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No. 65, 05 April 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN RETURNS FROM SUMMIT WITH $1.6 BILLION IN US AID. US President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin were reported by various Western and Russian media to be very satisfied with the outcome of their weekend summit in Vancouver. The two leaders discussed a wide variety of issues-economic, military and political, but the most important result of the meeting was a $1.6 billion US aid package for Russia. The assistance, to be distributed over the 1993 fiscal year, will include over $214 million in grants for food and medical supplies; over $470 million in grants for technical assistance, training, and programs for dismantling nuclear weapons and facilities; and over $932-million in credits for grain imports and investment guarantees. Clinton also promised to exert pressure on the other G-7 nations, the IMF, and the World Bank to provide more aid and to work to ease restrictions on Russian imports and exports. In their statements at the closing news conference on 4 April, the two leaders referred to the positive personal rapport which they had established, and emphasized the broader implications of the summit. "We have laid the foundation for a new democratic partnership between the United States and Russia," Clinton said. -Erik Whitlock and Robert Lyle SECURITY ISSUES AT THE SUMMIT. The joint declaration issued at the Vancouver summit dealt with a broad range of security issues. According to ITAR-TASS reports on 4-5 April, the two presidents emphasized the importance of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and their expectation that Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus will confirm their adherence to that treaty. The two sides also agreed to intensify efforts to win ratification of the START-1 and START-2 Treaties, and called for broader cooperation between Moscow and Washington on a number of security questions, including the peaceful resolution of international conflicts and the promotion of democratic values. A statement on the importance of protecting civil rights for Russian minorities was balanced by a declaration of respect for the independence, territorial integrity, and security of all member states of the UN and the CSCE. At the same time, the US aid package to Russia included a $6 million package aimed at helping with the resettlement of demobilized Russian troops; 450 houses are to be built within the next 12-16 months. -Stephen Foye PARIS CLUB RESCHEDULES FSU DEBT. On 2 April, on the eve of the US-Russian summit, the Paris Club of 19 Western creditor nations rescheduled part of the debt repayment of the former Soviet Union, Western agencies reported. Russia will be asked to repay only $2-billion of the estimated $15 billion due in 1993, with a grace period of 6 months before repayments start. Repayment of the balance of official debt due will be restructured over the next ten years. The rescheduling was seen as an important political gesture to President Yeltsin. In economic terms, the agreement was more in the realm of accounting, as Russia had in any case not been repaying most of the principal and interest due on the FSU debt. -Keith Bush KHASBULATOV ATTACKS WEST, RECEIVES HARDLINE SUPPORT. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov organized a briefing for foreign diplomats in Moscow at which he criticized Western countries for supporting President Boris Yeltsin, according to ITAR-TASS on 2 April. He said that it is the Russian parliament and not the president which represents democracy. He added that without Western support Yeltsin would never have decided to declare special rule as he did on 20 March. Meanwhile, right wingers have lined up in support of Khasbulatov. Russian nationalist writer Aleksandr Prokhanov, in an interview with Narodnaya pravda (no. 11), indicated that he would support the coming to power of a "pro-Russian patriot" such as Khasbulatov and praised Khasbulatov for his anti-Americanism. Khasbulatov also received support from the co-leader of the National Salvation Front, Mikhail Astafev, who denounced the idea of a democratically elected president and called for a return to the power of the soviets. -Alexander Rahr BASHKORTOSTAN TO INCLUDE OWN REFERENDUM QUESTION. The Bashkortostan parliament voted on 2 April to hold the all-Russian referendum scheduled for 25 April on its territory but at the same time to pose an additional question, AFP reported. The question runs: Do you think that the Republic of Bashkortostan should be an independent economic entity and have an agreement with the Russian Federation based on the Federal Treaty and its appendices in the interests of all the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan? Bashkortostan has been demanding economic independence. One of the objections voiced to holding the all-Russian referendum was that the republics and regions might decide to include their own questions, as Russia did in the all-Union referendum of March 1991; but the Russian parliament prohibited any changes in the questions when it approved the referendum. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN MOVES TO SAFEGUARD CONTROL OVER OSTANKINO TV. On 3 April, according to Russian television newscasts, Boris Yeltsin signed a decree granting Ostankino TV and radio the status of an "international television and radio company." In the decree, Yeltsin cited a decision of the heads of governments of CIS countries, which was earlier understood as referring to another company called "Mir" (Peace) and headed by a Kazakh journalist. The decree seems to have been prompted by a resolution of the most recent Congress of People's Deputies, which removed the state radio and TV companies from the control of the executive powers, putting in their place supervision of broadcasting by the representative bodies of state power. -Julia Wishnevsky CHUBAIS FIGHTS BACK. Anatolii Chubais, Russian Deputy Prime Minister in charge of the privatization program, strongly rejected Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's criticism of the pace at which privatization is being carried out, Reuters reported on 2-April. Chernomyrdin in St. Petersburg on 1 April had compared the privatization of state property with Stalin's brutal land collectivization policies in the 1930s. Speaking at a meeting of the heads of privatized firms in Moscow, Chubais said that "no honest man would dare to make such a comparison". The privatization program has been criticized by parliament, and, according to Chubais, is also under attack form those in government circles who fear that the process will deprive them of their grip on power. -Sheila Marnie GERASHCHENKO SENDS OPEN LETTER TO GOVERNMENT. In an open letter to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, published in Rossiiskaya gazeta of 2-April, the Chairman of the Russian Central Bank Viktor Gerashchenko made a formal response to the recent accusation of Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov (see RFE/RL Daily Report for 23 and 24-March) that the bank leadership was sabotaging economic reform. Gerashchenko countered the charge saying that the government's approach to reform is unrealistic, presupposing a monetary policy appropriate for a developed market economy rather than the Russian economy. Rather than being criticized for excessive money creation, the Central Bank should be commended for keeping enough liquidity in the economy to avoid collapse. Gerashchenko added that the government was to blame for inflation, as "credits to the government in 1992 played a decisive role in the growth of [total credit] emissions." -Erik Whitlock TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIAN FORCES TAKE KELBADZHAR, LAUNCH NEW OFFENSIVE. Armenian forces advanced to the town of Kelbadzhar in western Azerbaijan on 2 April and finally occupied the town on 3 April after heavy fighting, Western agencies reported. Azerbaijani spokesmen said that many civilians were either killed in the fighting or died trying to flee north to Gyandzha in inclement weather conditions. The Azerbaijani Defense Ministry estimated that Armenian forces now control up to 10 per cent of the entire territory of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey declared a 60-day state of emergency on 2 April and ordered the immediate mobilization of young men aged 18-27, according to the Los Angeles Times of 4 April. On 4 April Armenian forces backed by tanks and artillery launched a new offensive on the town of Fizuli, which is located a few miles outside Nagorno-Karabakh's south-east border. -Liz Fuller AZERBAIJAN APPEALS TO TURKEY, US, IRAN; DIPLOMATIC RESPONSE. On 2 April Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey called on US President Clinton and Russian President Yeltsin to condemn Armenian aggression and impose sanctions on Armenia. Azerbaijan's Ambassador to the US Hafiz Pashayev addressed a similar appeal to US Secretary of State Warren Christopher, Western agencies reported. Azerbaijani Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov was quoted by Reuters as stating that the ongoing CSCE-sponsored Karabakh peace talks in Geneva could not continue until Armenian forces had withdrawn from Kelbadzhar. Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel issued a vaguely worded warning to Armenia on 2 April to halt its "oppression of the Azeri people;" Ankara Radio on 4 April carried a statement by Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin condemning the Armenian action as unacceptable and stating that the transit of humanitarian aid via Turkey to Armenia had been halted the previous day. ITAR-TASS reported on 2 April that the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs had summoned the Armenian envoy in Tehran to protest against the Armenian offensive; on 4 April Azerbaijan's Ambassador to Iran appealed at a news conference for Iranian assistance "in halting Armenian aggression," AFP reported. Also on 4 April, the Organization of the Islamic Conference in Jeddah, of which Azerbaijan is a member, issued a condemnation of Armenian "aggression" and called on the international community to "intensify efforts to persuade Armenia to end hostilities," AFP reported. The same day, in a statement on Russian TV, the commander of Russian forces in Armenia denied assertions by Azerbaijan's Defense Minister Dadash Rzaev that Russian troops had participated in the Kelbadzhar offensive. -Liz Fuller ABKHAZ PARLIAMENT CHAIRMAN APPEALS FOR HELP. In a radio address on 4 April quoted by Reuters, Abkhaz parliament chairman Vladislav Ardzinba called on the international community for help, arguing that organizations such as the UN should protest at human rights violations by Georgia. Ardzinba affirmed yet again that Abkhazia was ready for peace on condition that Georgian forces withdrew from the region. -Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN TO HAVE ITS OWN NAVY. Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev issued a decree on 2 April on the creation of naval forces within Kazakhstan's military establishment, ITAR-TASS reported. The Ministry of Defense was instructed to provide the government with suggestions on the stationing of naval forces. Presumably Kazakhstan's naval forces would be primarily for defense of the Caspian Sea coast. Turkmenistan raised the issue of a common defense of the Caspian in 1992. -Bess Brown NEW TURKMEN DEFENSE MINISTER. Radio Rossii reported on 3 April that Turkmen Interior Minister Serdar Chariyarov has been dismissed from his post for what were termed serious shortcomings in the work of the Ministry. He was reassigned to a new post, that of Turkmen Defense Minister. Mamed Kabayev, chairman of the republic's customs service, was also reportedly dismissed for poor performance. -Stephen Foye CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SERBS REJECT VANCE-OWEN MAP. Following a two-day session of the self-proclaimed parliament of the Bosnian "Serbian Republic," on 3-April delegates voted 68-0 in Bileca against the internationally mediated proposal to split Bosnia into 10 highly autonomous cantons. Politika wrote on 4 April that the Serbs' message was "no to the map, yes to peace," but the Los Angeles Times quoted the UN Security Council as condemning the Serbs for their "unlawful, unacceptable, abhorrent policy of ethnic cleansing." The UN is also expected to tighten sanctions on Serbia in response to the Bileca vote. The New York Times quoted Bosnian Foreign Minister Haris Silajdzic as saying that the Serbs "will use the time to continue their "'ethnic cleansing'" as they pursue "making a mockery of the world." The 2 April NIN quotes Milovan Djilas, the best known dissident in Tito's Yugoslavia, as saying that Serb's failure to back the Vance-Owen plan "would mean the forcible liquidation of the Serbian movement in Bosnia." -Patrick Moore OTHER BOSNIAN DEVELOPMENTS. Serbian forces resumed shelling Sarajevo and Srebrenica over the weekend, international media reported. They allowed an aid convoy to reach Srebrenica on 4 April with the apparent expectation that it would return with refugees on board, but local Bosnian officials overruled Sarajevo, the UN, and the Serbs and refused to allow any more people to be evacuated. The officials charged that the evacuations were weakening the defense of Srebrenica and contributing to ethnic cleansing. Meanwhile, on 4-April the Bosnian Croatian military organization, the HVO, demanded that Muslim army and police units evacuate the three cantons assigned to the Croats by the internationally brokered plan. The Croats have already taken control of much of this area in the self-proclaimed "Croatian Community of Herceg-Bosna," and are now tightening their grip. The BBC said that the HVO wants to withdraw its units from areas assigned to the Muslims, which would probably cause the defense of Gradacac and some other areas guarded by Croat-Muslim joint forces to collapse. Finally, Serbian dailies reported on 3 April that Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Pavle and other top church officials met Pope John Paul II the previous day at the Vatican to discuss Bosnia, about which the Pope has frequently expressed great concern. -Patrick Moore NEW GOVERNMENT IN CROATIA. Croatian Radio on 3 April announced the cabinet of Prime Minister Nikica Valentic, who succeeded Hrvoje Sarinic on 31 March following a series of corruption and conflict-of-interest scandals. The new cabinet is slightly smaller than the last one, with most of the key ministers still in place. Sarinic himself moves to head the Office for National Security, and the changes on the balance appear to constitute a reshuffling of positions among the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) leadership. Slobodna Dalmacija said on 1 April that the new government members would have to declare their assets and the names of groups in which they held membership or office to reduce the possibility of further scandals, but noted that any Croatian cabinet is limited in its effectiveness by its dual subordination to parliament and to the president. Vecernji list on 3 April quoted opposition Liberal leader Drazen Budisa as making the same point, adding that this will be the fifth post-communist government, which, he claims, shows that Croatia is politically unstable, a view that the HDZ firmly denies. Budisa concluded that the shuffle may help the HDZ consolidate its own ranks but will do little for the country. Valentic, for his part, has promised to take quick action on the economy and look into the subject of press freedom. -Patrick Moore SOFIA INVESTIGATING CYPRIOT SHIP FOR BREAKING UN EMBARGO. The daily newspaper Standart reported on 2 April that a ship registered in Cyprus and carrying rolls of steel metal has been detained in the port of Burgas since 18 February. The iron was allegedy destined for Serbia in violation on the UN trade sanctions again that country. An RFE/RL correspondent learned that the news had been leaked to the press, contrary to customs officials wishes. -Duncan Perry ETHNIC HUNGARIANS CONTINUE PROTESTS IN ROMANIA. On 2 April thousands of ethnic Hungarians demonstrated in the town of Sfintu Gheorghe to protest the Romanian government's decision to appoint ethnic Romanian prefects to the counties of Covasna and Harghita. The two counties have ethnic Hungarian (Szekler) majorities. Speakers at the rally described the appointment of Vlad Casuneanu as prefect of Covasna as "immoral" in view of the new prefect's communist past and ideas. In a separate development, Reformist ethnic Hungarian Bishop Laszlo Tokes told journalists in Cluj that his recent statements in Washington about an alleged "ethnic cleansing" in Romania have been taken out of the context. Tokes said that he regretted the fact that the wording awakened "unhappy associations with the situation in Bosnia" and caused an uproar in parliament. But he insisted that the ultimate effect of emigration and assimilation among Magyars in Romania was similar to that of forced deportation.-Dan Ionescu YELTSIN WRITES TO HAVEL. In a letter delivered to President Vaclav Havel by Russian Ambassador Alexander Lebedev on 2 April, Russian President Boris Yeltsin thanked Havel for "his support and solidarity." CTK reports Havel's spokesman as saying that Yeltsin's letter was a response to Havel's letter of the end of March, which expressed support for Yeltsin and the democratic reforms in Russia. According to Havel, the promptness with which Yeltsin responded shows that "relations between the two presidents are warm." Yeltsin also wrote he accepts Havel's invitation to visit Prague; no date for the visit was given.-Jiri Pehe KRAVCHUK AGAIN EXPRESSES SUPPORT FOR YELTSIN RESPONDING TO QUESTIONS FROM LISTENERS DURING A LIVE PHONE-IN PROGRAM ON UKRAINIAN RADIO ON 2-APRIL, UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT LEONID KRAVCHUK, AMONG OTHER THINGS, REITERATED HIS SUPPORT FOR HIS RUSSIAN COUNTERPART, BORIS YELTSIN AND HIS POLICIES. "My support," Kravchuk explained, "and I think that it is not only mine, but of Ukraine [as a whole], is not so much for Boris Nikolaevich, as for reforms and democratic changes in Russia." Ukraine, he said, wants to express this support "by cooperating with Russia and finding ways of resolving acute questions and not causing problems for one another." Kravchuk also confirmed that he had invited the Russian president to visit Kiev to "sign those documents, which we should sign with Russia." -Bohdan Nahaylo SLOVAK PRESIDENT ON THE MEDIA. Speaking at a meeting with members of the Syndicate of Slovak Journalists on 2 April, Slovak President Michal Kovac said that the media should not look only for negative aspects of the current political developments and, rather, "be more positive in their evaluations of the work of the parliament and political parties." Julius Gembicky, the syndicate's chairman, replied that journalists can fulfill their role only if they preserve their critical attitude. At the end of March, during his meeting with directors of the Slovak Press Agency (TASR), Kovac said that the agency should be "an extended arm of the president." -Jiri Pehe POLAND SELECTS DIVERSE BROADCASTING COUNCIL. The nine members of Poland's new National Council on Radiophonics and Television, whose selection was completed on 4 April, represent the entire political spectrum. The Senate selected Ryszard Miazak (Polish Peasant Party) and Senator Jan Szafraniec (Christian National Union) on 1 April. In two days of voting on 2 and 3 April, the Sejm chose journalist Andrzej Zarebski (Liberal Democratic Congress), filmmaker Boleslaw Sulik (Democratic Union), Trybuna editor Marek Siwiec (Democratic Left), and Lech Dymarski (Movement for the Republic). President Walesa completed his selections on 4 April, naming journalists' union chief Maciej Ilowiecki and conservative politician Ryszard Bender to the council. Walesa had already appointed Marek Markiewicz as council chairman on 1-March. The options represented on the council range from advocates of unrestricted free speech to conservative Catholics determined to eliminate programs deemed to violate "Christian values." Siwiec's selection marked the first time the Sejm has elected a representative of the Democratic Left to parliamentary office. The new council is to oversee public radio and television and issue licenses for private broadcasters. -Louisa Vinton "DEMOCRATS' FORUM" HELD IN BUCHAREST. On 3 and 4 April, the Civic Alliance, a centrist movement supporting the democratic process in Romania, organized in Bucharest a so-called "Democrats' Forum" to discuss ways of overcoming the country's post-communist crisis. The conference was devoted to establishing a "national dialogue" to help consolidate the rule of law and civic society in Romania. All democratic opposition parties as well as trade unions, human rights associations, churches, ecological groups and the media were invited to take part in the event. In an interview with Radio Bucharest on 2 April, CA president Gabriel Andreescu said the forum is open to t members of the ruling Democratic National Salvation Front and of such parties as the Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party and the Party of Romanian National Unity, who agree with the basic principles of a minimal program of democratic action. Debates focused on the legislative framework of Romania's current transition to democracy and a market economy. The conference also discussed such issues as corruption and nationalism in Romania. -Dan Ionescu GERMAN ENVIRONMENT MINISTER TO ROMANIA. On 4 April German Environment Minister Klaus Toepfer began a two-day official visit in Romania to inspect the return to Germany of some 425 tons of toxic waste illegally dumped in the region of Sibiu in Transylvania in 1992 The waste had been exported by private German firms without the permission of the federal authorities Bonn agreed to take back the waste during a visit paid there by Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu last month. Toepfer is scheduled to meet Romania's President Ion Iliescu, Prime MInister Nicolae Vacaroiu and Melescanu on 5 April in Bucharest. He will also sign a bilateral agreement of environmental cooperation with his Romanian counterpart Aurel Constantin Ilie. Some 20 tons of waste have been loaded so far.on a special train sent from Germany -Dan Ionescu NO BULGARIAN INVOLVEMENT IN THE PLOT TO ASSISINATE POPE SAY OFFICIALS. Bulgarian interior minister Victor Mihailov informed the National Assembly on 2 April that there was no complicity of the Bulgarian government in the plot to kill Pope John Paul II, according to an RFE/RL correspondent in Sofia. The announcement was made following a lengthy investigation of evidence collected by Italian, American, French, and Russia authorities. -Vihar Krastev and Duncan Perry DOLGOS CRITICIZES SLOW PACE OF PRIVATIZATION IN SLOVAKIA. Slovak Privatization Minister Lubomir Dolgos told Reuters on 2 April that the pace of privatization in Slovakia is slow and that the government is failing to support the transformation of the economy. Dolgos criticized the ministries of economy, trade, and agriculture for "slowing down the state-owned enterprises's shift to private ownership." He said he was tired of "privatization projects not being approved by the government" and that he "felt a lack of support." Dolgos's criticism of the government comes in the wake of the resignation of Economy Minister Ludovit Cernak and the ouster from the government of Foreign Minister Milan Knazko. Dolgos, who in March was elected vice chairman of Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, told Reuters: "When I was just a minister, my tenure here was limited; now it's more complicated to get rid of me." -Jiri Pehe REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY OF RUSSIAN SPEAKERS IN ESTONIA. On 3 April the Representative Assembly of Russian Speakers in Estonia held its third session in Sillamae, Baltic media report. The assembly adopted a draft statement noting that since there is no state program on studying Estonian it will be difficult in areas populated largely by Russian speakers to implement the law requiring that all clerical work be carried out only in Estonian. It also approved an amendment demanding that Russian be given the status of an official language. The final statement will be approved at the assembly's next session. -Saulius Girnius 7,600 RUSSIAN TROOPS REMAIN IN ESTONIA. Vasilii Svirin, the head of the Russian delegation negotiating with Estonia, said after talks with his Estonian counterpart Juri Luik that as of 1 March there were 7,600 Russian troops in Estonia, BNS reported on 2 April. Luik said that Estonian officials are checking the accuracy of this information and suggested that a summit meeting of presidents or prime ministers be held this month or in early May. -Saulius Girnius POLISH MASS PRIVATIZATION SURVIVES ANOTHER CHALLENGE. After rejecting a motion to dismiss Privatization Minister Janusz Lewandowski on 2 April, the Sejm voted down a similar motion to throw out the government's revised mass privatization package the following day. The draft legislation was sent to a committee. In both votes, the ruling coalition won support from some of the former communist deputies in the Democratic Left Alliance. The government designated the legislation as "urgent," so the Sejm is required to complete work on it within a month. Attempts to advance this deadline failed, although the government urged greater speed. The Sejm rejected the government's first mass privatization proposal in March, after two years of debate. -Louisa Vinton RADICAL POLISH FARMERS STAGE UNRULY PROTEST. Polish police intervened on 2 April after some 700 demonstrators from the radical Self-Defense farmers' union broke through two police cordons and threatened to storm the Sejm. The demonstrators threw eggs, waved cow bones, planted a birch cross on the lawn in front of the Sejm, and demanded that the parliament dissolve itself. Sixty-eight demonstrators, including Self-Defense's demagogic chairman Andrzej Lepper, were arrested. All were released by evening; police officials told Gazeta Wyborcza that they will face misdemeanor charges for disturbing the peace and taking part in an illegal demonstration. Self-Defense has long been under official investigation for alleged illegal activities. -Louisa Vinton MOST UKRAINIAN MINERS IGNORE STRIKE CALL. The strike action by Ukrainian coalminers which was called for the weekend seems to have had little support. According to Ukrainian Radio of 3 April, only 23-of Ukraine's 250 coalmines were affected by the protest. -Bohdan Nahaylo FOOD PRICES RISE IN LITHUANIA, ON 1 APRIL THE PRICE OF MEAT INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY, RADIO LITHUANIA REPORTED ON 2 APRIL. The price of a kilogram of pork rose from 320 to 606 coupons while that of beef from 756 to 1,289 coupons. The price of cheese increased 20 to 25% and of bread 20 to 40%. On 3 April President Algirdas Brazauskas, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius, Agriculture Minister Rimantas Karazija, and other officials discussed the price rises which were deemed to be excessive and suggested that a price ceiling may be introduced. -Saulius Girnius WORKERS PROTEST IN LITHUANIA. On 2 April police prevented about 2,000 protesters, organized by the Union of Workers of Lithuania, from storming the parliament in Vilnius, Radio Lithuania reports. The protesters, carrying banners condemning the Communists in parliament and government, failed in their demands that President Algirdas Brazauskas address them and jeered Economics Minister Julius Veselka when he tried to speak to them. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wenndy Slater and Michael Shafir THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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