarcheli, ITAR-TASS reported. Tkvarcheli has a large Russian population. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE TOP YUGOSLAV-AREA PROTAGONISTS TO MEET. International media report on 30-April that peace negotiators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen will host a meeting in Athens on 1-2 May. Participating are the presidents of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia, together with the Bosnian Serb and Croat leaders. The session was prompted by the announcement by the Bosnian Serb parliament that it will reconsider the Vance-Owen plan in light of "newly available information" on 5 May. That body has rejected the document twice in unanimous votes, but the negotiators want to discuss plans to set up a neutral corridor in northern Bosnia to permit contact between Serbia proper and Serb-held territories in Croatia and Bosnia. The Bosnian Serbs have called the peace plan unacceptable, presumably because it would thwart their plans for uniting the contiguous territories they have taken into one state. They are now, however, under strong pressure from the Belgrade leadership to accept it to ward off further sanctions on Serbia-Montenegro and to remove a major argument for Western military intervention. The 29 and 30 April issues of Borba report on the strong concern in Montenegro over the possible effect of the sanctions. It remains to be seen, however, what any Bosnian Serb acceptance of the peace plan would mean in practice, given the track record of cease-fires and many other agreements in the Yugoslav conflict. -Patrick Moore CROAT AND MUSLIM COMMANDERS TRY TO ENFORCE THE CEASE-FIRE. Reuters reported on 29-April that the top generals of the two nominally allied forces visited some of their men together with UN forces to persuade the fighters to respect the current cease-fire. Generals Milivoj Petkovic and Sefer Halilovic will continue touring the scattered sites of fighting in an effort to end the combat that started earlier in April and led to massacres and other atrocities on both sides as both armies sought to consolidate and expand military gains. The top leaderships have each blamed the other side for the fighting, and conspiracy theories abound. Meanwhile, France has removed its peace-keeping forces from near Belgrade and transferred them to Zagreb lest they be targets for Serb reprisals for any Western military intervention in the Yugoslav area. And in Tirana, Albania has asked the Security Council to intervene after Yugoslav border guards killed eight Albanians in what Tirana described as provocations. Finally, Western news agencies reported on 29 April that a Bosnian refugee is in critical condition in a London hospital following an attempt at self-immolation in front of Parliament as part of a protest to demand Western military intervention in that republic. -Patrick Moore HUNGARY TO ENFORCE SANCTIONS. The Hungarian government on 29 April decided that the UN's stricter punitive measures against Serbia and Montenegro are to take effect immediately, Radio Budapest reports. It has instructed the Justice Ministry to draft the necessary law modifications that will make the violation of the relevant international obligations a criminal offense. -Alfred Reisch POLISH MASS PRIVATIZATION PASSES, AT LAST. After feverish negotiations lasting well into the night, the Sejm approved the government's revised mass privatization legislation on 30 April, following more than two years of debate. The vote was 215 to 178, with 22 abstentions, PAP reports. The comfortable margin of victory was unexpected, given the reservations voiced during debate on 29 April. The victory for mass privatization, achieved in part because of support from the postcommunist Democratic Left Alliance, staves off a government crisis. The coalition's liberals had threatened to leave the coalition if the bill failed, and many parties seemed already to have begun to maneuver with an eye to new elections. Before the final vote, the Sejm rejected amendments that would have included children in the program and banned the participation of foreign management firms. It accepted amendments giving firms the right to refuse to take part in mass privatization. -Louisa Vinton SKUBISZEWSKI PRESENTS FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES. In a policy speech to the Sejm on 29-April, Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski said that Poland's integration with the EC and NATO, reinforcing national security, and promoting friendly relations with neighboring countries remained priority goals. He called upon the EC to "remain faithful to the ideals of its founders . . . and not transform itself into a fortress closed off to the rest of Europe," PAP reports. Skubiszewski condemned "genocidal acts" and "massive human rights violations" in former Yugoslavia and called for "limited use of military force" in Bosnia. Responding implicitly to domestic criticism of his policies, Skubiszewski said that a consensus among major political forces on Polish raison d'etat was essential to the country's international credibility. Finally, Skubiszewski urged realism, noting that Poland's foreign partners are increasingly pragmatic in approach and that the "time of sympathies and preferential treatment has ended." -Louisa Vinton POLAND CHASTISES EC FOR "DISCRIMINATION." The Polish government issued a statement on 29-April criticizing the EC for the limitations it has imposed on meat and livestock imports from Central and Eastern Europe, PAP reports. Poland at first viewed the restrictions as temporary measures genuinely designed to protect Europe from hoof-and-mouth disease, the statement said. "The EC's actions demonstrate, however, that the [restrictions] are merely an arbitrary instrument of discrimination and a concealed trade barrier that violate the terms of the association agreement covering trade between Poland and the EC." Poland has proved compliance with EC standards for meat, the statement continued, and thus requests that the restrictions-"dishonest trade practices aimed at limiting Polish exports"-be lifted. -Louisa Vinton EC LIFTS BAN ON HUNGARIAN MEAT EXPORTS. The EC's animal hygiene committee on 28 April decided to lift within a few days the ban imposed earlier this month on Hungarian exports of live animals and meat products, Radio Budapest reports. Hungary has accepted all of the EC's conditions, albeit under protest, and has requested further consultations in the matter. According to State Secretary for Agriculture Gyorgy Rasko, the EC requirement to quarantine live animals for 15 days prior to shipment abroad would raise costs by 10% to 12% for private farmers and would be intolerable in the long run. Austria, on its part, has not yet lifted its own ban on Hungarian meat and dairy products and is awaiting from Brussels an official notification of the EC's decision. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN-ROMANIAN ACCORD ON BORDER CROSSING OPERATIONS. On 29 April top Hungarian and Romanian border guard and customs officials signed an agreement aiming at preventing and eliminating long waiting times at the border crossing points between the two countries, MTI reports. The two parties will inform each other about any expected traffic growth at their border crossings, simplify border control procedures, and set specific numbers for the number of trucks to be processed at three determined border crossing points. A new border crossing will be opened this year at Mehkerek-Salonta and the modernization of the Romanian side of the Artand-Bors border station will also be started. -Alfred Reisch UNIONISTS HOLD TALKS WITH ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu and other members of the government held talks on 29-April with several trade union confederations planning a general strike for 5 May. The talks, broadcast live on Radio Bucharest, did not produce any breakthroughs. The unions reiterated the demand that President Ion Iliescu mediate in the conflict, which is the result of the elimination of subsidies and the raise in prices going into effect on 1 May. -Michael Shafir PRIVATIZATION IN ROMANIA. A spokeswoman for the State Ownership Fund told Western correspondents in Bucharest on 29 April that TAROM, Romania's national airline, will be the first large enterprise to be privatized this year. The fund listed 379 small, 106-medium, and 6 large enterprises for privatization in 1993. Many of these will be sold to their management and staff. Fund Chairman Emil Dima said he hopes this process will trigger a chain reaction. On another matter, Dima, who is a Senator for the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front, said he plans to vote in the Senate against a bill allowing foreign companies to acquire land in Romania. The bill had already been passed by the parliament's other house, the Chamber of Deputies. -Michael Shafir FORMER ROMANIAN OFFICIAL CLAIMS "MAFIA" RULES MINISTRIES. Retired Maj. Gen. Gheorghe Florica, recently dismissed as general commissioner of the Financial Guard, claims several key positions in the Romanian administration are in the hands of a mafia. In an interview with the daily Evenimentul zilei on 24-April, Florica said the campaign conducted by the government against corruption is therefore bound to fail. Florica claims Minister of Finance Florin Georgescu, important officials in the Ministry of the Interior, as well as prominent members of the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front are members of this local organized crime ring. -Michael Shafir ROMANIA'S FOREIGN DEBT. Romania's foreign debt at the end of 1992 was $2.3 billion, more than double the 1991 figure. A spokeswoman for the National Bank told Reuters on 29-April that most of the borrowing consisted of loans from international lenders to support the market economy reforms. On 28 April, however, Rompres quoted the daily Adevarul that the middle and long-term credits contracted by the state in 1992 totaled $2.946 billion dollars. Nearly 66% of this debt had been contracted by the state, most of it being geared at financing the country's negative balance of trade. -Michael Shafir KLAUS AND MECIAR TO DISCUSS CZECH-SLOVAK DISPUTES. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus and Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar are to meet on 30 April to try to resolve the intensifying Czech-Slovak conflict over the division of the former Czechoslovakia's assets. Czech and Slovak media report that the meeting was initiated by Klaus after Slovakia declined to participate in talks aimed at solving outstanding property issues. The Czech government claims that Slovakia owes the Czech Republic some 24 billion koruny which it withdrew from the Czechoslovak State Bank prior to the split of the federation in an effort to finance its budget deficit. Slovak officials acknowledge the existence of this debt but claim that the Czech Republic also owes Slovakia large sums of money for expropriating, for example, federally-owned data bases, the Czechoslovak flag, and other federal assets and symbols. In March the Czech government announced it would block issuing shares in Czech companies purchased by Slovaks under the voucher privatization in 1992, unless Slovakia pays back its debts. In explaining his refusal to attend the next round of talks, Meciar cited this decision as an unacceptable from of pressure on Slovakia. Slovak Finance Minister Julius Toth said in 29 April that if an agreement on the division of federal assets cannot be reached, Slovakia might demand an audit by an international organization. -Jiri Pehe OPPOSITION TO CIS SECURITY PACT IN BELARUS. A campaign has been launched by opposition deputy Syarhei Navumchyk to hold a referendum on Belarus's participation in a CIS security pact, the RFE/RL Belarus Service reported on 29 April. Navumchyk says 101-deputies support the referendum. Under Belarus law if one third of the deputies (116 of 347) support the proposal, the Supreme Soviet is obliged to set a date for the referendum. The referendum was called for by Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich earlier this month after parliament voted in favor of signing a CIS security pact. Shushkevich is opposed to Belarus participation in such a pact, stating that Belarus should remain a neutral state and not be part of any military alliance. -Ustina Markus BRAZAUSKAS CONGRATULATES YELTSIN. Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas has issued a statement stressing that his country, as a friendly state to Russia, welcomes Russian president Boris Yeltsin's success in the 25 April referendum. Brazauskas said that the results of the referendum would foster democracy and stability in Russia and further strengthen Lithuanian-Russian relations, BNS reported on 28 April. That same day Baltic media reported that the Lithuanian president plans to make officials visits to Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Germany and that the next round of Lithuanian-Russian talks may start early in May. Lithuanian ambassador to Moscow Romualdas Kozyrovicius noted the possibility of a Lithuanian-Russian summit meeting also in May. On 29 April Russian ambassador to Lithuania Nikolai Obertyshev presented an official invitation for President Brazauskas to visit Moscow and the invitation was accepted, though the exact dates of the visit remain to be specified. -Dzintra Bungs FUTURE OF THE LITAS. On 29 April Bank of Lithuania Chairman Romualdas Visokavicius reported on the previous day's Litas Committee meeting, Radio Lithuania reports. Although not giving a date for the introduction of the litas, he stated that it would be this year and that the planned conversion rate of the coupon (the temporary currency) to the litas remains a state secret. The rate will apparently be high, since coins of value less than a litas have already been minted. The conversion will be applied equally to all coupons and there will be no forced conversion of hard currencies to litas. Citizens will be able to convert litas to other currencies at any time at the day's exchange rate. The litas will be the official currency, and hard-currency stores will be closed. -Saulius Girnius TEACHERS' STRIKE IN VILNIUS. On 29 April teachers in many schools in Vilnius staged a one-day warning strike, Radio Lithuania reports. The teachers, whose current wages are 7,000 coupons per month, are not satisfied with the government decision to raise their wages by 40% from 1 May and demand that wages be raised to 20,000 coupons and summer pay be indexed to inflation. If their demands are not met in seven days, they will urge all teachers in Lithuania to strike. The initial government response was negative and an IMF mission, headed by Adalbert Knoebl, currently visiting Lithuania objected to the government's plans to use foreign loans to finance the salary hikes. -Saulius Girnius POLITICAL POLL IN LITHUANIA. The results of an opinion poll of 1,174 citizens taken by the Lithuanian Radio and TV Sociological Department were published in Lietuvos rytas of 29 April. President Algirdas Brazauskas remains the most popular political figure, although his popularity dropped 8.7 points from a similar poll in January to 37.7%. Seimas Deputy Chairman Egidijus Bickauskas was second, and former Prime Minister Bronislovas Lubys third. Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius was 11th, and opposition leader Algirdas Landsbergis 18th. The Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party dropped to fifth place in popularity behind the Center Movement, the Social Democratic Party, the Christian Democratic Party, and the Bishop Valancius Temperance Movement. -Saulius Girnius ESTONIA, GERMANY SIGN COOPERATION ACCORDS. On 29 April in Bonn Foreign Ministers Trivimi Velliste and Klaus Kinkel signed treaties specifying the principles of relations between the two countries as well as accords on educational and cultural cooperation. The two ministers also discussed ways to promote economic relations, Estonia's security problems, and its integration into Europe. Germany signed similar accords with Latvia last week and is expected to sign a basic treaty with Lithuania in the near future, Western agencies reported on 29 April. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIA WANTS VISAS FROM ESTONIANS, LATVIANS. Baltic media reported on 28 April that Russia has finally informed Estonia and Latvia of the introduction of visas, effective from 12 May, for Estonians and Latvians wishing to visit Russia. The Russian Foreign Ministry notes were dated 23 April, although such notes, according to international practice, should have been sent out 30 days before the visa introduction date. For the time being, the visa regime will not apply to persons with USSR passports (provided these passports do not contain stamps indicating that the bearer of the passport is a citizen of another country); these persons will have to decide by 6 February 1995 if they want to become citizens of Russia or of some other country. The Russian embassy in Riga started to accept visa applications on 30 April. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.