|The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. - Thomas Carlyle 1975-1881|
No. 80, 28 April 1993
RUSSIA DEMOCRATS WANT TO SEE CHANGES. The opposition Russian democratic politicians stated that the referendum has given President Boris Yeltsin the strongest mandate since the August putsch. The leader of the Radical Democrats faction Sergei Yushenkov, was quoted by The Los Angeles Times on 27 April as saying that Yeltsin must now "fully use the results of the victory and not indulge in inexplicable inaction, as was the case after the putsch." The head of the radical left People's Party, Telman Gdlyan, said that if Yeltsin loses the new chance to change the situation, democratic forces will be compelled to withdraw their support. Aleksei Ulyukaev, a former economic advisor to the government, was quoted by Reuter on 26 April as saying that the reforms were already slowing and that the government was divided into two wings and right now the conservative wing was gaining strength. Ulyukaev asserted that the new First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Lobov, a close associate of Yeltsin from Ekaterinburg, would further halt radical reforms. -Alexander Rahr OPPOSITION DEMANDS YELTSIN'S RESIGNATION. The opposition Russian Unity parliamentary bloc claims that the referendum results demonstrate that Yeltsin has little support among the population, compared with the level of support he gained at his election in June 1991, and that he should resign, according to Reuters on 27 April. At a press conference, Vladimir Isakov, the coordinator of the bloc and co-chairman of the National Salvation Front, said that Russia was not ready for a new constitution and pledged to fight the promulgation of the president's new draft constitution. During the press conference, the opposition also criticized the leadership of the other former Soviet republics and Western countries for their support of Boris Yeltsin. -Wendy Slater EARLY ELECTIONS EXCLUDED. The head of the executive committee of the Civic Union, Vasilii Lipitsky, told ITAR-TASS on 27 April that the centrists must change their tactics after the referendum and stop agitating for early elections. Presidential legal advisor Anatolii Sliva said that the Congress was now bound by the results of the referendum and could call for early elections only through constitutional changes. The head of the electoral commission, Vasilii Kazakov, stressed that the president and deputies must now stay until the end of their legislative period and that the campaign for parliamentary elections should start in October 1994. According to former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis, however, the referendum has opened the way for early elections for a re-fashioned legislature. -Alexander Rahr CLINTON ON YELTSIN. US President Bill Clinton congratulated Boris Yeltsin on his referendum victory in a telephone conversation on 27 April. Clinton said he wanted "to reassure [Yeltsin] that the United States continues to support him as the elected leader of Russia and continues to look forward to our partnership in working to reduce the threat of nuclear weapons, to increase trade and commerce, and to promote democracy," Western agencies reported. -Suzanne Crow US AID TO RUSSIA TO BE DELAYED. President Clinton will put off proposing to Congress a major portion of the financial assistance for Russia he promised Boris Yeltsin at their recent summit in Vancouver, the Los Angeles Times reported on 28 April. The administration's is rethinking the aid package due to the cold reception the current plans were given by U.S. lawmakers who are shy of approving billions of dollars in aid in light of their country's massive budget deficit and anemic economic performance. - Erik Whitlock YELTSIN STATEMENT ON BOSNIA. In a 27 April statement on the conflict in former Yugoslavia, Boris Yeltsin said: "The time has come for decisive measures to put an end to the conflict [in Bosnia]. The present situation makes the unity of the permanent members of the Security Council, the EC, and all peaceloving states and international organizations especially necessary." He also declared that "the Russian Federation will not protect those who set themselves in opposition to the world community," ITAR-TASS reported. These statements mark a significant correction in Russian policy toward the conflict in former Yugoslavia. Moscow is now retreating from its pro-Serbian stance and moving back in the direction of favoring consensus with the West on ways to settle the conflict in Bosnia. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY ON YUGOSLAV CONFLICT. Russian Deputy Defense Minister Col. Gen. Georgii Kondratev said on 27 April that the Russian military leadership continued to favor a peaceful settlement of the conflict in Yugoslavia and that the Defense Ministry did not intend to increase Russia's military presence in the conflict area, ITAR-TASS reported. Kondratev noted that an Airborne battalion of some 900 Russian soldiers was now serving as a peacekeeping force in Croatia. He said that Russia was prepared to aid in the deliver of humanitarian aid by means of military transport. Kondratev made his remarks in Moscow prior to departing for Brussels in order to attend a 28 April meeting of chiefs of staff of the North Atlantic Council. -Stephen Foye AMBARTSUMOV WANTS SANCTIONS SUSPENDED. Evgenii Ambartsumov, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Committee on International Affairs and Foreign Economic Ties, told the Russian parliament on 27-April that he received "first-hand information" during a recent visit to the rump Yugoslavia that UN economic sanctions are "unilateral" and "counterproductive." Ambartsumov called for the suspension of sanctions. He also said that as a result of his visit, "he realized that all warring sides are responsible for the conflict," ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported. Deputy Foreign Minister Vitalii Churkin rejected the proposal to suspend the sanctions, arguing that such a step would be "unrealistic." Churkin characterized military intervention as an "extremely undesirable" step, but added that if the Bosnian Serbs continued military operations in eastern Bosnia, nothing could be ruled out. -Suzanne Crow RUSSIA DISMISSES UKRAINIAN CLAIMS OF THREATS OVER START-1. On 27 April a Russian foreign ministry spokesman, Sergei Yastrzhembsky, denied a recent claim by the Ukrainian parliamentarian Yurii Kostenko that Russia had threatened to cut off nuclear fuel deliveries if Ukraine did not ratify the START-1 and non-proliferation treaties. Yastrzhembsky also criticized Kostenko's comment that Ukraine was a nuclear state, noting that Ukraine had committed itself to non-nuclear status by signing the Lisbon protocol in May 1992, according to ITAR-TASS. Despite Kostenko's statement, the official Ukrainian position is that while Ukraine owns the components of the nuclear weapons on its territory, it is not a nuclear state because it does not control the use of the weapons. -John Lepingwell RUSSIAN STRATEGIC ROCKET FORCES COMMANDER ON START-1. Concerns that Ukraine's position on START-1 would undermine Russian ratification of the START-2 treaty were also expressed by Colonel General Igor Sergeev, the commander of the Russian Strategic Rocket Forces, in a speech on 27 April that was reported by ITAR-TASS. Sergeev noted that reductions in Russian strategic arms would have been inevitable even without the START-2 treaty, since two out of three Soviet missile plants were located in Ukraine, as were all producers of "combat control and missile guidance systems." If true, this would suggest that Russia may need Ukrainian parts to maintain its nuclear weapons as much as Ukraine needs Russian parts. -John Lepingwell RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT RATIFIES MILITARY AGREEMENT WITH BELARUS. The Russian parliament voted on 27 April to ratify an agreement with Belarus on the coordination of military activities. Commenting on the treaty, Russian Deputy Defense Minister Boris Gromov noted that it was "evidence of the high level of military-political trust and understanding between Russia and Belarus." Belarus has acknowledged Russian ownership of the nuclear weapons on Belarusian territory and has been strengthening defense and other ties to Russia in recent weeks. -John Lepingwell RUSSIAN NAVY PROTESTS UKRAINIAN NAVAL ACTIONS. Radio Rossii reported on 27-April that the Russian naval press center has protested the incorporation of two naval vessels into the Ukrainian Navy. One of them, an anti-submarine vessel named the "Sposobnyi," was described as having belonged to the Russian Pacific Fleet. The other, a tanker called the "Yelnya," had apparently been attached to the Black Sea Fleet, and went over to the Ukrainian navy after members of its crew had taken an oath of allegiance to Ukraine. The Russian naval press center charged that the actions were a violation of the Yalta agreement governing the disposition of the Black Sea Fleet. -Stephen Foye RUBLE EXCHANGE RATE PASSES 800 MARK. The ruble has dropped another 4% over the last week and a half in trading on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange, according to various Russian and Western news agencies. The exchange rate ended trading on 27 April at 812 rubles to the dollar. The dollar at present buys more outside the exchange; on the street in Moscow the exchange rate may be as high as 850-rubles to the dollar. - Erik Whitlock TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RUSSIAN SUPREME SOVIET APPROVES PEACEKEEPERS FOR TAJIKISTAN. On 27 April the Russian Supreme Soviet voted to provide a 500-man military contingent for peacekeeping duties in Tajikistan in accord with an agreement reached at the CIS summit in Tashkent in January, ITAR-TASS reported. The Russian contingent is supposed to cooperate with similar contingents from the other three states that agreed to participate, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The first two countries have already sent some troops to Tajikistan; Kyrgyzstan sent a contingent of border guards, but later withdrew them. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev was quoted as describing Tajikistan as a region of particular interest for the Russian Federation because of the presence of a Russian-speaking population of more than 200,000. Many of the Russian-speakers fled the country to escape the civil war, but large-scale outmigration of the Russian-speaking population had begun already in 1990. -Bess Brown TURKMENISTAN SEEKS PETROLEUM INDEPENDENCE. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov told his Cabinet of Ministers on 27 April that the country's petroleum industry has to be revived, with the objective of establishing petroleum independence, ITAR-TASS reported. Turkmenistan's petroleum industry has been neglected in recent years as the extraction of natural gas expanded. Niyazov noted that the country has two potentially major oilfields, the Amu Darya Basin and the eastern shelf of the Caspian Sea, and an Argentine firm is doing exploratory drilling in the eastern part of Turkmenistan. American, Dutch and United Arab Emirates drilling firms are also engaged in exploratory work in various parts of Turkmenistan. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SERBS ATTACK MUSLIM ENCLAVE. International media on 27 and 28 April report that Serbian fighters attacked the mainly Muslim Bihac area in northwest Bosnia with artillery and ground forces on 27 April. The BBC's Serbian Service quotes Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as blaming the action on rogue units or on Muslim provocations. The area is assigned to the Muslims by the Vance-Owen plan and was once an outpost of the Ottoman Empire against the Habsburgs. Relations between Muslims and local Serbs in the "Bihac pocket" were traditionally good, even during and after World War II. Also attacked was the nearby town of Velika Kladusa, the power base of Fikret Abdic, a leading Muslim politician and protagonist in the Agrokomerc scandal that rocked Yugoslavia in the mid-1980s. The 28-April Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung carries that report. Finally, the BBC on the 27th noted that UNPROFOR troops will be allowed to use force against what it described as human rights violations. -Patrick Moore NO POPCORN FOR MILOSEVIC? THE SERBIAN DAILIES ON 28 APRIL CONTINUE TO CONCENTRATE THEIR ATTENTION ON REACTIONS TO AND EVALUATIONS OF THE NEWLY TIGHTENED SANCTIONS. Western news agencies note that the United States sought unsuccessfully before the UN Sanctions Committee to add nonessential foods like beer, caviar, and microwave popcorn to the list of embargoed items. The committee declined to go beyond the measures already approved by the Security Council, but diplomats suggested that shipments of such food items, if found, were unlikely to be allowed to continue into Serbia-Montenegro. Elsewhere, Borba says that Macedonia will seek permission from the UN to establish a "transport corridor" for itself through Serbia, its main supply route. Macedonia continues to suffer from a de facto Greek blockade to the south, while plans to improve the east-west route between Albania and Bulgaria across Macedonia are only taking shape. Finally, Prince Aleksandar Karadjordjevic, the heir to the Serbian and Yugoslav throne, has written President Bill Clinton and Prime Minister John Major to appeal against any Western military intervention against the Bosnian Serbs. -Patrick Moore ROMANIA CALLS FOR COMPENSATION OVER YUGOSLAV SANCTIONS AGAIN. In London, Economy and Finance Minister Florin Georgescu again called for Romania to be compensated for the financial losses it has suffered as a result of the war in former Yugoslavia, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 27-April. He said both the Yugoslav conflict and "outside intervention in the Trans-Dniester region of Moldova" have had severe consequences for neighboring countries and created a climate of instability. Speaking at the annual meeting of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Georgescu said the war in Bosnia and the trade embargo had cost the Romanian economy more than $3-billion. Romania, he added, needs more guarantees for its security, appropriate economic compensation and increased capital in-flow from the international community." Meanwhile, Romania's Central Bank announced on 27-April that it is freezing transfers to rump Yugoslavia under the tightened UN sanctions. Emil Ghizari, the deputy director of the bank, told Reuters that all transfers from Romania to banks in Serbia and Montenegro will be frozen. The freeze will not affect private accounts held by Serbs and Montenegrins in Romanian banks. -Michael Shafir DANUBE SAGA MYSTERIES. A ship sailing under what Radio Bucharest said was the Yugoslav flag has left the Danube port of Galati without permission heading for the Ukrainian port of Ismail on 27 April. With a declared destination of Linz, eight Ukrainian vessels and one Slovak bottom carrying iron ore loaded in Ismail are being detained in Galati because they do not meet the conditions set up by the UN for transiting rump Yugoslav territorial waters. On the other hand, BTA reported on 27 April that a Romanian tugboat is under suspicion of intending to break the sanctions. In a second such incident, the vessel arrived at Vidin without barges and later requested outward clearance, refusing to identify the port of departure and its destination. The Bulgarian authorities suspect that the ship is waiting for a convoy near Vidin to sail upstream to Serbia under cover of darkness. -Michael Shafir NATO DENIES HAVING REQUESTED ACCESS TO BULGARIAN BASES. A spokesman for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on 27 April denied a report that Bulgaria had been asked to provide air bases or corridors for strikes against targets in Serbia. Capt. Ulrich Fricke told an RFE/RL correspondent in Brussels that the allegation, which appeared in the Bulgarian daily Kontinent on the same day, has "no substance whatsoever." Fricke admitted that an air corridor over Bulgaria would make sense from a tactical viewpoint-allowing NATO to use bases in Turkey-but pointed out that the danger of growing regional instability is a strong deterrent. He indicated that NATO is even concerned about the political implications of requesting to fly surveillance missions over Bulgaria, saying that setting up bases would be "doubly serious." -Kjell Engelbrekt CZECH, SLOVAK STATEMENTS ON BOSNIAN CRISIS. On 27 April, the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying that "the Czech Republic is not against even stronger measures aimed at achieving peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina." The statement, carried by CTK, further states that the Czech Republic is ready to "offer support for such measures to the extent corresponding with its possibilities." The Foreign Ministry also says that the Czech Republic supports the recently introduced stronger sanctions against the former Yugoslavia and will carefully observe them. The statement criticizes the Bosnian Serbs for rejecting the Vance-Owen peace plan and condemns "ethnic cleansing, mass rape, and other crimes against civilians." It also expresses full support for investigating war crimes committed in Bosnia-Herzegovina and for bringing war criminals to justice. Speaking at a press conference with foreign journalists on 27 April, Slovak President Michal Kovac said that "bloodshed in Bosnia must be stopped." He argued that Slovakia should support all steps of the UN Security Council aimed at stopping the war. Kovac cautioned that he could not speak for the Slovak parliament but that his support for resolute actions is "unambiguous." -Jiri Pehe CSCE PANEL TO EXAMINE MINORITY PROBLEMS IN SLOVAKIA AND HUNGARY. According to an RFE/RL correspondent's report from Prague on 27 April, Hungary and Slovakia have given tentative agreement to a proposal by CSCE High Commissioner for Minorities Max van der Stoel for the creation of a panel of independent experts to examine the situation of the Magyar minority in Slovakia and of the Slovak minority in Hungary. The proposal calls for the panel to serve a minimum period of two years, with a maximum of four visits per country, obtain information, and hear out the views of both the governments and the minorities. The panel will make recommendations to the High Commissioner for Minorities, who will pass them to the governments involved if he thinks it necessary. Slovak Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik said that his government fully supports the creation of the panel, and so did his Hungarian counterpart Geza Jeszenszky, who wrote van der Stoel that the independent panel "can serve as a pattern for similar evaluations for other countries." -Alfred Reisch SLOVAK PRESIDENT ON MINORITY ISSUES, ECONOMY. At his press conference in Bratislava, Michal Kovac said that Slovakia will not grant autonomy to its Hungarian minority. According to Reuters, Kovac said that "in all cases in which ethnic minorities' rights are violated, we will make immediate redress, but the Slovak government will never accept Hungarian autonomy." The president also announced that he intends to host roundtable discussions next month with participants from all ethnic groups living in Slovakia. Kovac further said that Slovakia's hard currency reserves stand at $300-400 million and commented on recent statements by Vladimir Meciar, in which the premier rejected both capitalism and socialism as models for Slovakia. Kovac argued that Meciar was not advocating "a third way" for Slovakia, but merely rejected "the 19th century's kind of capitalism." Kovac assured journalists that Slovakia "is headed for a market economy, democracy, and prosperity." -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES SUBMISSION OF GABCIKOVO DISPUTE TO ICJ. On 27 April by a vote of 209-2-9 parliament approved without modifications the text of the joint Hungarian-Slovak agreement to submit the two countries' dispute over the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric project to the International Court of Justice in the Hague. Several deputies had criticized the lack of sufficiently concrete measures concerning the temporary water management system on the affected section of the Danube, but their proposed amendments were not considered. -Alfred Reisch MILITARY SERVICE IN SLOVAKIA TO BE CUT. The government approved on 27 April the shortening of mandatory military service in Slovakia from 18 to 12-months. Speaking at a press conference in Bratislava, Defense Minister Imrich Andrejcak said that the measure will come into effect on 1 July 1993. Andrejcak pointed out that the government's decision was not prompted by trying to comply with the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty. He said that the total number of soldiers in Slovakia is much less than the limit of 56,000 set by the treaty for Slovakia. Jiri Pehe HUNGARY' RESPONSE TO THE EC MEAT EMBARGO. Minister of Agriculture Janos Szabo told the European Community on 27 April that his country can only partially comply with the EC's stricter animal hygiene requirements for lifting the ban on meat and meat and dairy products from Eastern Europe that it imposed in early April, MTI reports. Quarantine of live animals for 15 days prior to shipment is impractical for small farmers and in the case of very young animals. Szabo proposed that the EC accept instead a blood test on 10% of the animals involved. The minister said Hungary's animal hygiene is adequate and called the EC's stricter prescriptions discriminatory and unjustified. -Alfred Reisch POLISH PRIVATIZATION MINISTER THREATENS TO RESIGN. Janusz Lewandowski announced at a press conference on 27 April that he will resign if the Sejm votes down the government's revised version of its mass privatization program. The vote is now scheduled for 29 April, PAP reports. Lewandowski said the defeat of mass privatization could prompt the withdrawal of the Polish Liberal Program from the ruling coalition and would open the way for misguided property distribution schemes. The minister called the upcoming vote a "political test" for the parliament that would also reveal if the government "can govern or merely drifts." He said the vote was still too close to call; the stances of the coalition's Christian National Union and the opposition Democratic Left are still unclear. President Lech Walesa told reporters on 27 April that he supports the idea of a national referendum on privatization. Solidarity proposed such a referendum, but the government opposes the idea. -Louisa Vinton HEALTH CARE WORKERS STRIKE IN WARSAW. In the latest of a series of protests by employees paid from the state budget, health care workers staged a two-hour warning strike in Warsaw and the seven surrounding voivodships on 27 April. The strike was the first work stoppage by health care workers in postwar Polish history, according to PAP. The Solidarity unionists who sponsored the strike reported that three-fourths of clinics and hospitals in the area took part. The strikers demanded higher wages, increased funding for health care, and a new health insurance system. On 22 April, teachers at about 70% of Polish schools struck for a day to protest the "growing pauperization" of education workers. -Louisa Vinton ROMANIAN NATIONALIST LEADER CRITICIZES ILIESCU'S HOLOCAUST MUSEUM VISIT. Corneliu Vadim Tudor, the leader of the extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party, has threatened to withdraw support for the government because of President Iliescu's attendance at the dedication of the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, Radio Bucharest announced on 26 April. In an open letter published in the party's weekly Romania mare, Tudor said Iliescu's "Jewish obsession" is ruining Romania. Michael Shafir MORE MANAGEMENT TURMOIL AT BULGARIAN TV. On 27 April Bulgarian dailies reported of a new round of management turbulence at Bulgarian National Television. Following a decision of the BNT Board of Directors on 26 April, Neri Terzieva, program director of Channel 2, was dismissed. Defending the measure in a TV interview, the recently appointed BNT General Director Hacho Boyadzhiev said Terzieva had created an "atmosphere of intolerance" between the BNT's two channels. On the next day, however, it became clear that Stefan Dimitrov, program director of Channel 1, had already handed in his resignation in protest. In early March acting General Director Militsa Traykova sacked Dimitrov, who nevertheless was reinstated after a decision by the parliamentary Committee on Television and Radio. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR SAFETY. Finance Minister Grigorii Pyatachenko has said that it will cost billions of dollars fully to address safety problems at nuclear power stations in his republic, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. Pyatachenko was commenting on a statement by European Bank of Reconstruction and Development Chairman Jacques Attali on 27 April that the EBRD's fund for improving safety standards at Eastern nuclear power plants has so far attracted more than $130 million. -Keith Bush BALTIC SOLIDARITY WITH LATVIA ON RUSSIAN ACCUSATIONS. Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar told BNS on 27 April that both his country and Lithuania will help Latvia withstand the current propaganda attack from Russia over the residence permits issue. Laar said that a decision on Baltic solidarity in such cases was adopted at the meeting of Baltic prime ministers earlier this month, and added that the prime ministers had already anticipated problems from Moscow on two counts: Latvia's desire to gain EC associate membership and Russia's internal politics. That same day Latvian parliamentarians continued to criticize the Russian moves, including the suspension of talks on troop withdrawals. Deputy Ruta Saca-Marjasa said that the decision under consideration involves, first and foremost, the active Russian military and the persons connected with their presence. Deputy Eduards Berklavs said that the introduction of temporary residence permits would clarify a heretofore vague situation for Latvia's noncitizens and stressed that the residence permits would not be used as a coercive measure against non-Latvians. -Dzintra Bungs EARLY RUSSIAN REFERENDUM RESULTS IN THE BALTICS. Baltic media reported on 26-April that the initial counting of the ballots in Estonia and Latvia on 25-April suggest that most participants voted against Yeltsin. In Latvia only 4,524 persons cast ballots, despite the fact that some 12,000 persons have Russian citizenship. About 80% of those voting indicated that they have no confidence in Yeltsin and do not support the president's or the government's policies. Russian ambassador in Riga Aleksandr Rannikh attributed the small turnout to the fact the most of these Russian citizens had already left Latvia. Without announcing any preliminary results, the authorities in Lithuania said that 1,081 of the approximately 4,500 registered Russian citizens in that country voted. In Estonia 8,456 of the registered 30,623 Russian citizens participated, and preliminary results indicate that about 28% of the participants supported Yeltsin and about 27% supported his policies. Members of the Russian forces in the Baltics had completed their voting in separate balloting centers already by noon on 25 April and these results will be tallied separately. -Dzintra Bungs DEPUTIES FROM LITHUANIA'S POLISH REGIONS STILL NOT ELECTED. BNS reported on 26 April that for various reasons, including voting irregularities, not a single deputy was elected on 25 April during the third attempt at holding elections for the local councils of the Vilnius and Salcininkai raions, heavily populated by Poles, and the Visaginas settlement with a large Russian population. It is not clear what the Lithuanian authorities will do to resolve these matters. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Ustina Markus and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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