|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 66, 06 April 1993
RUSSIA RUSSIA CALLS FOR UKRAINE TO GIVE UP NUCLEAR WEAPONS. Only a day after the Presidents of the US and Russia issued a declaration endorsing Russian control over the nuclear weapons of the former Soviet Union, the Russian government issued a harsh statement accusing Ukraine of violating agreements to give up its nuclear weapons and of harboring ambitions to become a nuclear power. The government statement, published by ITAR-TASS on 5 April, charged that Kiev was taking active steps to establish control over nuclear weapons on Ukrainian territory and warned that "nuclear weapons cannot and must not be an object of political games." Moscow offered to provide, along with the US and Great Britain, security guarantees to Kiev, to come into effect after Ukrainian compliance with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Russian government also proposed removing as quickly as possible to Russia all nuclear warheads currently in Ukraine. According to Reuters on 5 April, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko said that Kiev's position was unchanged and accused Moscow of dragging its feet on the issue of compensating Ukraine for relinquishing the weapons. Although the substance of the Russian declaration appears to contain little that is new, its bluntness and timing signal a new escalation in the long conflict between Moscow and Kiev over nuclear weapons control. -Stephen Foye YELTSIN, SHUMEIKO ON REFERENDUM. President Yeltsin made a brief visit to the eastern Siberian city of Bratsk on his way back to Moscow from the Vancouver summit, ITAR-TASS and Reuters reported on 5 April. Speaking to residents of the city, Yeltsin urged a "yes" vote for all four questions on the referendum, including that of early presidential elections. Meanwhile, First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko said in an interview reported by RFE/RL that the most important referendum questions were those on confidence in the president and on early parliamentary elections. The first of these made the other two questions irrelevant, he said. -Wendy Slater VORONIN SAYS REFERENDUM MAY FAIL. First Deputy parliamentary speaker Yurii Voronin told Russian TV on 3 April that the referendum may not take place because of the increasing political apathy of most of Russia's population, in which case another extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies should be convened to find a way out of the political crisis. Voronin, supported by the communist faction in the parliament, said that he regards the second question in the referendum-that on confidence in President Yeltsin's economic reform policy-as the most important one. Voronin criticized much of the Russian media for not being objective in its coverage and defended the Congress decision to create supervisory councils for broadcasting. -Alexander Rahr CHUBAIS VIEWS PROGRESS OF PRIVATIZATION. Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais gave updated figures on the status of Russian privatization on Ostankino TV's "Krasnyi Kvadrat" program on 3 April. Chubais said that 17-20% of all privatization vouchers had already been invested in enterprises or investment funds, and that it was quite likely that all would be invested by the end of the year. He also claimed that a mere 4% of the population had sold their vouchers instead of using them for investment. Chubais expressed optimism that a full 50% of all small state enterprises would be privatized by the end of 1993. He also noted the increased pace of ownership transfer at larger enterprises. There had been 286-auctions of the assets of such enterprises in March, and he expected not less than 400 auctions to be held in April and 500 in May. -Erik Whitlock GAS INDUSTRY TO BE PRIVATIZED. The Russian government plans to sell more than one half of the shares in Gazprom, the natural gas monopoly, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 April. Gazprom will be converted into a joint-stock company valued at 89.3 billion rubles. The government will retain some 40% of the shares; up to 15% will be offered to gas industry workers on preferential terms; 28.7% will be offered for sale to people who live in gas-producing regions; 5.2% to the residents of Yamalo-Nenets, the heart of the gas-producing region; and 10% will be sold to the public to finance the development of new gas fields. -Keith Bush RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN GAS DISPUTE STILL UNRESOLVED. According to a representative of Russia's gas industry, Gazprom, there is still no agreement on the tariffs for transporting Russian gas through Ukraine, nor on the price Ukraine should pay for Russian gas, Reuters reported on 5 April. The gas dispute began in February when Russia demanded world prices for its gas and Ukraine responded by threatening to raise transit fees for Russia's gas exports to Western Europe, 90% of which pass through Ukrainian territory. Ukraine depends on Russia for most of its gas supplies, and Gazprom has threatened to cut off supplies to Ukraine if the row over prices is not resolved and debts cleared. Ukraine also depends to a large degree on Russia for oil supplies, and Russia has in the past week cut supplies in response to what it claims is failure by Ukraine to make deliveries of machinery and food. -Sheila Marnie BACKPAYMENT DEMANDED FOR OIL DELIVERIES TO CIS. The chairman of the Oil Industry Committee, Viktor Ott, told ITAR-TASS on 30 March that Russia has been subsidizing oil and gas deliveries to its CIS trading partners. Ott put the value of Russian oil and gas supplied to other former Soviet republics in 1992 at $16-billion if world prices were used. In return, according to Ott, Russia received fuel and energy equipment from CIS nations worth only $800,000. -Keith Bush YELTSIN IN MAGADAN; CHANGES IN LOCAL LEADERSHIP. ITAR-TASS reported that during Yeltsin's brief visit to Magadan on 3 April en route to the Vancouver summit the president denied that the resignations of several local leaders in Siberia had resulted from central policy. He said that the head of local administration in Sakhalin oblast, Valentin Fedorov, had asked to resign and that he would probably be offered a government post. (ITAR-TASS had reported on 2 April that the legislators had passed a no-confidence vote in Fedorov.) Yeltsin's nominee for Fedorov's former post, Evgenii Krasnoyarov, was confirmed by local legislators on 2 April. Arkadii Veprev, the head of administration in Krasnoyarsk, had also requested to be released from his duties, Yeltsin said. On 26 March, Reuters reported that Yeltsin had reinstated the Irkutsk and Novosibirsk heads of administration, Yurii Nozhikov and Vitalii Mukha, whom he had dismissed in his TV speech of 20-March. -Wendy Slater RIGHT WING OFFICERS LAUNCH LEGAL OFFENSIVE. Russian newspapers gave wide coverage on 2-3-April to a ruling handed down by the military court of the Moscow Military District which recognized as unlawful the discharge from the armed forces of Stanislav Terekhov, chairman of the nationalist and neo-communist Officers Union. According to reports appearing in Komsomolskaya pravda, Nezavisimaya gazeta, and Sovetskaya Rossiya, Terekhov's lawyers argued that the discharge order, which had been issued by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev in response to Terekhov's widespread political activities, was illegal because, among other things, the very notion of "political activities" itself carried no legal weight. Terekhov, who was discharged last fall, has been a virulent critic of Boris Yeltsin and Grachev. Komsomolskaya pravda reported on 2 April that three officers discharged from the Northwestern Group of Forces, all for political activities connected with the Baltic Officers Assembly, also intend to challenge the legality of their dismissals. -Stephen Foye TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIA-AZERBAIJAN. Azerbaijan parliament spokesman Isa Gambarov told Western agencies on 5-April that Azerbaijani forces had launched a counter-offensive against Armenian forces and prevented the capture of the town of Fizuli; however a spokesman for the Nagorno-Karabakh defense forces denied that Armenian forces were attempting to take the town. Turkish President Turgut Ozal has advocated the use of force to halt what he termed unacceptable action by Armenia, according to Reuters quoting ITAR-TASS. In response to requests by Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey and the Turkish government, the UN Security Council is to issue a statement on 6 April assessing the situation in Azerbaijan. -Liz Fuller TAJIKISTAN PROTESTS TO AFGHAN GOVERNMENT. After issuing a declaration of protest on 3 April over violations of the Tajik border from the Afghan side, Tajikistan's Foreign Ministry on 5 April handed Afghanistan's Acting Consul in Dushanbe Muhammad Umar Asir a formal protest and an accusation that Afghanistan is interfering in Tajikistan's internal affairs. The Foreign Ministry warned, according to Khovar-TASS, that unspecified action would be taken if Afghanistan did not end its support for the armed Tajik opposition. Tajik government spokesmen and Russian border guards officers have spoken of camps set up in Afghanistan to train Tajik opposition fighters, but previously Tajik government officials have described these camps as being under the control of fundamentalist leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, not the Kabul government. Since Hekmatyar has assumed a major role in Kabul, Tajikistan's conservative leadership may believe that a government-to-government protest will now have some effect. -Bess Brown UP TO 90,000 TAJIK REFUGEES REMAIN IN AFGHANISTAN. Tajik consular official Takhir Akhmedov was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 3 April as saying that between 75,000 and 90,000 refugees from Tajikistan are still in Afghanistan. Akhmedov, who is a member of a parliamentary commission on refugee affairs, said that he met with Tajik refugees in Afghanistan during the last month and sought to persuade them that those who did not actively participate in the civil war have nothing to fear on their return. He objected to foreign press reports and opposition claims that returnees are likely to be attacked by the irregular forces of the pro-government Popular Front, saying that such stories are without foundation. -Bess Brown RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN KAZAKHSTAN. A group of geologists participating in an official survey of environmental conditions in Kazakhstan has found some 8 million tons of highly radioactive waste and 225-million tons of less-radioactive material which have not been properly disposed of, ITAR-TASS reported on 5 April. The highly radioactive material was generated at the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site and at uranium mines and refining facilities in the southern and western parts of the country. Among the offenders, the report cited the Mangyshlak power combine, site of Central Asia's only major nuclear power-generating facility, and the Ulba Metallurgical Plant outside Ust-Kamenogorsk in East Kazakhstan. Studies of waste generated by mining not related to the nuclear industry have found that coal and rare metals mines in various parts of Kazakhstan have also generated radioactive wastes. Subsurface water from oil wells in western Kazakhstan is also radioactive. The study has resulted in a map of 529 sites where radioactive material is located. Discussions are underway on the most effective disposal of the wastes within Kazakhstan. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN DELAYS VOTE OVER TIGHTENING SERBIAN SANCTIONS. The BBC reported on 6-April that the United States and Russia have agreed to postpone the Security Council vote for a week to enable Washington to toughen up the language of the resolution while allowing Moscow more time to pursue its own political initiatives. The broadcast added that Secretary of State Warren Christopher has openly suggested that Washington might seek an easing of the embargo on Bosnian arms purchases if the Serbs remain obdurate in rejecting the Vance-Owen plan. EC peace negotiator Lord Owen cautioned against such arms sales, but added that the Bosnian Serbs' stubbornness must be met with action and not "pussyfooting." Their leader, Radovan Karadzic, said, however, that the Serbs could tough anything out since they are in the right. -Patrick Moore UN MOVES TO EVACUATE MORE REFUGEES FROM SREBRENICA. The 6 April Washington Post quotes UN refugee spokesman Jose Maria Mendiluce as saying that the world organization hopes "to take out 1,000 to 1,500 women, children, elderly, and sick" from the embattled enclave each day. Local Muslim officials oppose the move, arguing that it weakens the defense of the town and promotes ethnic cleansing. Gorazde and Zepa are the other two areas still in Muslim hands in eastern Bosnia. Meanwhile, the BBC reports that UN human rights envoy and former Polish Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki might resign if no action is taken to implement his recommendations for Bosnia, including moves to close down the Serb-run concentration camps. On a tougher note, the 5 April New York Times quotes Lady Thatcher as having recently told the US Naval Academy that the West must show "resolve" since only it "in fact has the aircraft and the missiles to go in and take out the Serbs." -Patrick Moore WEU STEPS UP PRESSURE ON RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. At a meeting in Luxembourg on 5-April, Western European Union foreign and defense ministers decided to act for the more effective enforcement of UN sanctions against rump Yugoslavia along the Danube. According to Western agencies, the WEU will dispatch up to 10 speedboats and some 250 to 300 crewmen to help Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary patrol the river. The involvement was described by WEU officials as a "police and customs operation" with "non-military character." WEU Secretary General Wim van Eekelen told journalists that tighter controls on the Danube will have a very quick impact on Serbia's oil imports through the Black Sea. Romania already accepted the WEU plans. A Foreign Ministry spokesman said that the West-European assistance will help Romania better monitor traffic on the Danube. Hungarian state secretary for foreign affairs Janos Martonyi said Hungary thanks the WEU for its help in enforcing the embargo against Serbia, but could only accept it if there will be a guarantee prohibiting the use of weapons, Hungarian Radio reported on 5 March. The boats, Martonyi added, will have to be under Hungarian command. Dan Ionescu and Karoly Okolicsanyi SERBIAN UPDATE. The 6 April Washington Post quotes Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic as saying that he "appreciates" the US position on Bosnia, believing that "the US will not be the world policeman [because] this administration is oriented to the essential problems of the United States...." The New York Times and the Belgrade daily Politika, meanwhile, report at length on Serbia's latest banking scandal. In recent weeks the virtual collapse of one Serbian private bank, Jugoskandik, has highlighted the role of free-wheeling but shaky private banks paying high interest rates in keeping the Serbian economy afloat and in laundering loot from the wars in Bosnia and Croatia. Now the largest such institution, the Dafiment Bank, is experiencing a run on its windows, and a shootout of current and former guards on 5 April left one dead and four wounded. There is widespread speculation that the collapse of Dafiment could bring about widespread social discontent as well as pressures on the government, which has been close to the bank. Meanwhile, Borba reports that Serbs may soon face other problems, since electric power workers have declared a general strike for 13-April. -Patrick Moore US CONGRESSIONAL DELEGATION CONCLUDES UKRAINIAN VISIT. A 14-member US Congressional delegation is due to conclude its visit to Kiev on 6 April and continue on to Moscow. On 5 April the delegation met with Ukrainian government and parliamentary leaders. According to Ukrainian TV, apart from prospects for US-Ukrainian relations, the main topics of the discussions were the question of Ukraine's ratification of the START-1 treaty, Ukrainian-Russian relations, and economic reforms and foreign investment in Ukraine. Ukrainian TV reported that the speaker of the Ukrainian parliament Vasyl Plyushch urged the US to develop its ties with Ukraine "as a sovereign state, and not an appendage of Russia." For his part, the head of the US delegation, Richard Gephardt, assured his hosts of the US's "all-round support for Ukraine." Ukrainian TV commented, however, that Gephardt "did not give a direct answer" to the question from journalists: "can Ukraine count in the near future on the same sort of significant help from the West as Russia?" -Bohdan Nahaylo LATVIAN, ESTONIAN OFFICIALS CRITICIZE YELTSIN'S REMARKS. On 5 April Estonian Prime Minister Mart Laar sharply criticized comments by Russian President Boris Yeltsin in Vancouver linking the withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonia and Latvia to the human rights situation in the countries, BNS reports. Juri Luik, the head of the negotiating team on Russian troop withdrawal, said that Yeltsin's remarks might have a negative effect on the next round of talks to be held in Nakhabino near Moscow on 6-7-April. Latvian parliament chairman Anatolijs Gorbunovs said that the Russian army should not be used as a means of political dictate on Latvia and he intended to appeal to the CSCE and UN to participate as observers in Latvian-Russian troop withdrawal talks. Saulius Girnius LANDSBERGIS COMMENTS ON RUSSIAN WITHDRAWAL. At a press conference on 5 April Lithuanian opposition leader Vytautas Landsbergis urged the government to propose to Russia to speed up its withdrawal of troops from the republic before the 31 August 1993 deadline, Radio Lithuania reports. He also said that Lithuania should appeal to the UN and NATO to send "blue helmets" (UN peacekeeping forces) from Western states to Lithuania if there was chaos in Russia. Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys doubted the advisability of such a move noting it could provoke "the most radical forces in neighboring countries." -Saulius Girnius THREE BULGARIAN SOLDIERS MURDERED IN CAMBODIA. Three members of Bulgaria's 765 man UN peace keeping force in Cambodia were murdered on 2 April in the province of Kompong Speu, according to Bulgarian and Western sources. In a sharply worded condemnation, the UN Security Council called the act, perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge, "cowardly" and demanded that hostile acts directed at UN personnel be halted immediately. In a separate incident, two soldiers from Bangladesh were also murdered while serving as peace keepers in Cambodia Duncan Perry WALESA PROMOTES NATIONAL GUARD. Polish President Lech Walesa observed more than a thousand soldiers of the special Vistula division engage in "tactical exercises" in Czerwony Bor on 5 April. The Vistula troops, now subordinated to the internal affairs ministry, are responsible for the security of state and parliamentary institutions and diplomatic offices; they number about 11,000. Walesa has proposed transforming the Vistula troops into a "national guard" that would assist the police and border guard in times of threat and would be subordinated to the president. Speaking to reporters on 5 April, Walesa discounted suggestions that he wanted control over the troops in order to expand his own political power. He did concede, however, that legislation drafted by his office and scheduled for consideration by the Sejm in coming weeks would prompt a "major battle," PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton BY-ELECTION RESULTS IN HUNGARY. Tamas Nagy, a joint candidate of the new Party of the Republic and the Agrarian Association, won a vacant parliamentary seat with 36.7% of the votes in the central Hungarian electoral district of Kunszentmiklos, Hungarian Radio reported on 5 March. Only 28.3% eligible voters cast their ballot. Three previous rounds, in which the Socialist Party's candidate scored first, were nullified because less than 25% of eligible voters participated. The government coalition parties and the Young Democratic Party withdrew their candidates in the last run. -Karoly Okolicsanyi US CONGRESSMEN TO BUCHAREST. Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu received on 5 April US congressman Frank Wolf (R.-Virginia) and Senator Daniel Coates (R.-Indiana), who are paying an unofficial visit to Romania. Vacaroiu expressed the hope that a Romanian-US trade agreement will be perfected soon, and that the US will restore MFN preferential trade status to Romania. He also said that Romania needs more financial support from the West in order to overcome the difficult transition to a market economy and to compensate for the losses caused by the embargo against Serbia and Montenegro, which he put at over $7-billion. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIA, GERMANY SIGN ENVIRONMENTAL ACCORD. On 5 April German Environment Minister Klaus Toepfer and his Romanian counterpart Aurel Constantin Ilie signed in Bucharest a bilateral accord of environmental cooperation. The agreement calls for cooperation to control land, air and water pollution, as well as in waste management and ecological education. Toepfer, who held talks with Romanian President Ion Iliescu, Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu and Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu told reporters that Romania was an important partner for Germany and that Bonn was supporting its social and economic reforms. On the previous day, Toepfer had extended official apologies to Romania for illegal dumping of German toxic waste in Transylvania last year. -Dan Ionescu TAX BREAKS TO BE OFFERED FOREIGN INVESTORS IN SLOVAKIA. Slovak and international media report that under a bill drafted by the Slovak government foreign investors in Slovakia would be offered tax holidays for up to seven years. Slovak officials told the media on 5 April that foreign companies registered in Slovakia after 31 December 1992 will be given a tax holiday for the first year for which they show a positive balance. Companies with at least 30% foreign ownership or at least 1 million DM invested would get a tax holiday for two additional years. The bill also provides for two-year holidays for foreign banks. Banks opening in the cities of Zvolen and Banska Bystrica in central Slovakia would be given additional five years. -Jiri Pehe STOCK EXCHANGE TO BE OPENED IN PRAGUE. The Prague Stock exchange is to be officially opened on 6-April, CTK reports. Initially, obligations will be traded only on the secondary market; full-scale trading, including that on the primary market, is to follow soon. Owing to the decision of the Czech government to postpone issuing shares to the millions of investors who bought them as part of the voucher privatization process (the decision is designed to put pressure on the Slovak government to pay back debts owed to the Czech Republic; many more Slovaks bought shares in Czech companies than vice versa), trading with shares that are to be issued as part of the voucher privatization process will not start on 6 April as originally planned. -Jiri Pehe AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS STRIKE IN BULGARIA. The Bulgarian press reports that air traffic controllers walked off their jobs at midnight local time on 5 April. They plan to stay out until demands for higher pay are met. They had held warning strikes in the previous week. The controllers have suggested that landing and other fees be reallocated to increase their salaries. The strike will continue until demands are met, say the controllers, who will service emergency flights and three airplanes at the beginning of each hour. Normally Sofia's international airport services between 500 and 1,200 planes per day. -Duncan Perry UNEMPLOYMENT DROPS IN HUNGARY. According to figures provided by MTI on 5 March, unemployment has dropped to 697,500; in February there had been 705,000 people unemployed in the country. This is the first decline in years; the last time a drop in unemployment was reported was in May 1991. The drop from February to March (from 12,9% to 12.7%) was said by MTI to be accounted for by the start of the agricultural season and by better employment counseling. -Karoly Okolicsanyi ROMANIAN JOBLESS OVER ONE MILLION. According to data released by Romania's Labor Ministry on 5-April, the number of registered unemployed in the country is 1,065,281, of whom 622,418 are women, 103,045 industrial workers and 16,817 college graduates. This represents 9.6% of the workforce. There are currently 3,179 open jobs in Romania. A Labor Ministry official told Radio Bucharest that a slight drop in unemployment as against last week had seasonal reasons, reflecting the resumption of activity in the construction sector after the winter months. POLISH FISHERMEN BLOCK PORTS. Some 300 Polish fishing boats blocked ports along the Baltic coast from Swinoujscie to Gdansk for twelve hours on 5 April to protest government fishing policy. The protest was peaceful and coast guard vessels were allowed to sail unhindered, Polish TV reports. The fishermen were demanding duty-free boat fuel and low-interest credits. A spokesmen for the fishermen's union said the protesters were not asking for favors but merely wanted the same state subsidies provided as to their Western competitors. The fishermen also called for customs barriers against cheaper imports, particularly from the former Soviet Union, and a relaxation of seasonal limits on cod fishing. Government officials announced that duties had already been lifted on boat fuel and that some preferential credits would be offered. Further talks are pending on other issues. -Louisa Vinton UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT RECONVENES; DISCUSSES BUDGET. The Ukrainian parliament reconvened in plenary session on 6 April after a two-week period during which deputies had worked in the various parliamentary commissions, Radio Ukraine reported. On the agenda for this week is discussion of the proposed budget for 1993 and of measures to combat hyper inflation. Bohdan Nahaylo POPULATION DECLINES IN LATVIA AND LITHUANIA. The population of Latvia and Lithuania is declining, BNS reported on 5 April. In 1992 in Latvia 35,428 people died and 13,913 were born while about 50,000 emigrated. The number of marriages in 1992 also decreased from 22,337 in 1991 to 18,906. In January-March 1993 the number of deaths in Lithuania exceeded the number of births for the first time after World War II. Compared to the same period in 1991, the number of births declined by about 2,000 while deaths increased by about 1,000. The life expectancy of Lithuanians also decreased from 71.8 years in 1989 to 70.5-years in 1992. Emigration in 1992 (27,324) exceeded immigration (6,206). -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wenndy Slater and Michael Shafir CORRECTION: CONTRADICTING THE INFORMATION IN THE DAILY REPORT OF 5 APRIL, ESTONIAN MEDIA REPORTED ON 6 APRIL THAT THE REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY OF RUSSIAN SPEAKERS IN ESTONIA ONLY DISCUSSED BUT DID NOT APPROVE AN AMENDMENT DEMANDING THAT RUSSIAN BE GIVEN THE STATUS OF AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE. CORRECTION. The Daily Report on 5 April incorrectly identified Serdar Chariyarov as the new Turkmen Defense Minister. In fact, Radio Rossii reported on 3 April that Chariyarov had been named to an unspecified Deputy Defense Minister post. THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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