|We are always the same age inside. - Gertrude Stein|
No. 76, 22 April 1993
RUSSIA CONSTITUTIONAL COURT RULES ON REFERENDUM QUESTIONS. On 21 April, Russian TV newscasts reported, the Constitutional Court issued a ruling on the forthcoming referendum, giving Yeltsin a partial victory in the way votes will be counted. Yeltsin will need over half of the votes cast to win the referendum on the first two questions-namely, whether the Russians trust him and approve of his economic policies; not over half of eligible votes, as the Congress had ruled at its ninth session. This means that just over 25% of eligible voters must vote "yes" for Yeltsin to claim victory on these two points, as the law requires no less than half of the eligible voters to vote in the referendum for it to be regarded as valid. The court, however, agreed with the Congress that over half of Russia's 107 million eligible voters must vote "yes" on the third and fourth questions on the referendum in order to hold early elections to either the presidency or the Russian legislature. The Russian Law on Referenda stipulates that over half of Russia's eligible voters must vote in favor of a question which has a bearing on the Russian Constitution for that question to be carried. Constitutional Court judge Boris Ebzeev said at a news conference that a "yes" vote on the first two questions would bring no legal obligations for either the president or the Congress, whereas a positive vote on the other two questions would force them to announce a date for early elections. -Julia Wishnevsky YELTSIN REGRETS MAKING RUTSKOI HIS DEPUTY. In an interview with Argumenty i fakty of 22 April, President Yeltsin said that he recognized his error in making Aleksandr Rutskoi his vice president, claiming that analysts said it had brought practically no benefit in the 1991 presidential elections. In response to a question about who might succeed him should he lose the 25 April referendum, Yeltsin, employing scare tactics, claimed that it would be "the revanchists-those communist forces which have lost much, or practically everything, over the past year or two." The communists, he said, were "the strongest, most unrestrained, and best organized" of political groups, and were active everywhere in the CIS. -Wendy Slater RUTSKOI URGES LIVE TV TIME TO PRODUCE EVIDENCE ON CORRUPTION. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi has demanded air time to produce the documents, for the benefit of viewers of Ostankino TV, containing evidence for his allegations of corruption among members of Yeltsin's close entourage, according to "Novosti" of 21 April. Rutskoi urged that the broadcast be aired on 23 April, the Ostankino newscast's added; the vice president also asked that it be broadcast live in order to avoid potential censorship of the most startling revelations of his presentation.--Julia Wishnevsky RUSSIA WANTS DECENTRALIZATION OF PEACEKEEPING. Vasilii Sidorov, a representative of Russia at the United Nations, told a gathering of the UN Committee on Peacekeeping Operations on 21 April, that Russia believes in "the division of duties" between the UN and regional organizations, such as the CIS, for peacekeeping activities on the territory of the former USSR. He said cooperation should be improved, while responsibility in maintaining the peace should be "decentralized." The "main responsibility" for peacekeeping activities in the former Soviet Union lies with Russia, Sidorov said. He argued that there is an urgent need for an information center (as part of the UN peacekeeping infrastructure) to assist in coordinating peacekeeping operations between the UN and the CIS or other regional organizations, RFE/RL's UN correspondent reported. -Suzanne Crow PRIVATIZATION ADVANCES AGAINST GENERAL BACKSLIDE IN REFORM. Recent statements made by government officials indicating further retreat from radical economic policy received more confirmation in an article by President Yeltsin in Rossiiskie vesti (as cited by Reuters) on 21 April. Calling for more state support for enterprises and the poor, Yeltsin stated ". . . not only do tactics have to be changed, but some elements in our [reform] strategy also have to be corrected." Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin last week said that "the period of reformist romanticism is over," and various high-level economic governmental advisors have also indicated backsliding in economic policy. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, however, remains relatively up-beat about the privatization component of the government's program. Chubais reported that half of Russia's small businesses have been privatized and two-thirds of the 6,000 firms to be transferred into private hands this year have completed the preliminary organizational step of transforming themselves into joint-stock companies. -Erik Whitlock COMMENTS ON REFERENDUM. Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai told journalists on 21 April that if President Boris Yeltsin gathers enough support at the forthcoming referendum and if the majority of Russians vote for new parliamentary elections, Yeltsin will return to the position put forward in his televised speech on 20 March where he announced the introduction of special rule, ITAR-TASS reported. First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko said that if Yeltsin wins, he will concentrate his efforts on the promulgation of a new constitution. Former Prime Minister Egor Gaidar stated that if the conservatives win, liberal politicians may be prosecuted. -Alexander Rahr KOZYREV: REFERENDUM WILL DECIDE FOREIGN POLICY. Speaking at a conference on the Barents Sea in the city of Arkhangelsk on 21 April, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said the 25 April referendum will determine the course of Russia's foreign policy as well as its domestic policy. -Suzanne Crow RESTRICTIONS ON THE MILITARY VOTE IN THE REFERENDUM. In Izvestiya on 21-April, Aleksandr Kotenkov, head of the president's State and Legal Administration, asserted that Russian military personnel living outside of Russia had been unconstitutionally denied the right to vote in the referendum, which he termed a "violation of their human rights." The number of personnel involved is quite high-estimates indicate that there are approximately 250,000 Russian troops deployed outside of Russia. (It is unclear whether the exclusion also applies to their dependents.) According to Kotenkov, both the Defense Ministry and the Central Electoral Committee had supported the measure, which was reportedly intended to prevent tensions from rising between troops with and without Russian citizenship. In an interview with Krasnaya zvezda on 16 April, a member of the Central Electoral Committee, Evgenii Popov, claimed that the decision had been based on the Ministry of Defense's statement that the troops were under dual CIS and Russian subordination and hence should not take part. Popov noted that while he felt the military should not be allowed to participate in the vote at all, provisions had been made to ensure fair voting, such as providing voting stations outside military garrisons where possible, and forbidding any agitation concerning the referendum amongst the troops. -John Lepingwell GRACHEV ON REORGANIZATION OF FAR EAST FORCES. At the end of his visit to the Far East Military District, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev announced plans for a sweeping reorganization of the command structure in the region. He called for the creation by 1995 of a unified command for the region that would incorporate naval, air, and land forces in one joint structure. Headquarters for the command will be based in Komsomolsk on Amur. The commander of the new unified structure is to become a deputy minister of defense. After the Far East unified command is established, a similar command may be established incorporating the Transbaikal and Siberian Military Districts, with its staff located in Ulan-Ude. Grachev noted that if the situation in the south of Russia continues to become increasingly tense, then a similar command may be created for European Russia. Grachev's comments were reported by ITAR-TASS on 21 April. -John Lepingwell PRESIDENTIAL DECREE ON WORKERS' RIGHTS. President Yeltsin has issued a decree on additional measures to protect workers' rights, according to ITAR-TASS on 21 April. The decree is designed protect workers threatened by unemployment. To this aim, a "permissible" level of unemployment will be established for certain regions, and measures taken to retain existing workplaces. The decree also envisages that workers laid off from bankrupt enterprises be given priority in job allocation should a state enterprise take over the bankrupt firm. They are also to be given priority as bidders to buy the bankrupt enterprise, provided their offer is equal to that of other potential buyers. The decree further calls for the introduction of a monthly compensation for workers at state or private enterprises, which for "objective reasons" have to introduce short-time work. The compensation can be paid for a maximum of six months. -Sheila Marnie COUP DEFENDANTS HOLD PRESS CONFERENCE. Some of the 12 defendants in the trial over the failed August 1991 coup held a press conference in Moscow on 21 April. An RFE/RL correspondent reported that they called for Boris Yeltsin to stand as a witness in the trial, and accused former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev of provoking the attempted coup by betraying the Soviet Union. The men repeated their demand for the prosecution in the trial to be changed, accusing them of bias against the defendants, and said that they refused to "talk with the [current] so-called prosecution." -Wendy Slater TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIAN, AZERBAIJANI PRESIDENTS MEET. Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossyan and his Azerbaijani counterpart Abulfaz Elchibey met twice in Ankara on 21 April during the state funeral of the Turkish President Turgut Ozal, Western agencies reported. Ter-Petrossyan told reporters that the talks had been "constructive", and that he and Elchibey agreed on the need to resume negotiations on Karabakh within the CSCE framework; Elchibey had previously made further participation in the CSCE talks contingent on an Armenian withdrawal from the territory in Kelbadzhar occupied earlier this month. Meanwhile the Azerbaijani parliament met in Baku in closed session to debate the implications of the current military and political situation in Azerbaijan, AzerTadzh reported. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan addressed complaints to the UN Security Council accusing the other of continuing artillery fire, according to an RFE/RL correspondent. The CSCE observer team held talks with the Nagorno-Karabakh authorities on deploying observers to monitor a ceasefire in the region; they then inspected the Lachin humanitarian corridor connecting Karabakh and Armenia, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller FOREIGN AID FOR KYRGYZSTAN. The Japanese government has decided to offer Kyrgyzstan a low-interest loan amounting to $60 million, according to ITAR-TASS on 21-April. This will be the first time Japan has given official development assistance to a member of the CIS. Western press agencies suggest that the loan is in fact part of a $60-million structural adjustment facility from the World Bank, which Japan is co-financing. The loan was announced during President Akaev's visit to Tokyo, where he reiterated Kyrgyzstan's intention of introducing its own national currency in May 1993. The Kyrgyz parliament is due to vote on this when it reconvenes after 10 May. Akaev also stated that 35% of state enterprises would be privatized in 1993. -Sheila Marnie CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE WALESA IN WASHINGTON. Polish President Lech Walesa met and talked with President Bill Clinton for more than an hour on 21 April. No details of their conversation were made public, but Clinton was reported by Gazeta Wyborcza to have said before the meeting that the United States will continue to support "Polish reforms and those in other [East European] countries even while [America] increases its aid for democracy in Russia." Walesa reportedly added that "Poland needs American investments not money" and that US economic involvement in Poland would not "be directed against Russia." Walesa has proposed that Western governments and companies invest in East Central Europe and the goods produced there be sent to Russia as aid. Walesa, together with leaders of other Central and Eastern European countries, is in Washington to take part in the ceremonial opening of the Holocaust Museum. -Jan de Weydenthal KOVAC IN WASHINGTON. During the first day of his first official visit to the United States, Slovak President Kovac has held meetings with Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright and World Bank Vice President Wilfried Thalwitz, TA SR reported on 21 April. Kovac, along with Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik, are in Washington to attend the opening of the Holocaust Museum. According to the Slovak news agency, Albright reassured Kovac of "American faith in the development of Slovakia." Thalwitz reportedly told the Slovak delegation that the Slovak Republic "aspires to establish a functioning market economy." TA SR also reports that Kovac was to meet with President Clinton on 21 April, but the meeting has not yet been confirmed. -Jan Obrman ILIESCU, ZHELEV MEET CLINTON. On 21 April Romanian President Ion Iliescu was received by President Clinton. In its coverage Radio Bucharest expressed hopes that the 15-minute meeting will contribute to closer cooperation between the two countries. It further quoted Clinton as saying that he expects better US-Romanian relations in the future. On the same day, Iliescu discussed the situation in former Yugoslavia with Slovenian President Milan Kucan and met with Congressman Lee Hamilton. He also met leading figures in the US Jewish community. Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev also met briefly with President Clinton on the 21st. Zhelev informed the US President of recent changes in Bulgaria, but he also spoke of future prospects for closer cooperation between the West and the fledgling democracies in Eastern Europe. He emphasized the need to dismantle trade barriers, including the complete removal of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment. Zhelev is scheduled to meet Vice President Al Gore separately. -Dan Ionescu and Kjell Engelbrekt MOLDOVA-US SIGN INVESTMENT TREATY. Moldovan Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli and US Trade Representative Mickey Kantor signed a bilateral investment treaty in Washington on 21 April, Western media report. Under the accord, investors from the two countries will be guaranteed equal treatment. Kantor said the treaty will help Moldova in its transition to a market economy and will form an integral part of the trade and investment relations with Moldova. -Charles Trumbull STATE DEPARTMENT LUNCH/WHITE HOUSE RECEPTION. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher hosted a lunch for visiting dignitaries from Central and Eastern Europe on 21-April at the State Department, after which the leaders were received by President Bill Clinton at a White House reception. Those in attendance included Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev, Czech President Vaclav Havel, Hungarian President Arpad Goncz, Polish President Lech Walesa, Romanian President Ion Iliescu, Slovak President Michal Kovac, and Moldovan Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli. -Charles Trumbull JEWISH OBJECTIONS TO TUDJMAN'S PARTICIPATION. Holocaust veteran and Nobel Peace Prize winner Elie Wiesel says the presence of Croatian President Franjo Tudjman at the dedication ceremonies for the Holocaust Museum is "a disgrace," AFP reports. Wiesel said that statements Tudjman has written help those who deny the Holocaust's very existence, apparently referring to some passages contained in Tudjman's 1988 book, Wasteland: Historical Truth, that suggest that figures for the number of Jews who perished in the Holocaust are exaggerated. The book is also critical of Israel and contains a list of negative Jewish characteristics. Tudjman has denied the allegations, saying key passages of his book were mistranslated and citing his anti-Nazi activities and efforts to assist Jews. An editorial in the 20 April Washington Post makes the same point about the inappropriateness of inviting the Croatian leader, commenting "Mr. Tudjman appears insensitive to the resonances [of his writings]." The New York Times on 22-April reports that the Holocaust Museum was advised by the US State Department that the Bosnians, Slovenians, and Croatians, "those three, who were democratically elected," should be invited to the dedication. Israel has not commented officially on Tudjman's participation, but has said it will not recognize Croatia as long as Tudjman is president. -Charles Trumbull BOSNIAN UPDATE. International media report on 22-April that the UN announced the previous day that the disarming of the Muslims in Srebrenica was completed on time. Most of the fighters left the embattled town and took their weapons with them, however, prompting the Serbs to call the disarming bogus. There are 145 Canadian UN troops in Srebrenica, but from reports on the BBC and elsewhere it is not clear if they intend to defend it against any Serb attacks, as some media accounts suggested on 21 April. Meanwhile in central Bosnia, Croat and Muslim forces negotiated a cease-fire, but it is not being fully observed. Reports continue to emerge of atrocities on both sides but particularly by Croats against Muslims, such as described in the 22 April Washington Post. Borba carries a summary of the mutual accusations made by the Croatian and Muslim media. On 21 April Serbia's "Radio Yugoslavia" reported that Croats and Serbs in Bosnia agreed to accept each other's civilian refugees fleeing the Muslims, but this story is yet to be confirmed. Finally, Western news agencies said that local authorities in Gorazde claim that 70,000 people are dying of hunger there and have appealed to the Security Council for aid. No relief convoy has arrived for a month, the report noted. -Patrick Moore OWEN IN ZAGREB AND BELGRADE. On 21 April international mediator Lord Owen began a five-day Balkan peace mission in an attempt to revive the stalled negotiations on ending the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. In Zagreb Owen met with Croatian defense minister Gojko Susak. In Belgrade Owen met with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and federal Yugoslav President Dobrica Cosic in an effort to induce Belgrade to persuade Bosnian Serbs to sign a UN peace plan for Bosnia. Owen also met with Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic. Earlier Karadzic said he would not meet Owen because he considers him "disqualified" as peace negotiator because of his bias. Owen told reporters he would not waste any time commenting on the details of the negotiations, explaining they "are too serious an issue for me to discuss them publicly." He did say that the talks covered many different issues concerning Bosnia and its relations between Serbia and Croatia. Talks resume on 22 April in Belgrade. Owen is expected to return to the Croatian capital at the end of his mission to meet with Croatian President Franjo Tudjman, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, and Bosnian Croat leader Mate Boban. He is also scheduled to meet with officials in Skopje, Athens, and Podgorica and will again stop in Belgrade on 25 April. Belgrade and international media carried the reports on 21 and 22 April. -Milan Andrejevich VOJVODINA HUNGARIANS PREPARE AUTONOMY DOCUMENT. Two prominent members of the Democratic Community of Hungarians from Vojvodina, Andras Agoston and Bela Csorba, are in Hungary in order to inform the leaders of the parliamentary parties and other political organizations about a memorandum on the issue of autonomy that Hungarians living in Vojvodina will soon address to the Serbian head of state, MTI reported on 21 April. In a press conference in Hungary Agoston told reporters that the DCHV must act now because of the "psychological warfare" conducted by the Serbian leadership against the DCHV. Agoston indicated that Hungarians will ask the Serbian government to help them establish a three-faceted autonomy: territorial, cultural, and personal. Agoston pointed out that without this autonomy the Hungarians cannot survive in Vojvodina and their numbers might drop by a third or even one half by the next census. -Judith Pataki MECIAR REJECTS SOCIALISM AND CAPITALISM. In an interview with Narodna obroda on 21 April, Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar rejected both, socialist and capitalist systems for his country and described his own program as "gradualism." The prime minister made it clear that a new foundation should be built for the Slovak society "which will be neither socialist nor capitalist," because "both systems are extreme." He said that the difference between his government's economic reform and those of the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary "lies in going from a restrictive shock therapy to a gradual development with harmonious steps." Meciar's remarks in the Slovak daily are apparently aimed at the second strongest faction in the Slovak parliament, the ex-communist Party of the Democratic Left, whose support is crucial for the survival of his minority government. -Jan Obrman HIGHER STEEL QUOTAS PROPOSED FOR CZECHS, SLOVAKS. EC Trade Commissioner Leon Brittan said at a press conference in Strasbourg on 21 April that he will ask EC industry ministers to accept higher steel imports from the Czech and Slovak Republics, AFP reports. He said that he will seek authorization to negotiate with the two countries on higher imports of laminated steel in the next few days. Brittan made it clear that an increase will not have any impact on the EC's troubled market. -Jan Obrman BULGARIAN TRADE UNION LEADER CHARGED WITH INCITEMENT. On 21 April Bulgarian prosecutors formally charged Konstantin Trenchev, leader of the Podkrepa Confederation of Labor, with arson, battery, and hooliganism, Bulgarian and Western media report. Trenchev was at the scene when the headquarters of the former communist party, now the Bulgarian Socialist Party, was set ablaze on 26 August 1990. Prosecutors say he encouraged a crowd to attack the building. Trenchev, among 30 defendants in the case, is denying the charges. -Kjell Engelbrekt ROMANIAN UNIONS ASK ILIESCU TO MEDIATE PAY TALKS. On 21 April some of Romania's main trade union confederations, including Alfa, Fratia, and the National Confederation of Romania's Free Trade Unions, addressed a letter to President Ion Iliescu asking him to mediate pay talks with the government. According to Radio Bucharest, the letter accuses Nicolae Vacaroiu's leftist cabinet of "total unwillingness to conduct real negotiations" over salaries. The main bone of contention is the unions' insistence on having the minimum monthly wage raised to 46,000 lei from the current 17,600. The government has offered around 26,000 lei. The unions threaten a nationwide strike on 5 May in case negotiations fail. An Iliescu spokesman said last week that the president is willing to mediate if necessary. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN EX-SECRET POLICEMEN ON TRIAL FOR KILLINGS. Two members of the former secret police confessed on 21 April to having intentionally killed two persons who tried to hijack a bus to the West in August 1981. Former Securitate officers Constantin Tecsan and Iulian Laza admitted that they shot the captured hijackers in a forest near Timisoara. A third hijacker is said to have been later strangled in a Timisoara jail by a local Securitate doctor, Col. Gheorghe Gornic. Gornic denies the accusation. Radio Bucharest said that the hijackers had demanded a helicopter and $30,000 and were killed on the order of former communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu. Six hostages were killed and twelve wounded when Securitate troops fired on the bus. Two former interior ministers, Tudor Postelnicu and Gheorghe Homostean, are also on trial for their roles in this incident. -Dan Ionescu HEROIN AND DIPLOMACY IN POLAND. Customs officials found 12.5 kilograms of heroin in the luggage belonging to Carlos Vargas, Costa Rica's ambassador to Poland, Gazeta Wyborcza reports on 22 April. This was the largest single shipment of heroin ever recorded in Poland. Ambassador Vargas enjoyed diplomatic immunity in Poland and was not immediately arrested. His luggage was detained by the Polish authorities, however. Later reports in the Polish media say that Vargas has been recalled and will be asked to give up his diplomatic immunity. -Jan de Weydenthal UKRAINE RENEWS CALL FOR SECURITY GUARANTEES. Ukraine's ambassador to the United Nations, Viktor Batyuk, called on the United States and Russia to provide a legally binding political guarantee that neither nuclear nor conventional weapons will be used against Ukraine, an RFE/RL correspondent reports on 21 April. Batyuk's remarks were made during debate in the UN Disarmament Commission in New York. The ambassador noted that his country had the right to "demand" such guarantees in view of territorial claims with which it is confronted. -Roman Solchanyk ESTONIAN CENTRIST LEADER RESIGNS. Founding member and presidential candidate of the Estonian Center Party (a descendant of the Popular Front), University of California-Irvine political science professor Rein Taagepera, signed his letter of resignation from the party during an interview with RFE/RL on 20 April. Taagepera said that as a centrist he does not think the party should be in opposition to political developments in Estonia while the democracy is still young. He says he will not join any other party. Taagepera made his final decision based on the results of a closed congress of the party on 17 April, at which the party also changed its name from the Estonian Popular Center Party. -Mart Laanemae LITHUANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT UNABLE TO WORK. The Constitutional Court has been asked to rule on the legality of two controversial issues: the dissolution of the Vilnius City Council and the transfer of three Seimas deputy mandates from the opposition to the ruling Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party. It said, however, that it is unable to do this because the Seimas has not yet assigned it a permanent office. President Algirdas Brazauskas has asked the Seimas to suspend the enforcement of the dissolution until the court makes a ruling. On 16 April the three new LDLP deputies were sworn in, but the opposition argues that the Seimas does not have the constitutional authority to take away the mandates of the previously sworn in deputies who had not committed any offenses. -Saulius Girnius PAY INCREASES IN LITHUANIA. On 19 April Lithuanian Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius said that the salaries of employees in the public sector will be increased by about 40% from 1-May, Radio Lithuania reports. In the future the salaries will be regularly indexed. Social Security Minister Teodoras Medaiskas said that social security benefits would most likely also be raised. The official subsistence level, which determines many salaries, will be raised from 2,430 to 4,300 coupons (Lithuania's provisional currency) per month. It is not clear where the funds for the increases will be found, but they will undoubtedly fuel inflation. -Saulius Girnius LATVIA, ESTONIA INITIAL FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. On 21 April in Riga an Estonian delegation, headed by senior economics official Tiit Reiman, initialed a free trade agreement with Latvia, BNS reports. Deputy trade minister Andrejs Runcis led the Latvian delegation. The document suggests that duties be imposed only on goods such as sandstone, timber, and leather products brought to Latvia. Agricultural products will be traded under a preset quota system. The agreement also deals with issues of transit and protection of intellectual property. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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