|The absence of alternatives clears the mind marvelously. - Henry Kissinger|
No. 81, 29 April 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN TO UNVEIL FULL TEXT OF DRAFT CONSTITUTION. Chief of presidential staff Sergei Filatov told reporters on 28 April that Boris Yeltsin was planning to unveil the full text of the new draft Russian Constitution at a meeting on 29 April with government ministers and leaders of republics and regions of the Russian Federation. The key points of the new draft constitution were made public by Yeltsin on 23 April and published by Izvestiya the next day. They indicate that the new draft gives the president a wide range of powers, including the appointment of key government and judicial officials, and substantially reduces the powers of the parliament. ITAR-TASS quoted Filatov as saying a new constitution will be a top priority for Yeltsin now that he has won a vote of confidence in the referendum. Yeltsin advisers urge the president to first seek support from regional leaders on the new Constitution. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN'S DECREE ON POLITICAL PARTIES. The presidential press service announced on 28 April that Boris Yeltsin had issued a decree "on additional measures to prevent the interference of political parties and their structures in the activity of state bodies, enterprises, institutions and other bodies," according to ITAR-TASS. The decree was linked to the attempts "illegally to resurrect the CPSU and CP of the Russian Federation" and to the presence of party cells in state agencies and workplaces. The decree orders local executive branches to act in accordance with Yeltsin's 20 July 1991 decree which banned branches of any political party from places of work. The executive was also ordered to enforce decisions on the use of former communist party property. According to Russian TV on 28 April, the decree orders federal agencies to reregister political parties and movements in order to ensure their formation on a territorial and not an institutional basis. -Wendy Slater TRAVKIN RESIGNS AS PEOPLE'S DEPUTY. The leader of the Democratic Party of Russia (a founding member of the centrist Civic Union) Nikolai Travkin announced on 28 April to the Russian press that he had decided to resign from the Congress of People's Deputies. His decision was prompted by the referendum results from Moscow and St. Petersburg, which showed that most voters wanted new parliamentary elections. He called on all people's deputies in whose constituencies over half the voters had called for early legislative elections to do likewise, and for people working in executive bodies of power to be stripped of their mandates. This, he said, would deprive the Congress of a quorum and force fresh elections in the fall -Wendy Slater PARLIAMENT WANTS OWN SECURITY SERVICE. The Russian parliament on 28 April adopted a new law "On State Protection of Highest Bodies of State Power", ITAR-TASS reported. The law allows parliament to set up its own independent protection service. President Boris Yeltsin had previously rejected the draft on the grounds that, in his view, it contradicts the Constitution. Yeltsin argued that the law should place all newly created federal bodies of state security under his jurisdiction. Parliament rejected Yeltsin's proposal. Should the law finally pass, the danger of armed conflicts between the protection services of the president and parliament emerges. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov had already tried last year to challenge Yeltsin by setting up an independent parliamentary guard which Yeltsin dissolved by decree. -Alexander Rahr PARLIAMENT CONDEMNS PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM. On 28 April, the parliament resumed the debate over the government's privatization program that had been adjourned on 6 March. According to Reuters and AFP, it passed a resolution condemning the program and ordering an audit of the State Property Committee. Having voted to "consider the privatization of state and municipal enterprises in 1992 as unsatisfactory," it demanded that the government repeal decisions that were allegedly out of line with the privatization program approved by parliament last year. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, who is in charge of the privatization program, objected to parliament's proposals, saying that they ignored the results of the 25 April referendum. -Keith Bush RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT DISCUSSES YUGOSLAV CONFLICT. On 28 April, the Russian parliament discussed two draft resolutions on the situation in former Yugoslavia. A resolution presented by Evgenii Ambartsumov, Chairman of the parliamentary Committee on International Affairs, and Foreign Economic Ties, said that sanctions against Yugoslavia and possible military intervention are "counterproductive" and would not lead to reconciliation and settlement, but to the "continuation of the conflict and possibly to a new European war." A resolution presented by Oleg Rumyantsev, secretary of the parliament's Constitutional Commission, highlighted the geopolitical character of the conflict. Rumyantsev argued: "The question of support to new Yugoslavia is a question of the future of the Russian Federation," ITAR-TASS reported. -Suzanne Crow GRACHEV SAYS NEW DOCTRINE IS READY. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev stated on "Ostankino" TV on 29 April that the new Russian military doctrine is ready for discussion. According to Grachev the doctrine must be approved by the Defense Ministry Collegium, the Russian Security Council, and parliament before it can take effect. Grachev made the comment while returning from Brussels where he had participated in a meeting of defense ministers from NATO, Central Europe, and the CIS. -John Lepingwell JAPAN TO AID RUSSIAN NUCLEAR WEAPONS DESTRUCTION. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 29-April, the new Japanese government budget will include $100 million to help finance the dismantling of Russian nuclear weapons. On 28 April the agency reported that a delivery of Kevlar blankets and other material intended to enhance the security of the nuclear destruction process had been received from the US. -John Lepingwell GOLD OUTPUT DOWN. Russian Goskomstat data on gold output was presented to parliament on 28 April, ITAR-TASS reported. Production fell from 142 tons in 1991 to 130 tons in 1992. Gold output during the first quarter of 1993 was down by 6 tons compared with the first quarter of 1992. -Keith Bush COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES CIS MEETING IN MINSK. CIS heads of government meeting in Minsk on 28 April agreed to create a consultative committee to coordinate economic policies among member states, ITAR-TASS reports. The meeting resolved that a council composed of CIS deputy prime ministers responsible for economic issues would meet once monthly to discuss economic cooperation. The agreement is subject to final approval by CIS heads of state, who are scheduled to meet next month. Ukraine initialed the agreement with the proviso that the council would deal exclusively with economic issues. On other matters, it was agreed to form a council for cooperation on agricultural matters and an interstate council for a television and radio company and participants discussed mutual payment settlements. The meeting also considered stabilization of the situation along Tajikistan's border with Afghanistan -Roman Solchanyk TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA CSCE, UN DISCUSS NAGORNO-KARABAKH. On 28-April the CSCE meeting in Vienna drew up a statement condemning what was termed as the seizure of Azerbaijan's Kelbadzhar raion by unnamed "occupying forces" and calling for their withdrawal as a precondition for resuming peace negotiations; 25 countries including the US supported the statement which was twice vetoed by Armenia, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. The UN Security Council is likewise considering a draft resolution calling for the withdrawal of "foreign and local Armenian forces, whether regular or irregular" from occupied territory in Azerbaijan. On 28 April the UN released an appeal by the Azerbaijani Ambassador to the UN, Hassan Hassanov, to the Security Council to condemn Armenia's "open aggression". In a second appeal, Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov said that a UN Security Council resolution condemning Armenia would be "a reliable guarantee of the liberation" of occupied territories, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. -Liz Fuller TAJIK ARMED OPPOSITION FORCE OPERATING IN TAJIKISTAN. An armed group of some 300 Tajik oppositionists and their Afghan supporters which succeeded in slipping into Tajikistan from Afghanistan a week ago is still intact near the southern town of Shurabad, Reuters reported on 28 April. The information was obtained by a Dushanbe journalist from Russian border troops responsible for guarding the Tajik-Afghan border. A few days earlier ten members of the group were killed by Russian border guards, but border troops admit that they have been unable to capture the rest of the force. RUSSIAN OFFICER ON ROLE OF RUSSIAN TROOPS IN TAJIKISTAN. Colonel Anatolii Ivlev, deputy commander of the Russian 201st Motorized Rifle Division that has been stationed in Tajikistan throughout that country's civil war in the latter half of 1992, was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 28 April as rejecting Tajik opposition charges that the Russian military is interfering in Tajikistan's internal political conflict. Ivlev insisted that the Russian troops had maintained strict neutrality throughout the civil war and were not bombing opposition strongholds. The latter charge has been directed by some Tajik opposition and Russian liberal sources against the Uzbek military operating in Tajikistan. Ivlev warned, however, that armed Tajik opposition groups crossing from Afghanistan would be repulsed He also rejected a Tajik opposition claim that more than 300 Russian soldiers and many officers had been killed in the course of punitive actions against the Tajik population, but said that Russian troops would react with force to any armed attack directed against them or to terrorist acts against the Russian-speaking population. -Bess Brown KARIMOV IN GERMANY. Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov began an official visit to Germany on 28-April, meeting with his German counterpart, Richard von Weizsaecker, Chancellor Helmut Kohl and economic officials, Western and Russian news agencies reported. Karimov was scheduled to sign agreements on protection of investments and on cultural exchanges and educational scholarships. On 29 April he is to meet with Mercedes-Benz officials, presumably to discuss a joint venture to be set up by the German automotive firm in Uzbekistan. German government spokesman Dieter Vogel was quoted as saying after Karimov's talks with Kohl that the two leaders had high hopes for bilateral economic relations. In addition to Mercedes-Benz, German chemical firms are interested in investing in Uzbekistan. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. Major American dailies report at length on 29 April about the ongoing discussion within the US government about policy toward Bosnia. Meanwhile at the UN, the BBC says that a Security Council delegation just back from the war-torn republic recommends that Sarajevo, Tuzla, Zepa, and Gorazde be made safe areas like Srebrenica. Reuters carries a report on fighting between Croats and Muslims in a number of areas in central Bosnia and eastern Herzegovina. The item also notes that the Serbs have stepped up the shelling of Gradacac, a key transportation hub in northern Bosnia that plays a strategic role in Serb plans for a corridor across the area to link up Bosnian and Croatian Serb-held territories with Serbia proper. The town is largely Muslim but the Croatian military are leading the defense. Finally, Politika on 29 April discusses the appeal by the presidents of Serbia, Montenegro, and rump Yugoslavia to the Bosnian Serbs to sign the Vance-Owen plan. -Patrick Moore ETHNIC CLEANSING IN THE SANDZAK. Reuters on 29 April carries a story about renewed attempts by Serbian irregulars to remove the Muslim population from areas in the Sandzak near the Bosnian border. Favored methods appear to be kidnapping and especially arson, with a preference for burning victims alive in their homes. Local Muslim leaders said that "war could erupt at any time. The only way to keep the peace is to have UNPROFOR troops here and on the border with Bosnia." The Muslims have a slight majority in the Sandzak, a historic Ottoman province now divided between Serbia and Montenegro with Novi Pazar as its main city. In 1992 Serbian irregulars led by a man called Cuko launched a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Muslims in the Priboj region. -Patrick Moore VACAROIU: ROMANIA WILL UPHOLD SANCTIONS BUT AVOID CONFLICT. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu says Romania will implement to the full the strengthened UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia, Western agencies reported on 28 April. Speaking after returning from a visit to Greece, Vacaroiu said that the main issue is "not to provoke a possible conflict" between Romania and rump Yugoslavia. He said both his country and Greece consider military intervention in Yugoslavia "inopportune." Transport Minister Paul Teodoru was reported by the Romanian media to have said on 27 April that the latest sanctions against rump Yugoslavia would put 20,000 Romanians out of work, and the European Community ought to compensate Romania for its losses. Western agencies reported on 28-April from the UN that the Sanctions Committee will deploy 140 observers at various strategic ports on the Danube to monitor river traffic. From Bucharest it was reported that representatives of the West European Union met with Foreign Ministry officials to discuss the possibility of deploying German patrol boats on the river, in line with a decision adopted by the WEU on 5-April. -Michael Shafir MACEDONIAN DEVELOPMENTS. The CSCE granted the Republic of Macedonia visitor status on 28 April in the hope that full membership will soon be granted, according to an RFE/RL correspondent at the Prague CSCE meeting. Admission hinges on finding an official name for the Republic of Macedonia that Greece will accept. On 27 April Greek Prime Minister Mitsotakis reportedly informed UN negotiator David Owen that Greece can not accept the name Nova Makedonija ("New Macedonia") as proposed in a ten-page draft agreement. Rather, he prefers "Upper Macedonia" according to Greek newspapers and MILS. -Duncan Perry WILL CROATIA'S RULING PARTY SPLIT? FOR SOME WEEKS A KEY POLITICAL QUESTION IN CROATIA HAS BEEN WHETHER THE CROATIAN DEMOCRATIC COMMUNITY (HDZ) LED BY PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN MIGHT SPLIT INTO A RIGHT-WING FACTION LED BY DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VLADIMIR SEKS AND A LIBERAL ONE UNDER PARLIAMENT SPEAKER STIPE MESIC. The rift and a corruption scandal involving some of the main protagonists helped bring down the government at the end of March, and Tudjman has been trying to hold the HDZ together. The clash of the two factions has involved "dirty tricks," including revealing parts of the protagonists' communist-era police files, and possibly the use of fists as well, according to Die Presse of 26 April. The independent Zagreb daily Globus of 9 April ran a poll showing that, in case of a split, the liberal faction would probably attract three times the number of voters as the conservative one. If the HDZ were to become two or more parties, as has happened to several similarly broad-based coalitions elsewhere in Eastern Europe, none of the successors would probably be strong enough to hold the near monopoly of control over most of public life that the HDZ has. -Patrick Moore CZECH OFFICIALS CRITICAL OF EC PROTECTIONISM. In an interview with the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on 29 April, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus criticizes West European states for blocking the entry of competitive East European exports to their markets. Klaus says that as soon as an East European product is exported successfully, Western Europe reacts with increased duties, quotas, and contingencies. He argues that these protectionist steps are being taken at the behest of special interest groups. In another development, the EC has agreed to lift its ban on imports of meat and dairy products from Eastern Europe, but set a number of conditions, such as 15day quarantine period for imported livestock, blood tests, and the introduction of codes to prevent counterfeiting veterinary certificates. An official at the Czech Ministry of Agriculture told Reuters on 28 April that "we accept the conditions, although in fact they are not much different from an import ban." -Jiri Pehe CONTROVERSY OVER EC GRAIN TO LATVIA AND ESTONIA. BNS reported on 28 April that Estonia may not permit the unloading of 5,000 tons of fodder grain from Italy. Authorities fear that the grain, part of EC humanitarian aid, may carry the hoof-and-mouth disease virus. In Latvia, controversy has arisen over EC rye shipments. Farmers there argue that such humanitarian aid shipments undercut their ability to sell their own grain and the rye should be returned. The issue is especially sensitive, because the Latvian government still owes the farmers millions of rubles for unpaid agricultural products. Some legislators have called for the resignation of the Agriculture Minister Dainis Gegers, who told Diena on 28-April that the EC rye shipments would be accepted but not sold, rather they would be stored as part of the country's grain reserve. Gegers also promised quick repayment of debts to the farmers from EC aid funds. Diena noted that if Latvia refuses to accept the rye, the EC might suspend future humanitarian aid shipments. -Dzintra Bungs COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMISSION IN ROMANIA. The Council of Europe's legal and human rights committee made a three-day visit to Romania, during which it met with President Ion Iliescu and several government officials and minority leaders, MTI and Radio Budapest reported on 28 April. According to Hungarian deputy Csaba Tabajdi, a member of the commission, the group's draft report will be finalized in May. While the commission does not oppose Romania's admission to the Council of Europe. It feels Bucharest must still fulfill a number of requirements in the area of political democratization and measures against anti-Semitism. Tabajdi said both Hungary and Romania's ethnic Magyar party, the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, find Romania's admission desirable and support it, but the latter would like the drafting of adequate minority and education laws and the bringing to justice of the real organizers of the March 1990 ethnic clashes in Tirgu Mures. -Alfred Reisch MAY STRIKE IN ROMANIA. Nearly one million members of trade unions have signed up to support a general strike planned by the main trade union confederations for 5 May, an RFE/RL correspondent reports from Bucharest. A spokesman for President Iliescu told Radio Bucharest on the same day that the president is worried about the possible effects of the strike and is ready to mediate between the government and the unions, following an appeal to do so addressed to him by several unions. The spokesman said the modalities of the mediation have yet to be established, and added that a meeting between Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and leaders of the unions planned for 29 April is the result of the president's efforts within this mediation framework. -Michael Shafir POLISH COALITION LOSES PARTNER. After weeks of threats and warnings, the Peasant Alliance (PL) withdrew from the governing coalition on 28 April, two weeks after the party's chairman resigned from his post as agriculture minister. The party instructed its two remaining ministers to resign as well, Polish TV reports. [One of these, the minister responsible for the government's contacts with parties and organizations, decided to leave his party instead.] The PL's decision followed a coalition meeting held to discuss the party's conditions for remaining in the government. The PL had demanded increased subsidies for agriculture and protectionist trade policies. The PL controls only 19 seats in the Sejm, and other coalition partners noted that the party's deputies had often voted against the government. The PL's departure nonetheless underlines the government's minority status; the ruling coalition now commands only 177 of a total 460 seats in the Sejm. -Louisa Vinton SEJM RESTORES COSTLY PENSION BONUSES. In another blow to the government, the Sejm voted on 28-April to restore pension bonuses for workers employed in "hardship" occupations and to raise the minimum pension from 35% to 40% of the average wage. The vote was 195 to 162 with 15 abstentions. The debate on this issue dates back to 1991, when the Sejm agreed to abolish the bonuses. The Constitutional Tribunal declared this decision unconstitutional. The Sejm reintroduced the bonuses in February, despite the government's objections. The Senate then eliminated them again, but the Sejm vote overturns the Senate's revisions. The government estimates the cost of this decision at an unaffordable 23 trillion zloty ($1.4 billion). Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka commented on 28 April that "this decision cannot be implemented." Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski told PAP the government will ask the Constitutional Tribunal to declare the Sejm vote unconstitutional on the grounds that it violates the 1993 budget. The president could also be asked to veto the bill. -Louisa Vinton SUCHOCKA GOVERNMENT IN JEOPARDY? THE GOVERNMENT'S DEFEAT ON THE PENSIONS ISSUE AND THE COALITION'S LOSS OF THE PEASANT ALLIANCE HAVE PROMPTED SPECULATION THAT NEW PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS MAY BE INEVITABLE. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka commented on 28 April, however, that "the coalition has not collapsed. Responsibility for the state continues to bind it together." Opposition parties nonetheless predicted the government would fall, while coalition parties argued that the cabinet would continue to muddle through with the support of shifting majorities in the Sejm. The vote on the much-delayed mass privatization program, expected on 30 April, poses a crucial test for the coalition, which now has the firm support of only four caucuses: the Democratic Union (57 deputies), the Polish Liberal Program (48), the Christian National Union (44), and the Polish Convention (28). The government's fate may rest with this vote. -Louisa Vinton APPLICATIONS FOR CZECH CITIZENSHIP. At a press conference in Prague on 28 April, officials of the Czech Ministry of Internal Affairs announced that in 1992 the ministry received 51,000 applications for Czech citizenship, 46,000 of them from Slovak citizens. Between 1 January and 15 February 1993, some 63,000 Slovak citizens who had permanently resided in the Czech Republic applied for Czech citizenship. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARY POSTS FOREIGN TRADE DEFICIT. According to Minister of International Relations Bela Kadar, Hungary's foreign trade, after adjustments, posted a $470-million deficit during the first quarter of 1993, MTI and Radio Budapest report on 28 April. Exports stood at $1.8 billion, a 28.7% drop compared to the same period of last year. Imports were $2.5-billion, a 5% decrease compared to the first quarter of 1992. Exports to EFTA countries fell by 33% and those to developing countries by 9%; agricultural exports fell by 44%, but represented only a 6% drop in total exports. Kadar attributed the drop to the political and economic uncertainty and to protectionist tendencies in the West. The fact that several Hungarian firms stood on the brink of bankruptcy also contributed to the fall in exports. At the same time, another $400 million worth of foreign capital entered Hungary during the first three months of 1993. -Alfred Reisch BULGARIAN DRAFT BUDGET PAST ANOTHER HURDLE. On 28 April the Budget Committee recommended that the National Assembly adopt the 1993 draft budget prepared by the finance Ministry, BTA reports. With a planned deficit of 27.5 billion leva, or roughly 8%, the committee said it considers the overall macroeconomic calculations realistic. It nevertheless urged the government to accept a number of specific changes in the budget, several of which are aimed at tightening fiscal policy. The committee also asked the cabinet to make another effort to cut costs in the state bureaucracy. -Kjell Engelbrekt MRF REJECTS CHARGES OF "TURKIFICATION." The predominantly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms has rejected any involvement in alleged attempts to "Turkify" Bulgarian Muslims, BTA reported on 28-April. Responding to speculation in the media that MRF-dominated local authorities are trying to force Bulgarian Muslims to declare themselves ethnic Turks, the Central Council of the MRF released a declaration arguing that all citizens should determine their own ethnicity and religion. The MRF nevertheless said it is confident that the mayor of Satovcha village, who was recently charged with pressuring Bulgarian Muslims to change their names, is innocent. The MRF suggested that the real reason behind the allegations is rising ethnic tension in regions inhabited by Muslims. -Kjell Engelbrekt KIEV DENIES NUCLEAR STATUS. Radio Ukraine on 28-April broadcast a Foreign Ministry statement that Yurii Kostenko's recent comment that Ukraine is a nuclear weapons state was his own opinion, and not Ukraine's official position, which holds that Ukraine is a nonnuclear weapons state. Kostenko holds posts as minister for the environment, head of the team negotiating with Russia over the disposition of nuclear weapons, and head of the Ukrainian parliamentary group holding hearings on START-1. Additional hearings on the treaty have been scheduled, according to an RFE/RL correspondent, and they are likely to result in postponing the final vote on START-1 for up to several months. -John Lepingwell UKRAINE PROPOSES NEW COLLECTIVE SECURITY SYSTEM. On 28 April at the CSCE meeting in Prague, Ukraine presented a proposal for the creation of a collective security system that would include Central European countries, the Baltic States, and Ukraine. Russia and Belarus would apparently not be excluded from the system, but were not listed among the initial members. Ukraine's proposal was presented in a closed session of the meeting, but the Ukrainian delegation leader, Volodymyr Lapitsky, discussed the concept with an RFE/RL correspondent. The proposed collective security body would supplement the existing CSCE framework, and could be introduced in stages, with the participating states first declaring their interest in enhancing security in the area, and then moving on to cooperation in the security and military fields. A key element of the system would be the renunciation of all territorial claims and the recognition of current borders. -John Lepingwell LATVIAN LEGISLATION ON RESIDENCE PERMITS. Voting 68 for and 23 against, the Latvian Supreme Council on 28 April adopted a compromise version of the two bills on temporary residence permits for persons whose stay in Latvia is connected with the Russian military presence. The permits, valid for up to one year, will be issued also to family members of active or retired military personnel who settled in Latvia after 4 May 1990. The legislation does not affect citizens of Latvia or their families. Two groups of demonstrators-one for and one against the legislation-gathered that morning near the parliament building. Janis Dinevics, head of the Latvian delegation for talks with Russia on the withdrawal of its troops, said that the legislation would regularize the status of some 13,000 persons in Latvia and may be also acceptable to the Russian side. -Dzintra Bungs PATRIARCH ALEKSEI VISITS ESTONIA. Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Aleksei II arrived in Tallinn on 28 April, BNS reports. Aleksei told the press that the Patriarchate has decided to grant the Estonian Orthodox Church organizational independence and that only canonical relations with Moscow will be preserved. He added that the statutes and the administration of the Church would still have to be approved by the patriarch. Recently Estonian Orthodox Church activists had suggested that the Estonian church align itself with the Greek Orthodox Church rather than Moscow. The Tallinn eparchy includes 83-congregations. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. 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