|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
No. 76, 23 April 1993
RUSSIA GRACHEV, BURBULIS TO BE QUESTIONED ON CORRUPTION CASES. Acting on the report on corruption which Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi made to the parliament on 16 April, the office of the Procurator General has brought at least two criminal charges involving top Yeltsin associates. ITAR-TASS revealed on 22 April that the office has started an investigation concerning export of the mysterious "red mercury" substance and that it intends to question former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis, members of the Russian government, and employees of Yeltsin's apparatus in connection with the case. Rutskoi had accused Burbulis of having encouraged a private firm based in Ekaterinburg to produce and export the "red mercury" which is allegedly used as a component of nuclear weapons. ITAR-TASS also quoted the office of the Procurator General as saying that they suspect Minister of Defense Pavel Grachev and other top military officials of being implicated in a swindle involving property belonging to former Soviet troops based in East Germany. -Julia Wishnevsky IAEA EXPERTS REFUTE "RED MERCURY" CLAIMS. The "red mercury" corruption charges rest partly on claims that the substance is of use in either conventional or nuclear explosives, hence its great value. Yet most western weapons experts stress that while there are some compounds of mercury that are red, they are not of use in weapons production. Instead, "red mercury" has been primarily used in hoaxes and sting operations. David Kyd, a spokesman for the International Atomic Energy Agency, denied that the material is used in explosives, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. He observed that because of its interest in nuclear weapons materials, "red mercury" dealers had flocked to Iraq, but that the Iraqis "just laugh[ed] at it as completely spurious." Nevertheless, some members of the Russian government may have believed the claims and acted improperly upon those beliefs. Hence, the question of whether there was corruption may be independent of whether the material had any real value. -John Lepingwell and George Stein ALLEGATIONS OF VOTE RIGGING AND IMMINENT PRESIDENTIAL RULE. President Boris Yeltsin's office denied on 22 April allegations made in an unsigned statement released the same day by the parliament's press office that Yeltsin plans to introduce presidential rule immediately after the referendum, the results of which, the statement claims, the presidential side is planning to falsify because the Security Ministry predicts that Yeltsin can expect to gain only 32-40% of the vote. The statement warned that the parliament and local legislatures would thereafter be stripped of power and left with "a merely decorative role." An RFE/RL correspondent reported that the Security Ministry had denied being the source of the information contained in the statement. Meanwhile, Yeltsin, visiting Udmurtia on 22 April, stated his intention to take "firm and tough measures" if he gains a vote of confidence in the referendum and there is insufficient support for early parliamentary elections, according to ITAR-TASS. -Wendy Slater RUTSKOI REFUSES INVITATION TO APPEAR ON TV. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi turned down an invitation from the chairman of Ostankino TV, Vyacheslav Bragin, to appear live in a special issue of the popular talk show "Vzglyad" scheduled for 23 April in order to prove his allegations of high-level corruption among President Yeltsin's entourage, Russian TV reported on 22 April. Rutskoi had demanded live air-time to substantiate his allegations which he first made in a speech to parliament on 16 April. He characterized the invitation as a propaganda exercise connected with the forthcoming referendum. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, Constitutional Court Chairman Valerii Zorkin, and parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov had also been invited to participate. -Wendy Slater TRAVKIN PREPARES FOR ELECTIONS. The leader of the Russian Democratic Party, Nikolai Travkin, told journalists on 22 April that President Boris Yeltsin will not have the power to introduce emergency rule , ITAR-TASS reported. He was speaking at the opening of his party's fund set up for the electoral campaign which is expected to start soon. Travkin referred to Yeltsin's comments made in Izhevsk (Udmurtia) on taking "tough measures" if he wins the referendum. He stated that early presidential and parliamentary elections were inevitable, although he thinks that both questions related to this issue will fail to gain the required majority of votes from eligible voters. In his opinion, even if a majority of voters support Yeltsin and his economic reform program, the votes on these two questions will not be legally binding. -Alexander Rahr SHUMEIKO ON YELTSIN OPPOSITION. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko told Literaturnaya gazeta (no. 16) that Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin has offered the leader of the communist faction in the parliament, Sergei Baburin, a position in his government but that the latter refused because he was not prepared to take on this responsibility. Shumeiko said that officials of the former CPSU Central Committee apparatus orchestrated the scenario of the past three Congresses of People's Deputies. He accused parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov and his deputies of playing along with that scenario. He also said that he does not believe the centrist Civic Union is a strong political force. -Alexander Rahr GRACHEV CONTINUES TOUR. On 22 April, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev arrived in Novosibirsk to meet with commanders and troops. The Russian TV "Vesti" news program of 23 April noted that Grachev discussed measures to improve the living conditions and combat readiness of the troops there, including Yeltsin's decision on 19 April to grant a pay increase to servicemen. Grachev also denied the recent allegations by the Russian procurator general that he was involved in the illegal sale of property and equipment from the Western Group of Forces. There have been continual reports that Grachev is not highly regarded within the forces, and this tour of the Far East, Transbaikal, and Siberian military districts may be designed to both check the condition of the forces and to enhance Grachev's authority within them during a period of growing political tension. While Grachev has noted that the military must stay neutral in the ongoing political battles, he has also stated that he personally favors voting in favor of Yeltsin in the forthcoming referendum. -John Lepingwell STEPASHIN CALLS FOR MILITARY NEUTRALITY. The head of the Russian parliament's Committee on Defense and Security, Sergei Stepashin, noted that the committee holds a "centrist position" and argued that the military must not be drawn into the political confrontation. The committee is now primarily concerned with the task of developing a Russian military doctrine, according to Stepashin, whose comments were reported by ITAR-TASS on 23 April, based on an interview in Krasnaya zvezda of the same date. -John Lepingwell TROOPS OUTSIDE RUSSIA TO VOTE IN REFERENDUM? ON 22 APRIL, PRESIDENT YELTSIN SIGNED A DIRECTIVE PROVIDING FOR RUSSIAN SERVICEMEN DEPLOYED OUTSIDE RUSSIA TO PARTICIPATE IN THE REFERENDUM, ACCORDING TO RUSSIAN TV "VESTI." ITAR-TASS reported that Col. Gen. Valerii Mironov noted that there are 260,000 Russian troops involved and that units of the Black Sea Fleet will not be included, with the exception of one unit based in Novorossiisk in Russia. -John Lepingwell AGREEMENTS WITH NORWAY. Talks between Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and his Norwegian counterpart, Johan Jorgen Holst, ended on 22 April with the signing of several cooperation agreements, ITAR-TASS reported. The talks started in Arkhangelsk on 21 April and ended on 22 April in Moscow. Apparently no agreement was reached on the long-standing dispute over fishing and oil exploration rights in the Barents Sea. A joint protocol highlighted vast changes in Russo-Norwegian relations in recent years. At the press conference following talks with Holst, Kozyrev said that Russian policy, both foreign and domestic, "is acquiring a more stable and irreversible character." -Suzanne Crow CORRUPTION FIGURES PUBLISHED BY MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR. The latest figures on corruption published by the Russian Ministry of the Interior suggest that state officials have become increasing involved in corruption, according to Reuters on 22 April. Two-thirds of all corruption cases in 1992 are reported to have involved civil servants; 900 officials were found guilty of corruption, of whom almost 200 were police officials, while 49 elected officials were charged with corruption. -Sheila Marnie DUDAEV SHOULD RESIGN, OPPOSITION LEADER SAYS. Abdulah Bugaev, a leader of the Chechen opposition, told Western and Russian news agencies on 22 April that the only reasonable thing President Dzhokhar Dudaev can do now is resign. Last week, Dudaev decreed the dissolution of the government and parliament and imposed presidential rule in his North Caucasian republic which declared independence from Russia in 1991. Bugaev said that a round-the-clock demonstration was being held in the Chechen capital of Groznyi demanding Dudaev step down. Bugaev also reaffirmed the opposition's readiness to negotiate with Dudaev, on condition that it be given access to the media. -Vera Tolz COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES CIS MILITARY DELEGATION VISITS INDIA. AFP reported on 22 April that a delegation of CIS military representatives had arrived in New Delhi to begin talks with Indian leaders on expanding cooperation in the area of defense production and arms transfers. The delegation, which reportedly included representatives from the Central Asian republics, nevertheless appeared to be dominated by Moscow. It was headed by the Commander in Chief of the Russian Air Forces, Col. Gen. Petr Deinekin. Talks will reportedly focus on the provision of badly needed spare parts to India, which prior to the breakup of the USSR had been a major purchaser of Soviet arms. The two sides are also to discuss joint production of advanced Russian Sukhoi-27 and MiG-29 aircraft. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA WESTERN HELP SOUGHT FOR KAZAKH OIL DEVELOPMENT. Kazakh Minister of Energy and Fuel Resources Kadyr Baikenov told a news conference in Washington on 23 April that Kazakhstan is seeking further Western aid to develop offshore oil and gas deposits in the Caspian Sea, a RFE/RL correspondent reported. He expressed the hope that a consortium would be set up by September to explore more than 100,000 square kilometers of the Caspian sea shelf which belong to Kazakhstan. It is expected that the study will be completed within three years. The Kazakh areas of the shelf will then be divided up and leased to one or more oil companies to conduct exploration, drilling, and pumping. The companies that participate in the study consortium will be given the first option to lease drilling areas. -Robert Lyle and Keith Bush CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CLINTON RECEIVES KOVAC. . . On 21 April Slovak President Michal Kovac met with US President Bill Clinton. A White House spokesman told TASR after the meeting that the two presidents discussed the evolution of Slovak-American relations and the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Kovac officially invited Clinton to visit Slovakia in 1994, when Slovakia will commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising against Nazi Germany. Also on the 21st members of Kovac's delegation met with International Monetary Fund officials. On 22 April Kovac participated in the Holocaust Memorial dedication ceremonies and gave a press conference at the National Press Club. Responding to criticism from some quarters that the new Slovak state has not done enough to distance itself from the Nazi puppet regime in Slovakia in 1939-45, Kovac emphasized that the current state "has nothing in common with the wartime Slovak state," TASR reports -Jiri Pehe . . . AND GONCZ. Hungarian President Arpad Goncz met with President Clinton, Radio Budapest reported on 22 April. Clinton told Goncz that the US is aware of the difficulties Hungary is facing because of the Yugoslav embargo. Goncz said that the military situation in the region is unpredictable and Hungary is worried about the situation of the Hungarian minority in Vojvodina. Goncz was of the opinion that the West should give the region of Eastern Europe technical and monetary assistance and provide it with market potential. Talking about the Magyar minority in Romania, Goncz said that it would increase trust if a Hungarian university and a Hungarian consulate in Cluj could be opened. -Judith Pataki CONTRETEMPS WITH ZHELEV'S DELEGATION. In a meeting with Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev on 22-April, US Vice President Al Gore apologized for the unintentional omission of Bulgaria from the list of countries that played a role in saving Jews during World War II mentioned in a ceremony honoring the liberators and rescuers of Jews. Earlier Zhelev abruptly announced that Bulgaria would not participate in the Holocaust Memorial dedication, and a letter of protest was sent from the delegation to Harvey Meyerhoff, chairman of the US Holocaust Memorial Council. In his remarks at the dedication ceremony, which Zhelev did attend, Gore pointedly mentioned Bulgaria's role in saving some 50,000 Jews from Nazi persecution during the war. An RFE/RL correspondent in Washington reports the story. -Charles Trumbull "THEY ARE ALL MUSLIM VILLAGES WHICH ARE BURNING." The 23 April Washington Post quotes a British officer using these words to describe the destruction in central Bosnia in the Travnik-Vitez-Zenica area. The officer added: "And I am sure they didn't do it themselves" as he discussed what the Croats had done in the village of Ahinici. Reuters of 22 April and the New York Times of 23 April quote other British witnesses as describing how bands of 15 to 20-drunken Croatian masked gunmen went through the village of Santici "lobbing grenades through windows and shooting people as they rushed out of the burning houses." The Washington Post and the BBC note, however, that the Muslims have taken the strategic heights around Vitez and said of the Croats below: "Now we've got them." Meanwhile, AFP on 22 April carried the story that the Muslims have taken Travnik, an historic, mainly Muslim town assigned to the Croats by the Vance-Owen plan. Fighting also continued on the second Muslim-Croat front, namely in the Jablanica-Konjic area of eastern Herzegovina. The New York Times says that Croatian commanders are helping direct Serbian artillery fire by radio, and Politika also of 23 April describes in detail not only the fighting but in addition the strategic value of Konjic with its military installations including an underground complex. That Belgrade daily adds that Croatian President Franjo Tudjman is trying to put an end to the fighting, and that another meeting of the Bosnian president and that republic's Croat leader is slated for 24-April in Zagreb. -Patrick Moore SLOVAK, CZECH CASUALTIES IN CROATIA. The Czech and Slovak Ministries of Defense announced on 22 April that a Slovak member of the joint Czech-Slovak battalion, which is part of UNPROFOR forces in Croatia, was killed and a Czech was wounded during an exchange of fire between Croatian and Serbian forces near the Croatian town of Likci Osik. CTK and TASR report that Czech and Slovak officials have expressed alarm over the incident. Also on the 22nd several hundred people demonstrated in Prague for a more resolute international response to the war in Bosnia. -Jiri Pehe SERBIAN OPPOSITION DIVIDED ON BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN. Radio and TV Serbia on 22-April report that leaders of the opposition Democratic Party and the Democratic Party of Serbia as well as members of the opposition coalition DEPOS said that talks must have priority over military action for settling the crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Democratic Party leader Dragoljub Micunovic said that talks in Belgrade between international mediator Lord Owen and Serbian officials on 21-April was a proof that talks still had the priority. However, Micunovic added that the Bosnian Serb negotiators must not give up the corridor that links Bosnian Serb territory with Serbia and the Krajina in Croatia. Vojislav Kostunica, leader of the Democratic Party of Serbia and DEPOS member, also pointed out the need for settling the question of the corridor. He added that the map proposed by Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen does not constitute a guarantee for the Bosnian Serbs and that it should not be signed. Prominent Serbian intellectuals and independent members of DEPOS urged that the Vance-Owen plan be immediately signed saying that by signing the plan the Serbian people would not commit national suicide. On the contrary, they believe that a refusal to sign it would bring agony and untold hardship. They further argued that signing the plan would not mark a capitulation of the Serbian people but a capitulation of the regime. -Milan Andrejevich CROATIAN UPDATE. The 23 April Croatian papers cover a variety of domestic as well as war-related stories. Globus reports that the opposition Liberals have closed the gap between themselves and President Tudjman's party to within two percentage points, and add that the Liberals command a majority in public opinion polls in Slavonia and Split. Tudjman's Croatian Democratic Community is in the lead only in Zagreb, and the various third parties taken together account for less than 15% of the electorate. Elsewhere, Croatian officials report in Vecernji list that the country now supports a total of 640,000 refugees, while that same daily carries a story about Slovenian nuclear waste stored near the Croatian border. Finally, Slobodna Dalmacija reports on the Roman Catholic Church's plans to expand its work in the media for Croatia, including setting up a news agency. -Patrick Moore MECIAR SPEAKS ON THE GOVERNMENT PROGRAM. In a two-hour report on the fulfillment of the Slovak government's program, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar told parliament on 22 April that, despite some unexpected developments, basic goals of the program have been achieved. TASR and Slovak TV report that Meciar accused Czech leaders of causing the disintegration of Czechoslovakia. He said that some of the current problems of Slovakia are caused by the fact that in the last four months the Slovak government has been trying to cope with the split of Czechoslovakia, for which it was not prepared. In Meciar's opinion, Czech leaders had been preparing for the split for at least two years prior to the federation's breakup, and that is why the Czech Republic is now in a better position than Slovakia. The Czech republic has also taken over most federal institutions, experts, and know-how, he said. In a discussion that followed Meciar's speech, ethnic Hungarian deputies accused the government of violating rights of minorities. They claimed, for example, that Slovak authorities have been reluctant to issue birth certificates with Hungarian names and have removed signposts bearing names of towns and villages in Hungarian. -Jiri Pehe EC LIMITS IMPORTS OF SLOVAK, CZECH STEEL. Despite efforts by Sir Leon Brittan, the EC Trade Commissioner, to increase imports of steel from Slovakia and the Czech Republic, the European Commission decided on 22 April to limit imports of steel from the two countries over the next two years. International media report that the decision is part of an effort to protect the EC's struggling steel industry against cheap imports from Eastern Europe. The commission announced that imports would be increased in 1995, "balancing the twin imperatives of restructuring for the EC steel industry and gradual opening of trade with East and Central Europe." -Jiri Pehe CZECH BANKRUPTCY LAW GOES INTO EFFECT. On 22 April the long-awaited law came into effect in the Czech Republic. Observers predict that hundreds of companies could fold in the next few months. The RFE/RL corespondent in Prague reports that, according to conservative estimates, two-thirds of Czech industry is insolvent, including 80% of the country's biggest and most important producers. The new law establishes a protective period of three to six months during which debtors and creditors can attempt to reach a settlement. Debtors have 15 days to apply for three months' protection and creditors have 30 days to file claims, after which time they are deemed to have waived their claims. The bankruptcy law, twice delayed last year, has been hailed as a real make-or-break of the so-far successful economic reform. The daily Mlada Fronta dnes wrote on 22 April that "it could be said rhetorically that today, when the law comes into effect, the Czech economic fairy tale is over." A rapid rise in unemployment is expected in the next few months. -Jiri Pehe ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT PASSES 1993 BUDGET. On 21 April the two chambers of the Romanian Parliament passed in a joint session the state budget for 1993 by a 224 to 150 vote with three abstentions. Representatives of the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front and its allies in parliament (the Party of Romanian National Unity, the Greater Romania Party and the Socialist Labor Party) voted for the budget, while the Democratic Convention of Romania, the National Salvation Front and the HDFR voted against it. In a statement released through Radio Bucharest, Gheorghe Cristea, a deputy for the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic, criticized the fact that the austerity budget presented by Nicolae Vacaroiu's cabinet provides for extensive cuts in expenses for health, education, and culture, while it continues a policy of subsidizing inefficient industries inherited from the Communist era. -Dan Ionescu TENSION OVER ROMANIAN PREFECTS ESCALATES. Gabor Kozsokar, a deputy in the Romanian Parliament representing the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, said on 22 April that local officials in Covasna county plan to resign if the ethnic Romanian prefect recently appointed by the government is not replaced. The appointment of Romanian prefects in the counties of Harghita and Covasna, where ethnic Hungarians are in the majority, has sparked a wave of protests by the HDFR, which sees the move as discriminatory. Rompres quoted Kozsokar as saying that all Covasna mayors and county councilors have refused to cooperate with the new prefect, Vlad Casuneanu. -Dan Ionescu TALKS ON ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN TREATY IN LIMBO. Romania's Foreign Ministry issued on 22 April a statement accusing Hungary of delaying negotiations on a friendship treaty between the two countries and refusing to give border guarantees. The statement also criticized Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall for having recently insisted that a bilateral treaty should include guarantees for Romania's ethnic Magyar minority. The document described Antall's stance as a "unilateral setting of conditions" and as "unacceptable" for the Romanian part. Ion Popp, a Romanian negotiator, told Reuters that Hungary has so far refused to include in the treaty a clause saying that the current borders are unchangeable. Talks on the treaty began in May 1991 but have stalled, mainly because disagreements over the rights of the Hungarian minority in Romania. -Dan Ionescu BULGARIAN ECONOMIC DECLINE BOTTOMING OUT? IN 1992 BULGARIA'S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT FELL BY A RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNT-7.7%-Bulgarian National Bank officials told Reuters on 22 April. The BNB estimates put last year's GDP at 195 billion leva [$7.4-billion], which would signify a radical slowing of economic decline. Bulgaria's GDP has practically halved during the last three years, and BNB says the country experienced a 16.7% drop in 1991. Although the National Statistical Institute in January suggested that last year's GDP had fallen as much as 13%, some experts argue that only the BNB has the methodology to measure the growth of the private sector. Bank officials say private business in 1992 accounted for 15.6% of GDP. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT FAILS TO ADOPT MILITARY DOCTRINE. A proposal that would have banned Ukraine from storing, manufacturing, or using nuclear weapons was narrowly defeated in parliament, Reuters reported on 22 April. Deputies leaving a closed session of parliament reported that only 189 of 450-members approved the draft doctrine, 37-short of the required majority. Deputies opposed to the doctrine demanded that Ukraine's position as a nuclear state be clarified. While the doctrine renounced Ukraine's status as a nuclear nation in the long run, its interim status of a country with nuclear weapons deployed on its territory is less clear. While the majority of deputies favor Ukraine eventually becoming a nonnuclear nation, a growing minority feels the retention of these weapons is the best deterrence against Russia. -Ustina Markus BELARUSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER CONCLUDES US VISIT. Petr Krauchenka has concluded his official visit to Washington, Radiefakt reported on 22 April. During the visit he met with the Secretary of State Warren Christopher and discussed economic issues in Belarus, problems related to disarming the nuclear weapons, and collective security within the CIS. -Ustina Markus STANKEVICH WARNS LATVIANS. The Latvian Supreme Council's intention to change existing procedures for issuing temporary residence permits for persons affiliated with the Russian military in Latvia and the concomitant temporary suspension of the issuance of the permits has elicited a strong protest from Russian Presidential Advisor Sergei Stankevich. He told the press that the proposed changes are a political time bomb and warned that Russia would have to respond if the bill, stipulating that residence permits are valid for one year, is adopted. Stankevich also claimed that such a bill would pave way for mass deportations of ethnic Russians, BNS reported on 22 April. -Dzintra Bungs RUSSIAN ARMY PRACTICES TAKEOVER OF STRATEGIC FACILITIES IN BALTICS. The Northwestern Group of Forces started four-day staff exercises on how to capture strategic facilities in the Baltic States, Estonia's defense officials told BNS on 22 April. The exercises were carried out under the command of NWGF commander Leonid Mayorov. The participating units, including the Tallinn-based 144th Motorized Infantry Division, were brought to full combat readiness on 20-April. The Baltic governments were not officially informed of the exercises. -Dzintra Bungs KUDOS FOR LATVIAN ECONOMIC REFORMS. While visiting Riga, Dutch Foreign Minister Pieter Hendrick Kooijman praised Latvia for its financial reforms, which, he said, closely follow the recommendations of the International Monetary Fund. Latvia is continuing to issue its new currency. On 22 April the new 50-santimi coin (100 santimi = 1 lats) was first circulated. BNS also reported on 15 April that the inflation rate was down to 2.4% in March, though unemployment rose to 3.4% on 1 April. Unemployment may reach 12% this year, according to Latvian government estimates. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN POLICEMEN STAGE JOB ACTION. Baltic media reported on 21 April that about 80 policemen of the Vilnius Patrol Service stopped work for several hours in order to protest low wages and the conviction of a colleague for abuse of power. The policemen are also unhappy because in most cases they have no right to use force or weapons, a situation they find disadvantageous in trying to apprehend criminals. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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