Язык имеет большое значение еще и потому, что с его помощью мы можем прятать наши мысли. - Вольтер
RFE/RL Daily Report

No. 73, 19 April 1993


RUTSKOI CRITICIZES GOVERNMENT. Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi,
addressing the Russian parliament on 16 April, shortly after
President Yeltsin had inferred that he should resign, said that
he had no intention of doing so, and accused some of Yeltsin's
top advisors of having profited from privatization by selling
state property cheaply to Western firms and the Russian "mafia."
Russian and Western media reported that former Prime Minister
Egor Gaidar, former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis, First
Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko, and Deputy Prime Minister
Aleksandr Shokhin were the figures named. Deputy Prime Minister
Anatolii Chubais, who heads the committee responsible for privatization
which Rutskoi also criticized, said he planned to sue for libel.
The parliament ordered an investigation of the charges. -Wendy

TV show "Aty Baty" on 17-April, Rutskoi was sharply critical
of the conduct of military reforms. Rutskoi avoided criticizing
Defense Minister Pavel Grachev directly, instead focusing on
what he characterized as the government's general mismanagement
of military issues. He noted that morale was poor, equipment
was deteriorating, and that military readiness was very low.
Rutskoi charged that the lack of a new doctrine was complicating
Russia's industrial policy because military orders were poorly
planned and not based on reasonable economic or military considerations.
Dismissing recent US aid offers, Rutskoi claimed that if Russian
arms industries were allowed to compete freely in world arms
markets, "we would not make $1.6-billion, we would make $106
billion." Rutskoi also accused the Yeltsin government of basing
promotions and dismissals on political considerations, a charge
echoing those leveled by officers' groups at both ends of the
political spectrum. -John Lepingwell

INDUSTRIALISTS' MEETING. A meeting of the Russian Union of Industrialists
and Entrepreneurs (a member of the Civic Union) on 16 April mocked
Boris Yeltsin, Russian and Western agencies reported. Addressing
the 4,300 delegates, Yeltsin pledged "a more flexible approach"
to economic reform, but his claim that inflation was falling
was greeted by laughter and Arkadii Volsky, chairman of the union,
had to call the meeting to order. Volsky's speech then attacked
the reforms and their speed, which he described as "economic
blitzkrieg." He urged greater state intervention and criticized
attempts at defense plant conversion as leaving Russia vulnerable.
However, he also criticized the parliament for being slow to
pass economic reform legislation, declared support for current
Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, and said that the outlook
was "not hopeless." -Wendy Slater

KHASBULATOV ATTACKS YELTSIN. Speaking to the media during his
trip to St. Petersburg, Russian parliament speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov
said that President Yeltsin had humiliated Russia by begging
Western nations for aid. The city TV quoted him as saying on
17-April that the CIS summit in Minsk, the meeting of the G-7
and the US-Russian summit in Vancouver were staged only to demonstrate
support for Yeltsin ahead of the 25 April referendum. Khasbulatov
also criticized a new draft constitution (giving considerable
rights to the president) which Yeltsin presented last week to
leaders of Russia's republics as "a dictatorial constitution
in a liberal wrapping." -Vera Tolz

Yeltsin arrived on 18 April in Vladimir (a 12th century city
150 km northeast of Moscow) to celebrate Orthodox Easter and
campaign for support in the 25 April referendum. Russian and
Western news agencies reported that Yeltsin joined a religious
procession to the main cathedral in the city. Addressing the
crowd on the cathedral steps, he hoped: "Vladimir residents will
again remember that we must save Russia and vote so that Russia
will not fall back into the abyss of communist non-existence."
-Vera Tolz

voting on the UN Security Council's 17 April resolution calling
for additional sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. Moscow's chief
envoy to negotiations Vitalii Churkin indicated prior to the
vote that Russia would not use its veto to stop the additional
sanctions, saying that "unless there is a positive breakthrough
in the negotiations, this resolution will be adopted-there will
be no avoiding it," ITAR-TASS reported on 17 April. Following
the vote, Russia's permanent representative to the UN Yulii Vorontsov
objected to the holding of the UNSC vote on 17 April rather than
on 26 April, as was decided last week. Vorontsov argued that
the UNSC had ignored a ceasefire agreement for Srebrenica obtained
just prior to the vote. Vorontsov warned that Russian influence
over Serbian actions would be "very much weakened" by the vote,
Reuters reported. -Suzanne Crow

PENSIONS RAISED. On 15 April, the Russian parliament approved
a rise in pensions effective 1 May, ITAR-TASS reported. The minimum
monthly pension will go up from 4,275 rubles to 8,122 rubles.
The maximum monthly pension will be over 20,000 rubles. The last
increase in pensions occurred on 1 February. Pensions are indexed
on a quarterly basis. The measure will cost about 600-billion
rubles a month. -Keith Bush

GRACHEV DEFENDS MILITARY REFORMS. In a speech to a meeting of
reserve officers on 16 April, Russian Defense Minister Pavel
Grachev defended his military reform program. While much of the
speech, as reported by ITAR-TASS, reiterated the main points
of the current program, Grachev did confirm that some 270,000
officers and warrant officers would be discharged, although this
number would not include any troops lacking housing. Thus, the
reduction in force size will not reduce the number of personnel
without proper accommodation. While claiming that the military
districts had been instructed to build 12-13,000 apartments a
year, Grachev also noted that the construction troops were manned
at only 28% of their required level. In view of these problems,
Grachev claimed that while force levels are supposed to be cut
to 1.5 million by 1995, he is considering requesting an extension
to 1996. He also reported that draft shortfalls continued but
that some 48,000 troops have signed contract service agreements
so far, out of an annual target of 100,000. -John Lepingwell

COUP TRIAL SUSPENDED. On 16 April, the trial of those accused
of treason for the failed August 1991 coup, which had opened
two days earlier, was suspended indefinitely because of the illness
of one of the accused, ITAR-TASS and Western agencies reported.
Aleksandr Tizyakov had been taken ill with a heart complaint
on the opening day of the trial. -Wendy Slater

moved on 18-April to impeach the Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev
after the latter had issued decrees on 17 April disbanding parliament,
dismissing the government, and imposing presidential rule and
a curfew, the Western and Russian media reported. Dudaev has
been in conflict with the parliament for several months. He acted
after thousands had demonstrated for two days demanding the resignation
of the president, the government, and the parliament as well
as the payment of overdue wages and student grants. Russia has
been imposing a financial blockade on Chechnya, and Dudaev told
a crowd of 30,000 that they were being manipulated by Russia.
In an emergency session, the parliament annulled all Dudaev decrees
except that dismissing the government, which the parliament had
been seeking for some time. -Ann Sheehy


CIS SUMMIT SUPPORTS YELTSIN. The chief result of the extraordinary
CIS summit in Minsk on 16 April was the all-round support for
democratic reforms in Russia and Yeltsin personally expressed
by the other CIS heads of state, CIS and Western media reported.
No documents were signed at the summit, which was devoted to
a general discussion on strengthening the Commonwealth. Both
Yeltsin and Kazakhstan president Nursultan Nazarbaev said the
CIS states that have not signed the CIS charter should decide
finally whether they wished to be members or not. Yeltsin said
that non-signatories "would in effect remain outside the main
channel of cooperation within the framework of the Commonwealth,
with all the consequences that stem from that." The next summit
has been tentatively set for mid-May. In the meantime the CIS
heads of government and experts are to meet on 28 April to discuss
specific proposals for closer cooperation. -Ann Sheehy

KRAVCHUK ON THE CIS AND RUSSIA. On 16 April, during the CIS summit
in Minsk, Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk told journalists
that the fate of the CIS depends on the victory of democratic
forces in Russia and warned that any attempts to restore the
USSR would doom the CIS and lead to bloodshed, Western and Russian
media reported. "Whether the CIS will exist, and in what form,
will depend on 25 April," (the date of the Russian referendum).
Stressing that there are forces in Russia "who do not want the
CIS but want the USSR," he warned that "if somebody takes this
road, it will be watered with lots of blood." Kravchuk told Ukrainian
TV on 17 April that Ukraine is ready for "intensive" cooperation
with other CIS members in the economic sphere, but that any further
integration within the CIS should not mean encroachment on the
sovereignty and independence of member states. -Bohdan Nahaylo


Islam Karimov told journalists at the CIS summit that he also
sensed a nostalgia in some quarters for the Soviet Union. "As
the representative of Uzbekistan," he said, "I tell you that
we do not have such a nostalgia. We will never return to the
past." Those "who agitate for this," he added, "do not understand
the mood of our society and the people in our republic," the
Washington Times of 17 April reported. Karimov, like Kravchuk,
also expressed his concern that the numerous decisions and agreements
which the CIS had reached since its establishment had largely
not been realized, Novosti reported on 16 April. -Bohdan Nahaylo

Interior Minister Iskander Hamidov, who has repeatedly been criticized
for his affiliation with the pan-Turkist National Labor Party
("Gray Wolves") and for using physical violence against political
moderates, submitted his resignation on 15 April, Azerbaijani
news agencies reported the following day. Azerbaijani President
Abulfaz Elchibey appointed as his successor 52-year old Major-General
Abdullah Allahverdiev, who previously held the posts of deputy
minister of internal affairs and then military commandant of
Baku, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller


ARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN. An Armenian Defense Ministry spokesman charged
on 16 April that Turkey was sending arms and troops to Azerbaijan
via Nakhichevan, and hinted that Armenia might shoot down Turkish
transport planes that crossed its air space, Reuters reported;
on 17 April Radio Mayak broadcast a denial by the Azerbaijani
Presidential Press Service that Turkey was supplying military
aid to Azerbaijan. On 17 April Azerbaijani forces launched a
counter-offensive in Kelbadzhar and shot down an Armenian transport
helicopter evacuating wounded troops from the north-east of Nagorno-Karabakh,
Western agencies reported. The artillery bombardment of Fizuli,
south-east of Karabakh continued on 18 April. Azerbaijan has
demanded an emergency meeting of the CSCE to discuss the fighting.
A senior official of the Islamic Conference Organization, of
which Azerbaijan is a member, was quoted by AzerTadzh on 17 April
as having assured Azerbaijani President Elchibey that ICO members
states are ready to render "moral and material help" to Azerbaijan.
-Liz Fuller

EVACUATION OF SREBRENICA BEGINS. International media on 19 April
report that UN helicopters are continuing an operation begun
the previous day to bring sick and wounded from the besieged
east Bosnian Muslim enclave to the relative safety of Tuzla.
On 18 April the Muslims and Serbs with UN mediation reached "an
agreement on the demilitarization of Srebrenica," which the BBC
said effectively constitutes the surrender of the town. The 19-April
Washington Post quotes analysts as noting "the anomaly of UN
officials in New York negotiating a Bosnian peace that would
require the Serbs to relinquish captured territory and the Security
Council voting tougher sanctions against them, while UN officials
[on the ground] oversaw a deal effectively ending historic Muslim
control of Srebrenica and a broad tract of eastern Bosnia that
the peace plan envisions being populated by Muslims." -Patrick

with Russia and China abstaining, the Security Council voted
on 17 April to impose tougher sanctions on Belgrade. The measure
allows for continued individual travel to and from the area and
leaves postal and telecommunications links in place, but otherwise
cuts rump Yugoslavia off from the outside world. The 19 April
New York Times quotes Serbian leaders as condemning the sanctions
and adding that they might not take part in future peace talks.
Politika quotes a number of leading Serbian politicians and public
figures as condemning the vote, while NIN of 16 April carries
a poll showing that over two-thirds of the Serbian population
believe that some people in politically or economically advantageous
positions in Serbia are profiting by the sanctions. The Guardian
that day wrote about the impending collapse of the Dafiment Bank,
Serbia's largest private bank, and quoted one diplomat as saying
that "the banking game is over, and there's no longer any mechanism
to insulate the Serbs from sanctions." -Patrick Moore

OTHER NEWS FROM THE YUGOSLAV AREA. The BBC quoted EC peace negotiator
Lord Owen on 18 April as saying that sanctions alone "will not
be enough" and that the Bosnian Serbs might have to face "military
measures" if they continue refusing to sign the peace plan. Meanwhile,
international media report continued fighting in central Bosnia
between the Croats and Muslims, who are trying to shore up their
respective positions in anticipation of the plan's coming into
effect. The 19 April New York Times notes that there are atrocities
on both sides. Reuters reported on 17 April that another Ukrainian
soldier serving in the UN peacekeeping forces in Bosnia was killed
the previous day in Sarajevo by a mortar shell fired by unknown
assailants. On 17 April the United States handed over three patrol
boats each to Romania and Bulgaria to help them enforce the UN
sanctions against rump Yugoslavia. The unarmed "Boston whalers"
have a top speed of over 90 km/h, five times faster than most
river ships. Elsewhere, both Vecernji list and Politika on 17
April report that a Council for the Normalization of Serbian-Croatian
Relations has been set up by the Croatian government in Zagreb,
although it is not clear what the duties and functions of this
body will be. Finally, Politika on 18 April said that the Belgrade-based
League of Journalists of Yugoslavia has protested against a Pulitzer
Prize going this year to Roy Gutman of Newsday, who broke the
story on Serbian ethnic cleansing in Bosnia in 1992. -Patrick
Moore, Michael Shafir and Bohdan Nahaylo

MORE RECOGNITION FOR MACEDONIA. Belgium, Germany, and Italy joined
Denmark on 15 April in recognizing the Republic of Macedonia,
AFP reports. Each is an EC member state. Greece, which has blocked
EC recognition of Macedonia, noted that such recognition "does
not facilitate" negotiations between Athens and Skopje now underway
in New York. -Duncan Perry

National Assembly ratified the association agreement with the
European Community, BTA reports. In Sofia for the opening of
an official EC office, External Affairs Commissioner Hans van
den Broek, told deputies that Brussels actively seeks closer
cooperation with Bulgaria. Van den Broek also praised Sofia's
"reasonable position" concerning the war in former Yugoslavia.
On a one-day visit to Bucharest on 16 April, van den Broek said
Romania must press ahead with democratic and market reforms if
it wants EC support. He made the remarks after talks with President
Ion Iliescu, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu, and Foreign Affairs
Minister Teodor Melescanu. Van den Broek said his talks focused
on the war in former Yugoslavia, the political crisis in Russia,
and the ties between Romania and the EC. He added that the EC
has granted Romania funds worth $250 million over the past three
years for programs to develop health, privatization, farming
and other key areas. -Kjell Engelbrekt and Michael Shafir

and diplomats from the Visegrad group (Hungary, Poland, the Czech
Republic, and Slovakia) met in Prague on 16 April to discuss
the EC ban on imports of meat and dairy products from Eastern
Europe until the EC identifies the source of meat infected with
hoof-and-mouth disease. Czech and international media report
that the Visegrad group officials agreed to begin coordinating
their veterinary services to avoid any future questions about
the safety standards of their meat and other food exports. The
EC decision had been strongly condemned by leading East European
politicians as a form of protectionism, and some East European
states had imposed bans of their own against the EC. The leader
of the Czech delegation, Karel Kovanda, said the Visegrad Group
is quite sure that EC will reconsider its ban. However, Hans
van den Broek said on 16-April in Bucharest that the EC will
not lift its ban until it finds the source of diseased meat.
-Jiri Pehe

Poles are expected to take part in ceremonies on 19 April commemorating
the 50th anniversary of the anti-Nazi uprising in Warsaw's Jewish
ghetto, Polish media report. The ceremonies are to be attended
by a large number of dignitaries, including Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak Rabin and US Vice President Al Gore. Poland's President
Lech Walesa has said that he hopes the commemoration could contribute
to healing the often troubled relations between Poles and Jews.
The occasion was marked also by an ecumenical religious service
in Warsaw's synagogue on 18 April, during which officials of
the Catholic Church joined Jewish rabbis in expressing solidarity
with the millions of Jewish victims of the Nazi terror. The same
day, however, a group of skinheads demonstrated in Warsaw against
the ghetto commemoration. Local media report that police arrested
more than 50 right-wing and anti-Semitic demonstrators. -Jan
de Weydenthal

POLISH OMBUDSMAN UNDER FIRE. About 80 Sejm deputies from Catholic
political parties formally asked the parliament to remove ombudsman
Tadeusz Zielinski from his position, Polish media reported on
17 April. The deputies accused Zielinski of repeated attacks
on the Catholic Church and its leaders, primarily Cardinal Jozef
Glemp. Zielinski had asked the Constitutional Tribunal to rule
on the legality of the manner with which the government introduced
religious instruction in schools-through an internal ministerial
directive, without presenting the problem for the parliamentary
approval. In an Easter sermon Glemp attacked the ombudsman's
action as amounting to an attempt to remove "the cross from [Polish]
schools" and compared it to "hitlerite and communist practices."
Zielinski, in turn, criticized Glemp's remarks. -Jan de Weydenthal

in Czech-Slovak negotiations on dividing the former Czechoslovakia's
assets, Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus proposed on 16 April
the so-called "super-zero variant," meaning a solution under
which the Czech Republic and Slovakia would abandon any mutual
property claims at an agreed time. Klaus explained that the "super-zero
variant" differs from the "zero variant" proposed by some Slovak
politicians; under this variant, obligations of the Czech Republic
toward Slovakia and obligations of Slovakia toward the Czech
Republic would cancel each other out. However, such a solution
would require extensive negotiations and is generally viewed
with skepticism in light of the two countries' disagreements
about mutual property claims. CTK reported on 17 April that President
Vaclav Havel supports Klaus's "super-zero variant" as a way out
of the current crisis in Czech-Slovak relations. On 16 April
Havel discussed property issues over the phone with Slovak President
Michal Kovac. -Jiri Pehe

NATO COMMANDER IN SOFIA. During a two-day visit to Bulgaria,
the Supreme Commander of NATO forces in Europe, Gen. John Shalikashvili,
met with President Zhelyu Zhelev, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov
and Gen. Lyuben Petrov, Chief of Bulgaria's General Staff. In
an interview with Bulgarian Radio on 15 April, Zhelev said the
talks had covered Sofia's position on the war in ex-Yugoslavia,
the implementation and costs of UN sanctions against Belgrade,
as well as relations between Bulgaria and NATO. The US general
told a press conference on 16-April that the North Atlantic Cooperation
Council would be the proper forum for developing closer military
ties with the West. -Kjell Engelbrekt

three-day congress on 16-18 April in Debrecen, Hungary's opposition
youth party, the Alliance of Young Democrats, removed the 35-year
age limit on party membership, MTI reports. Some 400-delegates
approved the party's broad guidelines for next year's national
elections and elected Viktor Orban as the party's first president.
The 30-year-old Orban could be Hungary's next prime minister
if polls that now show the AYD in the lead with some 25% of the
electorate are borne out. In his speech to the congress, Orban
was highly critical of the Antall government over the country's
shrinking economic growth and the slow speed of privatization.
-Judith Pataki

Circle of Hungary's ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum met on
16-17 April in Zalaegerszeg, MTI reports. The Christian Democrats
are one of the three factions that make up the forum. The meeting
was attended by Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky and
parliamentary caucus leader Imre Konya. Some members of the circle
were critical of the forum because they felt Christian ethics
were not strongly enough observed in the forum's policies, but
they did not go so far as to advocate a split in the HDF. The
circle advocates paying closer attention to educating Hungary's
youth and asked that the HDF take into consideration the interests
of Hungarian families when making political decisions. They asked
for tighter monetary controls to reduce budget deficit and the
establishment of a banking system that would support agricultural
initiatives. -Judith Pataki

a general strike on 5 May rejected invitations from the government
for a new round of negotiations, an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest
reported on 16 April. The unions broke off negotiations after
failing to win concessions on higher wages and price controls.
Union leaders said at a press conference that the government
has set unacceptable conditions. In addition to pressing economic
demands, the planned strike is also directed against what union
leaders call "antiunion slander" by President Ion Iliescu and
Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu. Union leaders say the two men
have accused the unions of opposing reforms. On 16 April, at
a press conference broadcast by Radio Bucharest, presidential
spokesman Traian Chebeleu denied accusations that Iliescu made
such remarks last week and accused the daily Meridian of quoting
Iliescu out of context. Meanwhile, six opposition parties urged
a constitutional inquiry into the remarks attributed to Iliescu,
accusing him of violating the basic charter. -Michael Shafir

Ukraine, which has spearheaded efforts by non-Russian CIS states
seeking the return of cultural and historical treasures removed
by foreign rulers, has called for an international conference
on the question of international cooperation in restoring "plundered"
national treasures, Ukrainian TV reported on 18 April. Germany,
Romania, Poland, Hungary, and Belarus reportedly support the
initiative. Ukrainian representatives have been stressing that
in February 1992 the heads of the CIS states signed an agreement
in Minsk on the return of national treasures to the countries
where they originated but that the Russian parliament subsequently
failed to ratify this accord and thereby has effectively blocked
this process within the CIS. -Bohdan Nahaylo

Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius hosted talks with his Estonian
and Latvian counterparts on cooperation in trade, customs, and
the withdrawal of Russian troops, Radio Lithuania reports. Lithuania
signed an economic agreement on trade for 1993 with Latvia and
expects to do the same with Estonia soon. Estonian Prime Minister
Mart Laar also expressed his country's willingness to help Lithuania
introduce its new currency, the litas. -Saulius Girnius

Foreign Ministry spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembsky told the press
on 17 April that his country opposes the participation of third
countries in the negotiations with the Baltic States. The statement
came after Hungary's ambassador to Finland and the Baltic States
told the press that third countries should take part in these
talks. The Baltic States have favored third-party participation,
especially in the talks dealing with the withdrawal of Russian
troops and have felt that internationalizing these issues speeds
up their resolution, Baltic media reported on 17 April. -Dzintra

LATVIAN ECONOMIC ACCORDS. A trade agreement was signed on 17
April in Vilnius between Latvia and Lithuania by Prime Ministers
Ivars Godmanis and Adolfas Slezevicius. The accord is seen as
a precursor to a free-trade agreement between the two neighbors.
That same day the Finnish parliament ratified a free-trade agreement
with Latvia. The agreement, stipulating the lifting of customs
tariffs on a wide range of goods, was ratified by the Latvian
Supreme Council in January, and will go into effect on 1 May.
So far Latvia has signed free trade agreements with Norway, Liechtenstein,
Sweden, and Switzerland, Baltic media report. -Dzintra Bungs

58 to 1 with 8-abstentions the Estonian parliament approved amendments
to its land reform act that would allow foreigners to purchase
land in Estonia, BNS reports. The head of the ruling Pro-Patria
faction, Hillae Hallaste, said that the purchase of land will,
nevertheless, have to be connected with some specific investment.
The law will allow the prospective buyers of 35 large state-owned
factories, now on auction, to buy the land on which they stand,
probably spurring higher foreign investment in the Estonian economy.
-Saulius Girnius

of 60 to 46 the Lithuanian parliament decided to dissolve the
Vilnius city council and introduce direct rule until elections-scheduled
for 28 November-for a new council are held, Radio Lithuania reports.
On 16 April the government appointed Jonas Klimasauskas to manage
the city's affairs. That same day some members of the ousted
city council met in an extraordinary session and sharply criticized
the Seimas action and discussed sending appeals to Vilnius's
twin cities and the Council of Europe. Lacking a quorum, however,
they did not adopt any resolutions. Opposition leader Vytautas
Landsbergis told the council members that the Seimas decision
is an attempt to restore the old regime in Lithuania. -Dzintra
Bungs and Saulius Girnius

[As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull

assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA).
The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU),
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Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783;
Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications
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(+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc.
All rights reserved.

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