|Forty is the old age of youth; fifty, the youth of old age. - Victor Hugo|
No. 78, 26 April 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN RECEIVES SUPPORT IN REFERENDUM. The head of the electoral commission, Vasilii Kazakov, told the Presidium of the Russian parliament that, according to a preliminary estimate, President Boris Yeltsin won about 60% of the ballot in the vote of confidence in the referendum, Western news agencies reported on 26 April. Kazakov said that the referendum vote for early parliamentary elections fell short of the 50% of the electorate required to make it legally binding. Western news agencies reported that Yeltsin received more than 60% of votes in support of his economic policy and that a huge majority of voters rejected early presidential elections. The turnout in the referendum was more than 60%; the turnout in the presidential elections in 1991 had been 75%. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN MAKES PUBLIC KEY POINTS OF NEW CONSTITUTION. Two days before the referendum, President Yeltsin unveiled the key points of a new Russian Constitution. On 23-April, the Russian media quoted Yeltsin as saying that the new constitution will be adopted if the president wins the referendum. The new constitution stipulates the abolition of the Congress of People's Deputies and new elections to a bicameral parliament, the Federal Assembly. It also gives the president a broad range of powers, including the nomination of key executive and judicial figures, and leaves the parliament to approve them. The president would have the right to dissolve the parliament and call new elections if "a crisis of state power cannot be solved on the basis of the constitution." The draft also grants people the right to buy and sell land. -Vera Tolz YELTSIN'S PRE-REFERENDUM ADDRESS. President Yeltsin made a televised speech on 24-April urging voters to turn out to the referendum, and telling them that on its results depended the implementation of the reform program. He pledged to "act in accordance with the principle of constitutionality" whatever the results, but stated that "radical transformations of the bodies of representative or legislative power are long overdue" and that he regarded a vote of confidence in him as a mandate to adopt the new constitution. He made a number of promises such as increased pensions, allotments of land to retiring military officers, anti-inflation policies, and protection for staff of bankrupt enterprises. -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV, ZORKIN PREDICT AFTERMATH OF REFERENDUM. Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov said at the polling booth that there should be no loose interpretation of the referendum results. He claimed that even if Yeltsin received full support it would not give him the right to make one-sided changes in the constitution. Also voting in the referendum the chairman of the Constitutional Court Valerii Zorkin told reporters that the referendum would not "dot the i's" and that to clarify the situation in the country either the president and the parliament should serve out their terms, or early elections should be held. He stated that an expression of confidence in the president would not imply approval of the text of the new constitution. Their remarks were reported by ITAR-TASS on 25 April. -Wendy Slater YAVLINSKY FOR PRESIDENT. Economist Grigorii Yavlinsky said in an interview with Moskovskaya pravda on 23 April that he intends to run for Russian president in the next presidential elections. He stated, however, that he thinks Boris Yeltsin will remain president for the time being because he is likely to win the referendum. He argued that at the present stage, the president should be an economic specialist who could make his own decisions and not always have to rely on different consultants. Yavlinsky spoke at length about his economic and, particularly, social achievements during the economic reform "experiment" which he conducted last year in the region of Nizhnii Novgorod. He indicated that he has a clear economic program for Russia which would involve all citizens in the reform process. -Alexander Rahr YELTSIN SUPPORTERS FOR EARLY PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. Russian democrats have urged President Boris Yeltsin to move forward more decisively after his qualified victory at the referendum. Yeltsin's closest advisors, such as Gennadii Burbulis, Mikhail Poltoranin, Lev Ponomarev, and Sergei Shakhrai called in their first statements after the referendum for early parliamentary elections and the promulgation of a new constitution, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 April. Foreign minister Andrei Kozyrev said that Yeltsin should now "use force to establish order and stability" in the country. Leaders of the hardline National Salvation Front stated that the referendum results are being "falsified." Communist Party leader Gennadii Zyuganov claimed that the referendum has done nothing to stabilize the political situation. -Alexander Rahr SHOKHIN-LIPITSKY CONTROVERSY OVER CORRUPTION CHARGES. The People's Party of Free Russia,set up in 1991 by Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, wants to file a libel suit against Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin, who alleged in Rossiiskie vesti on 23-April that the party had diverted international humanitarian aid into its coffers. The party had participated in the distribution of some of the aid. Russian agencies quoted the party's leader Vasilii Lipitsky as denying the charge. Shokhin's counter-charge followed allegations by Rutskoi a week ago that members of the Russian government were engaged in large-scale corruption. -Vera Tolz VOTING IN THE ARMED FORCES. In accordance with President Yeltsin's directive of 22-April, Russian military personnel both inside and outside Russia participated in the Russian referendum. Most military personnel were allowed to vote at polling stations outside their garrison, but those troops stationed outside Russia voted at polling stations within their bases. Preliminary and incomplete reports suggest that support for Yeltsin among servicemen varies widely. Ostankino TV on 25 April reported that military units in Kaliningrad had voted 48% for Yeltsin, 42% in favor of his economic reforms; 37% of the eligible voters favored early presidential elections and 60% of the eligible voters favored early parliamentary elections. (The last two questions must be decided by a majority of eligible voters rather than a simple majority.) Reuters of 26 April reported that most troops in the Russian 14th army located in Moldova were planning to follow the lead of their commander, Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lebed, and vote for Yeltsin. -John Lepingwell ADDITIONAL REFERENDUM QUESTIONS IN ST.-PETERSBURG. St. Petersburg Mayor Anatolii Sobchak ordered two questions to be added to the 25-April referendum in the city, Western and Russian agencies reported. The questions, which were not legally binding, asked whether Russia should call a convention to adopt a new constitution, and whether St.-Petersburg should be given equivalent status to an autonomous republic. St. Petersburg, like Moscow, is currently a "federal city,"meaning that the municipal administration has little autonomy from the Russian government. Sobchak has led the drive by Democratic Russia and the Russian Movement for Democratic Reforms to call a constituent assembly. -Wendy Slater MOSCOW'S LATEST CONVERSION INITIATIVE? FIRST DEPUTY ECONOMICS MINISTER ANDREI SHAPOVALYANTS WAS QUOTED BY KYOTO NEWS AGENCY ON 25 APRIL AS TELLING A TOKYO CONFERENCE ON EAST-WEST ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THAT A NATIONAL AID PROGRAM HAS BEEN CREATED FOR MAJOR SECTORS OF THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY THAT HAVE BEEN SELECTED FOR CONVERSION. He added that a "minimum" amount of military exports will be necessary to prevent the collapse of the defense industry and to prevent affected enterprises from going bankrupt. -Keith Bush GRACHEV ON DRAFT PROBLEMS. Addressing servicemen at a training center in the Siberian city of Chita on 22 April, Grachev called for the Russian government to narrow the range of draft deferments available to young men in Russia and to toughen penalties for draft dodging. Grachev also repeated an earlier proposal that the draft age be raised from 18 to 21. Grachev said that only 20-25% of all eligible conscripts were now being drafted, and claimed that a chronic shortage of conscripts and non-commissioned officers had lowered military preparedness and discipline within the army. The proposal to narrow the range of available draft deferments has emerged as an important political issue. Boris Yeltsin has supported the high command's position on it, while the parliament has defied the military leadership and widened the number of available draft deferments. -Stephen Foye RUTSKOI FORMALLY REMOVED FROM AGRICULTURAL POST. On 23 April President Yeltsin signed a decree formally removing Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi as head of agricultural reform, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 April. The decree rescinds that of July 1992 that created the post and another of February 1993 that gave Rutskoi the powers to issue decrees on agricultural matters. The post will be given to an as yet unnamed deputy prime minister. Yeltsin had announced on 15-April that he planned to relieve Rutskoi of his agricultural responsibilities. -Keith Bush RUSSIA SEEKS TO REGULATE EMPLOYMENT OF ITS CITIZENS ABROAD. A representative of the Federal Migration Service has stated that Russia is interested in setting up bilateral government agreements on the employment of Russian workers abroad, since such organized forms of migration are the only way to discourage illegal migration, Reuters reported on 22 April. Russia would like to negotiate precise quotas, working conditions and payments. In 1992 approximately 500,000 Russian worked abroad under such agreements. Russia is also willing to employ foreign workers, although the influx of more than 700,000 ethnic Russians from the former Soviet republics is already putting pressure on the Russian labor market. -Sheila Marnie CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE DECISIVE DAY FOR THE SERBS. On 24 April the Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic once again rejected the Vance-Owen peace plan, saying that the offer of a UN-protected corridor to link up Serbian territories in Bosnia and Croatia with Serbia proper is unacceptable. The Serbs insist instead on controlling a wide swath of territory themselves and have been fighting for nearly two years first in Croatia and then in Bosnia to set up such a greater Serbian state. On 26 April the Bosnian Serb parliament is slated to meet to make a final decision on the plan, but all indications are that it will once again turn down the document that it only recently rejected in a unanimous vote. If, however, the Serbs do not agree, tougher UN sanctions are scheduled to go into effect on 26 April, as international media report. The story also dominates the Belgrade papers of that morning. Reuters on 25 April quoted Karadzic as saying that the Serbs might try to accept the plan on a temporary, conditional basis, "which would give us the right to implement it in accordance with the interests of the Serb nation," but the mediators and the Croats and Muslims are unlikely to go along with such a proposal. Elsewhere, the rebel Serb parliaments in both Bosnia and Croatia agreed to coordinate their policies and activities increasingly, but proposals to give formal leadership to a member of the Serbian royal family, Prince Tomislav, appear to have stalled. -Patrick Moore MUSLIMS SAY "THERE IS NO OTHER CHOICE." The VOA on 24 April quoted Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic as saying that the only choice for the international community in view of Serb intransigence is either to launch air strikes against Serb guns or lift the arms embargo on Bosnia to let the Muslims defend themselves. The New York Times quoted the Bosnian leader as saying that the Croats and Serbs are now seeking to partition his country, while Reuters the next day noted his foreign minister's appeals to the Organization of the Islamic Conference meeting in Pakistan for military, diplomatic, and financial aid. The BBC said that King Fahd of Saudi Arabia donated $20 million for humanitarian assistance, bringing the Saudi total for relief work to $100 million. -Patrick Moore CROAT-MUSLIM CEASE-FIRE PROVES TENUOUS. Reuters on 24 April reported that Croats and Muslims in the Mostar area were respecting a cease-fire signed by their leaders Mate Boban and Izetbegovic. The BBC the next day, however, said that Croatian guns in central Bosnia were bombarding Muslim emplacements above Vitez while Muslims attacked a Croatian village. A local Muslim commander told reporters that he had not heard of any cease-fire. Meanwhile, mutual accusations flew between the two sides over the responsibility for the outbreak of fighting between the nominal allies in recent weeks. Each side said that the other was trying to grab land in anticipation of a peace settlement, while the Croatian media and some Croat officials suggested that the Bosnian army is heavily infiltrated by agents of the former Yugoslav military intelligence agency, KOS. The Reuters report made it clear that local fighters on both sides in Mostar blame the conflict on interference by outsiders. -Patrick Moore THE POPE VISITS ALBANIA. On 25 April Pope John Paul II paid a one-day visit to Albania, the first ever by a reigning pontiff. He was greeted in Tirana by President Sali Berisha and by Mother Teresa, who is an ethnic Albanian born in what is now Macedonia. Berisha cautioned that "Belgrade is waiting for the right moment to start massacring [Kosovo Albanians] and ethnically cleansing its territory, which will provoke a Balkan war," Western news agencies said. The 26 April Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung notes that the Pope's message stressed the themes of resurrection and hope following Albania's liberation from communism and at a time when material prospects in the country appear bleak. "What happened in Albania is something which has never been seen in history. Your experience is one of death and resurrection, which belongs to the entire Church and the whole world." The 26 April Die Presse says that 100,000 persons welcomed the Pope in Shkoder. -Patrick Moore MACEDONIAN UPDATE. Meeting with Macedonian leaders in Skopje on 23 April Lord David Owen indicated that resolution of the differences between Greece and Macedonia may occur as early as 1 May, according to MILS. Meantime, the International Monetary Fund announced that Macedonia has become a member of that organization retroactive to 1 December 1992. -Duncan Perry BULGARIAN AUTHORITIES BLOCK PAN-MACEDONIAN RALLIES. Bulgarian police and special forces on 24 April stopped demonstrations of Ilinden, the pan-Macedonian organization, BTA reports. Small groups of Ilinden supporters who gathered near the city of Melnik to celebrate the anniversary of the death of early 20th-century revolutionary, Jane Sandanski, were quickly dispersed by the authorities. The police action was personally supervised by Prosecutor General Ivan Tatarchev. Eyewitness accounts indicate that in the village of Loznitsa the police used violence against the activists. The Ilinden organization holds that much of the population in southwest Bulgaria-the Pirin area-comprises ethnic Macedonians. It was declared illegal by a Bulgarian court in August 1990. -Kjell Engelbrekt FORBES ON BULGARIAN ARMS TRADE. Forbes magazine says a Bulgarian arms trading company, Kintex, has during the last three years continued to do business with countries at war, anti-Western governments, and terrorist organizations. In its 10 May issue Forbes writes that in 1992 alone Kintex has concluded $100 million in arms deals with Iraq, Libya, and the rump Yugoslavia. In all Kintex says it exported around $250 million in arms last year. The article also suggests that Bulgaria has become a center of illegal arms trading with the former Soviet bloc, with Kintex at the core. In Trud of 26 April, however, Kintex director Anton Saldzhiyski says his company adheres strictly to international regulations. -Kjell Engelbrekt HAVEL IN GERMANY. On 24 April Czech President Vaclav Havel arrived in Germany for a three-day visit. CTK and international media report that Havel received the Theodor Heuss Prize, named after the first president of the Federal Republic of Germany, in recognition of Havel's struggle for freedom and human rights. Also in Stuttgart on the 24th, Havel and German President Richard von Weizsaecker held a public discussion, mainly on East-West relations. Von Weizsaecker called on the West to be more open to Eastern Europe. On the 25th Havel visited Hamburg, where he signed the city's Golden Book. Speaking to journalists, he said that the Czech Republic wants EC membership but acknowledged that this is going to take time. The Czech President is scheduled to meet with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Parliament President Rita Suessmuth, and Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel and 26 April. -Jiri Pehe KOVAC COMMENTS ON US TRIP. Speaking to journalists in Bratislava on 24 April, after his return from the first-ever trip of a Slovak president to the United States, Michal Kovac said that the situation in Bosnia was a recurring topic during his visit. He said Slovakia would likely support military intervention there and stressed that his country supports all steps taken by the UN Security Council with regard to Bosnia. The president also said that in his talks with US leaders he succeeded in presenting Slovakia as a country heading for democracy and a market economy. He said he assured President Bill Clinton that Slovakia's foreign and defense policies are oriented towards Western Europe. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK PREMIER ON MINORITIES. On 25 April during his regular TV address, Vladimir Meciar dealt with the question of Slovakia's admission to the Council of Europe. Meciar said that this issue is influenced by the Slovak government's policies toward national minorities. (At the beginning of 1993, ethnic Hungarian parties represented in the Slovak parliament sent a letter to the Council of Europe urging the body to reconsider Slovakia's application for membership in the council in light of what they saw as the country's unsatisfactory policies toward minorities.) Meciar stressed that the Constitution fully accepts European standards regarding minorities and that national minority rights cannot be in conflict with the rest of Slovak citizens. However, the premier said that the Constitution is open to change and that the government will initiate a law that would facilitate the creation of an impartial institution supervising the observance of human and civil rights. Meciar further said that he favors involvement of international agencies in such supervision. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER VISITS SLOVAKIA. On 23 April Lajos Fur became the first foreign defense minister to pay a visit to Bratislava. MTI and the Budapest dailies Nepszabadsag and Uj Magyarorszag reported that the visit was arranged at the invitation of Fur's Slovak counterpart, Imrich Andrejcak. The two officials discussed the future cooperation between the two armies, including the introduction of the Open Skies" and "open barracks" confidence-building measures. Hungary presented the text of a bilateral military cooperation agreement, which the Slovak side will study, and appointed a military attache in Bratislava. Stressing the importance of the meeting, Andrejcak said the two countries' border should be a "frontier of peace and tranquillity"; he also offered Slovakia's assistance in training Hungarian air force pilots. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARY: EXPANSION OF VISEGRAD FOUR POSSIBLE. In an interview in the 23/24-April issue of the German paper Handelsblatt, Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations Bela Kadar said he believes Slovenia, Ukraine, and Croatia will be able to join the Visegrad Quadrangle cooperation grouping. A precondition is for the three countries to modernize their economies and, above all, to free prices on their markets, Kadar said. Should the EC fail to sufficiently open its markets for East European products, Kadar said, it would be "catastrophic" for many countries of the region and endanger both European and international stability. -Alfred Reisch EBRD APPROVES LOAN FOR ROMANIA. Reuters reported on 25 April that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) approved a $80-million loan for Romania to improve some 1,100-km of roads as well as traffic flows at six border crossing points. The EBRD said in a statement that the loan is aimed at helping Romanian economy integrate into European structures. The roads rehabilitation project will cost a total of 395 million dollars. The World Bank, the European Investment Bank and the Romanian government are also participating in the program. A EBRD publication released on 24 April expressed concern over the pace of economic reforms in Romania. The bank warned the Romanian government not to strangle the fledgling private sector by continuing to subsidize inefficient state-owned companies. Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN PARTY OF CIVIC ALLIANCE CONGRESS. The Party of Civic Alliance held its first nationwide congress in Timisoara on 23-25 April. Radio Bucharest, which reported extensively on the event, said that the convention debated the party's past and future activity as well as its organization at central and local level. The congress adopted a new, neoliberal platform and new statutes, and reelected Nicolae Manolescu, a literary critic, to head the organization's leadership committee The PCA was founded in July 1991 as the political arm of the Civic Alliance, a centrist intellectual movement. -Dan Ionescu MELESCANU MEETS FRENCH, CHINESE COUNTERPARTS. During a stopover in Paris on 23 April, Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu held talks with Alain Juppe on bilateral ties and international affairs, including the crisis in former Yugoslavia. The two ministers discussed the Security Council decision to tighten the embargo against rump Yugoslavia. A spokesman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry said that Bucharest reiterated its offer to mediate in the Balkan conflict. Melescanu, who recently visited Mexico City and Washington, was en route to Beijing. On 25-April he discussed with China's Foreign Minister Qian Qichen ways to boost economic and other bilateral ties. He will later visit Singapore and Thailand. -Dan Ionescu SPAIN'S PRIME MINISTER VISITS WARSAW. During a two-day official visit to Poland on 23-24 April, Spanish Prime Minister Felipe González expressed support for Poland's eventual full membership in the EC but urged patience in awaiting a specific timetable. Talks with Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka focused on increasing bilateral trade, valued at $220-million in 1992. González pledged to consider shifting Poland into the group of countries of "lowest risk" for investment, PAP reports. He also supported releasing Poles from visa requirements for travel to Spain, but said the final decision rests with the Spanish parliament. President Lech Walesa used his meeting with González to restate earlier proposals that Western aid to Russia be channeled through investment in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech and Slovak Republics. -Louisa Vinton POLISH PARTIES VIE FOR SUPPORT. Three major political parties-the Democratic Union (UD), the Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), and the Center Alliance (PC)-staged congresses or meetings on 24-25 April. At its second congress, held under the slogan "Stabilization and Growth," the UD reelected former Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki as party chairman. Mazowiecki called for "a serious political dialogue" with all parties to forge agreement on issues of fundamental importance to the state. The UD urged the rest of the governing coalition to give Prime Minister Suchocka freer rein. The PC, plagued with financial and legal problems, met in Sosnowiec for the second half of its second congress, held under the slogan "Poland, Time for a Change." The PC turned its guns on the UD, the current government, and President Walesa, charging them with "recommunization" and building a "police state." PC chairman Jaroslaw Kaczynski called for new parliamentary and presidential elections. Meanwhile, the KPN indulged its taste for paramilitary rhetoric by declaring two code-named "actions" and warning of impending revolution should the government fail to step down and call new elections. KPN leader Leszek Moczulski made veiled threats and announced his party's readiness for "unconventional solutions." -Louisa Vinton START-1 FUTURE UNCERTAIN. In the wake of Thursday's defeat of a proposed military doctrine by the Ukrainian parliament, the fate of START-1 appears highly uncertain. One of the key objections to the draft doctrine was its provision for Ukraine becoming a non-nuclear state by acceding to START-1 and the Nonproliferation Treaty. On 23 April Reuters reported that 162 parliamentarians signed a statement calling for no ratification of START-1 unless Ukraine first clearly claims ownership of the nuclear weapons on its territory and reaches agreement with Russia on compensation for the fissile material in the warheads. Negotiations with Russia on this issue appear to be stalled at present due to the turmoil in Russia and the widely differing positions of the parties. ITAR-TASS also reported on 23 April that Yurii Kostenko, head of the parliamentary commission dealing with nuclear disarmamernt and head of the Ukrainian negotiating team, claims that Russia is threatening to cut off provision of nuclear fuel for Ukrainian power plants if it does not ratify the treaties. Further hearings on START-1 are to be held but a formal ratification vote may be delayed until the military doctrine issue is resolved. -John Lepingwell SMALL TURNOUT FOR RUSSIAN REFERENDUM IN BALTICS. Initial Baltic media reports of 25 April suggest that in the Russian referendum participation of ethnic Russians residing in the Baltic States was very small. Only about 20% of the Russian citizens living in Latvia appear to have voted. Radio Riga noted that many ethnic Russians, showing Soviet passports, had been turned away from the polling centers because only citizens of Russia could cast ballots. There are about 900,000 ethnic Russians residing in Latvia, of whom about 12,000 have obtained Russian citizenship. In Estonia, there are about 33,000 Russian citizens; by noon, 25 April, about 3,000 voted in Tallinn and about 1,500 in Narva. In Vilnius about 1,000 Russian citizens had voted by noon; this represents nearly one-fourth of the 4,500 Russian citizens registered locally. Russian military in the Baltics voted in their own polling stations. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN LEADERS SCORE PROPOSED LATVIAN RESIDENCE PERMITS-.-.-. Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued a statement on 23 April claiming that a Latvian Supreme Council resolution, "On Issuance of Interim Residence Permits to Persons Who Stay in Latvia Due to the Temporary Deployment of the Russian Armed Forces in the Latvian Republic" is "actually preparing a basis for ethnic cleansing." The bill, which is still under consideration but is expected to be adopted by 28 April, allows persons affiliated with the Russian military to obtain one-year residence permits in Latvia. That same day Russian ambassador to Latvia Aleksandr Rannikh told Latvian Supreme Council Chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs that the bill destroys all chances of further talks between the two countries and allows Moscow to appeal to world public opinion. On 24 April Sergei Zotov, head of the Russian delegation for the withdrawal of troops from Latvia, claimed that the resolution would provide a legal basis for the deportation of tens of thousands of ethnic Russians from Latvia, Baltic media reported on 23 and 24 April. -Dzintra Bungs .-.-.-AND THREATEN TO CALL OFF TROOP TALKS. Zotov also told the press on 24 April that in view of the bill under discussion by the Latvian Supreme Council, Russia sees no point in holding the next round of talks on troop withdrawals scheduled for 26-28 April. Zotov also pointed out that during the past year Russia has reduced its troop strength in Latvia from 57,000 to 22,000. The Latvian Defense Ministry told the press on 25 April that there are about 23,000 Russian troops in Latvia, of which about 11,000 are officers and 12,000 are soldiers. The Russian armed forces have already left 163-military facilities, but about 400 Russian garrisons still remain. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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