|Praise yourself daringly, something always sticks. - Francis Bacon|
No. 63, 01 April 1993
RUSSIA FILATOV SUGGESTS ADDITIONAL QUESTION FOR REFERENDUM. The head of the presidential staff, Sergei Filatov, told journalists on 31 March that the Boris Yeltsin's supporters would be taking steps to promote the referendum scheduled for 25 April, various Russian media reported. He said that the questions to be put to referendum omit the issue of the new Russian Constitution, and suggested that the presidential side "would like the parliament to agree to including this question on the ballot sheets." Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV, NECHAEV ON CHERNOMYRDIN. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov criticized Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin in an interview on Ostankino TV on 31 March for continuing to pursue the "shock therapy" reforms of his predecessor, Egor Gaidar. He accused Chernomyrdin of ignoring the decisions of the parliament. Andrei Nechaev, who has recently been released from the post of economics minister, also criticized Chernomyrdin for appointing only officials connected with the old Gosplan structures to the Cabinet of Ministers. He told Moskovsky komsomolets on 31 March that Chernomyrdin should streamline the cabinet. In his opinion, only a dictatorship could resist the pressure to which the cabinet is exposed from the parliament, the central bank, and the agrarian and industrial lobbies. Alexander Rahr ABDULATIPOV MEETS YELTSIN ON ANNIVERSARY OF FEDERAL TREATY. The chairman of the Russian parliament's Council of Nationalities Ramazan Abdulatipov met Yeltsin on 31 March, the first anniversary of the signing of the federal treaty, to discuss ethnic relations in the Russian Federation, ITAR-TASS reported. Abdulatipov told a press conference afterwards that, in his view, Yeltsin's entourage is failing to translate the president's support for the federal treaty into practical political and legal measures. Abdulatipov also brought up Yeltsin's 15 March decree on concessions to the Cossacks, which has aroused considerable concern in some quarters. Abdulatipov said that he discussed with Yeltsin the question of making changes to the decree. Ann Sheehy RUSSIA WANTS TO CHANGE CFE? THE WASHINGTON TIMES REPORTED ON 31 MARCH THAT RUSSIA IS QUIETLY SEEKING CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF THE CFE TREATY IN ORDER TO DEPLOY MORE MILITARY FORCES IN THE WAR-TORN CAUCASUS REGION. Quoting unnamed American diplomatic sources, the newspaper said that Russian officials have argued that ethnic violence in the South, and particularly in Georgia, threatens its security and that it must deploy the additional forces to protect its interests. The issue was reportedly discussed by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher and Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev during a recent meeting. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev touched on the issue at a press conference in early March when he suggested that Russia's shifting geo-political situation might compel it to request changes in the force sub-limits allowed by CFE, without altering the overall weapons ceilings. Stephen Foye DEFENSE MINISTER, DIPLOMAT ON BALTIC WITHDRAWAL. During a visit to St. Petersburg on 31 March, Defense Minister Pavel Grachev said that his 29 March speech at NATO had been distorted. Novosti quoted Grachev as specifying that the withdrawal of troops from Lithuania will be carried out, but that the pullout from Estonia and Latvia will be done only after the signing of relevant treaties. According to the same Novosti report, 29 units are to be withdrawn to the Leningrad Military District from the Baltic States. In remarks reported by BNS on 30 March, Russian diplomat Aleksandr Udaltsov said that Grachev's 29 March speech had not revealed anything unexpected. He too mentioned alleged problems in negotiating the pullout with Estonia and Latvia, but argued that the long election campaign in Lithuania had held up negotiations there as well. Stephen Foye CRITICISM FROM WORLD BANK. World Bank President Lewis Preston has sharply criticized Russia for its inability to use much of the money already allocated to it, and the Russian Central Bank (RCB) for its failure to get a grip on inflation, Reuters reported on 31 March. Preston's condemnation of the Russian authorities for failing to get their act together came one day after similar criticism by the IMF's resident representative in Moscow (see the RFE/RL Daily Report for 31 March). He warned that the World Bank will not be able to go ahead with loans for Russian agriculture or help in modernizing its banking system until the country acts to stabilize its economy. Preston laid much of the blame on RCB Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko: "nobody's been able to reform him." On a more positive note, IMF Deputy Managing Director Richard Erb said on 31 March that the plan of economic priority measures drawn up by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov and approved "in principle" by the presidium of the government on 25 March, could provide a "solid base" for Russian cooperation with the IMF. Keith Bush and Robert Lyle NONPAYMENT OF TAXES. According to a calculation by the Biznes i banki newspaper, cited by ITAR-TASS on 23 March, the annual nonpayment of taxes in Russia probably amounts to more than 40% of all planned tax revenue. This scale of default is presumably separate from, and additional to, deliberate withholding of taxes by regions and localities. It should be viewed in the context of a possible combined budget deficit for 1993 exceeding 30% of GDP. (see the RFE/RL Daily Report for 30 March). Keith Bush INTEREST RATES RAISED. The biggest savings bank in Russia, Sberbank, is to raise its interest rates from 1 April, Reuters reported on 31 March. Interest on instant-access accounts will earn 40% annual interest (twice the previous rate), and one-year deposits will earn 100% annual interest, up from 60%. The new rates will still be negative: inflation in 1992 was said to be 2,632%, and monthly rates so far this year have reportedly been 28%, 25%, and 12%. Keith Bush MINERS POSTPONE STRIKE ACTION. The Kuzbass and Vorkuta coal miners have decided to postpone strike action scheduled to begin on 1 April, according to an RFE/RL correspondent on 31 March. The Independent Miners' Union has recommended that strike action be avoided in the period leading up to the referendum, ITAR-TASS reported on the same day. The Kuzbass miners have apparently decided to boycott the April 25 referendum, as they favor a strong presidency as the only way to ensure that reforms are implemented. The Vorkuta miners, on the other hand, will be campaigning for Yeltsin in the referendum. According to Novosti on the same day the miners consider that their demands are being blocked by the parliament rather than the government. Sheila Marnie. FURTHER PROTESTS AGAINST CONGRESS DECISION ON MEDIA. The Moscow Union of Journalists has said that it will apply to the Constitutional Court to rule on the legality of the Congress of People's Deputies recent decision to put the state-financed broadcasting media under parliamentary editorial control. On 31 March, ITAR-TASS quoted a statement from the union which said that the Congress' decision represented a return to the "Bolshevik era of open censorship." On 30 March, the management of both channels of Russian television also said that it intended to appeal to the Constitutional Court. Vera Tolz RUSSIAN COMMUNIST PARTY REGISTERED. Various Russian media reported that the revived Communist Party of the Russian Federation, which held its founding conference on 13-14 February, had been officially registered as a political party with the Russian Ministry of Justice on 24 March. At a press conference on 31 March, the leader of the CP-RF, Gennadii Zyuganov expressed confidence that the party, which he claimed numbered 600,000 members, was capable of influencing political events. He said that the CP-RF was working with other parties toward the April referendum. Zyuganov described the 29th CPSU Congress, held on 26-27 March in Moscow when the Union of Communist Parties--CPSU was formed, as premature. He advised first the official registration of communist parties in all the former Soviet republics before the formation of an international union of communist parties. Wendy Slater SALES OF US ENERGY EQUIPMENT EASED. The board of directors of the World Bank agreed on 30 March to revise its "negative pledge clause" rules that had been a major hurdle to Ex-Im Bank financing of US oil and gas industry sales to Russia, the Journal of Commerce reported on 31 March. The waiver will mean that the World Bank will not stand in the way of collection of collateralized loans guaranteed by the Ex-Im Bank. Normally, the World Bank enjoys priority in collecting an overdue debt from a debtor country. The World Bank, together with the EBRD and export credit agencies, is reported to be considering a $1.3 billion credit package for Russia to help develop the Tyumen oilfields. Keith Bush URANIUM AGREEMENT BEING RECONSIDERED? THE SYNDICATED COLUMNISTS ROWLAND EVANS AND ROBERT NOVAK REPORTED ON 31 MARCH IN THE WASHINGTON POST THAT RUSSIA IS TRYING TO REOPEN NEGOTIATIONS ON AN AGREEMENT TO SELL HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM TO THE US, WHERE IT WOULD BE DILUTED AND REPROCESSED FOR USE AS NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL. According to the report, the Russian government would now like to perform the dilution and reprocessing within Russia, rather than in the US. This would presumably reduce the cost of the process, and perhaps increase Russian profits. It is unclear whether the Russian side would agree to verification of the process by Western observers, since the agreement is more of a commercial pact than an arms control accord. John Lepingwell ARRESTS IN THE PACIFIC FLEET. After stating that "heads would roll" after the gross mistreatment of conscripts in the Pacific Fleet resulted in four deaths, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev reportedly dismissed the commander of the fleet, Admiral Gennadii Khvatov. However, a few days after the reported dismissal, Khvatov stated he had never received the order. ITAR-TASS on 30 March reported, however, that the a Russian deputy chief military procurator has been sent to investigate the incident and that six servicemen have been arrested, including Khvatov's senior assistant. Five other servicemen are also under investigation, and Khvatov himself has been interrogated. The procurator noted that at first the Defense Ministry had not handed the results of the initial investigation to the local military procurator, but that it is now being more forthcoming. On 31 March, Krasnaya zvezda reported that the Commander of the Russian Navy Admiral Feliks Gromov had arrived to investigate the status of the fleet and that Vice-Admiral Georgii Gurinov is likely to be appointed the new Pacific Fleet commander. John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA RUSSIA'S DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION. The Russian State Statistical Committee reports that deaths continued to exceed births in Russia in the first two months of 1993, according to ITAR-TASS on 30 March. In January and February the number of deaths were 50% higher than the number of births. In Moscow and St. Petersburg, there were 2.6 deaths for each birth, and overall deaths exceeded births in 70 regions of the Russian Federation. The decline in the Russian population is expected to continue throughout this year. Sheila Marnie TURKEY CONDEMNS NEW ARMENIAN KARABAKH OFFENSIVE. Armenian infantry and armor continued a two pronged attack on 31 March in the Kelbadzhar raion northwest of Lachin, in the area of Azerbaijan that divides Nagorno-Karabakh from Armenia, Turan News Agency reported. The Armenian forces are reported to have taken up to 40 villages in the past five days in an attempt to establish a second land corridor linking Armenia and Karabakh; Azerbaijan sent helicopters to the raion center of Kelbadzhar to begin evacuating the civilian population, according to Azertadzh. Meanwhile, an RFE/RL correspondent reported that Azerbaijan's ambassador to the UN has informed the Security Council of the latest Azerbaijani Karabakh peace proposal unveiled by Foreign Minister Tofik Gasymov at informal CSCE sponsored talks in Geneva. The proposal comprises the demilitarization of Nagorno-Karabakh and the return of displaced persons to their homes. . A Turkish Foreign Ministry statement of 31 March condemned the new Armenian offensive as "irresponsible," and called for an immediate halt to Armenia's aggression and the withdrawal of Armenian troops from the territory they have occupied. Liz Fuller CURFEW, STATE OF EMERGENCY IN TAJIKISTAN. A curfew and state of emergency were imposed in the Kurgan-Tyube oblast of Tajikistan on 31 March amid fears of mutual reprisals by kinsmen and forces loyal to the two Popular Front leaders killed in a dispute two days earlier, Western agencies reported. The funerals of the two men took place on 31 March. A Russian Foreign Ministry statement summarized by ITAR-TASS called on the Tajik people to do "everything necessary to avoid a spiral of violence" in order not to jeopardize the process of stabilization. Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE SECURITY COUNCIL VOTES TO ENFORCE NO-FLY ZONE IN BOSNIA, EXTEND MANDATE IN CROATIA. International media report that the UN's top body voted on 31 March to authorize NATO planes to shoot down any aircraft violating the flight ban on Bosnia it imposed last October. There have been nearly 500 confirmed violations to date, including a Serbian bombing run. The 1 April New York Times says that the resolution is of more political than military importance and is designed to pressure Bosnian Serbs into agreeing to the UN-sponsored peace settlement. The vote came soon after the Security Council voted to extend the mandate of UNPROFOR troops in Croatia until the end of June. The text, as reported by Borba on 31 March, stresses that the UN-administered but actually Serb-controlled areas in question are part of Croatia, but Zagreb's earlier demands that the extension include a specific timetable for returning Croatian administration and refugees to these areas went unheeded. Croatia's UN ambassador Mario Nobilo told Vjesnik that the reference to the areas' being part of Croatia dashed any Serbs hopes that Serb control could continue indefinitely, but Nobilo conceded that Croatia could attain its other goals only "slowly." Finally, the 1 April New York Times says that UN special negotiator Cyrus Vance, who has been instrumental in both the Croatian and the Bosnian talks, will resign soon and be replaced by former Norwegian Foreign Minister Thorvald Stoltenberg, who, the newspaper says, "knows the Balkans well." Patrick Moore BOSNIANS CRUSHED IN SREBRENICA STAMPEDE. International media reported on 31 March that at least six people, mainly children, were killed as a result of a rush to board 14 packed UN trucks taking Muslim refugees from the embattled town to the relative safety of Tuzla. Bosnian crowds are not known for their discipline even in the best of times, and panic appears to have ensued among the refugees who felt that this was their last chance to escape certain death at the hands of advancing Serb forces. The 1 April Los Angeles Times says that the UN has suspended further evacuations until an orderly procedure can be set up, and adds that the Srebrenica authorities also suspended the operation, which, the Muslims feel, aids the Serb policy of ethnic cleansing. That policy appears, moreover, to have been stepped up in northern Bosnia in recent weeks while international attention was focused on the eastern part of the republic. The BBC's Croatian service on 31 March quoted UN officials as saying that about 300 Muslims and Croats arrive in Croatia from Bosnia daily, adding to the burden of 600,000 refugees with which the Zagreb government must deal. Finally, the 1 April Chicago Tribune says that food, fuel, and heavy weapons are regularly reaching Bosnian Serbs from Serbia. Patrick Moore ROMANIA DETAINS SHIPS ON THE DANUBE. Romania has detained one Russian and one Hungarian ship, both carrying iron ore. Iron ore has been recently added to the list of goods on which the embargo against Serbia and Montenegro is applied. A spokesman for the ministry of transport quoted by Rompres on 31 March said the ships were detained in Galati because they did not have UN Security Council approval to sail with their cargo upstream towards rump Yugoslavia. MTI reports, however, that the Hungarian ship is carrying iron ore from Ukraine for a steel works in Hungary, and says that Hungarian officials have demanded the vessel's release. Michael Shafir WEU PRESIDENT IN ROMANIA. Hartmut Soell, the president of the West European Union, addressed a joint session of the two chambers of parliament on 31 March. Soell said the WEU appreciates Romania's position on the embargo against rump Yugoslavia and would support Romania's request for equipment needed for making the embargo more efficient, as well as its request for compensation for the losses suffered as a result of enforcing the embargo. In a speech carried live by Radio Bucharest Soell added that in order to promote Romania's integration into European structures, European security interests must be taken into consideration. He alluded to differences concerning both Bucharest's policies towards national minorities and its positions on Romanian minorities living outside the country (a veiled reference to Moldova). The WEU delegation met president Ion Iliescu, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu, Foreign Minister Theodor Melescanu, Defense Minister Nicolae Spiroiu and other officials. Michael Shafir SLOVAK PRESIDENT'S VISIT TO PRAGUE TERMED "SUCCESS." Speaking at a press conference on 31 March, at the end of Slovak President Michal Kovac's visit to Prague, Czech President Vaclav Havel and Kovac both said that they made progress toward resolving bilateral conflicts. Kovac said that the two countries agreed to sign, possibly as early as15 April, treaties on the division of those assets of former Czechoslovakia that are still undivided. Havel said that "it is in the interest of the Czech Republic that Slovakia is going in the same direction." He also said that "it is not in our interest to build a dividing line between the Czech Republic and Slovakia that would become a dividing line between West and East." Both presidents expressed support for cooperation among members of the Visegrad group--Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Havel, however, warned that membership in the group should not limit the scope of action of its members: "Each state should be accepted as member of the European Community when it is ready. Such a state cannot wait for the others." Jiri Pehe AUSTRIAN PRESIDENT VISITS HUNGARY. Thomas Klestil arrived in Budapest on 31 March on a two-day official visit, Radio Budapest and MTI report. President Arpad Goncz thanked Klestil for the farm trade agreement with Austria signed on 26 March which paved the way for Hungary signing a few days later a treaty with the European Free Trade Association. Prime Minister Jozsef Antall said that both countries want to strengthen stability in the area through bilateral and regional cooperation in such areas as controlling illegal immigration, international crime fighting, and environmental issues, and play a constructive role in ending the armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia. According to Klestil, Hungary's road to Europe goes through Austria, which is interested in having a stable and prosperous neighbor on its eastern border. Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT ENDS DEFENSE LAW DEBATE. Debate on the basic principles of Hungary's national defense closed on 30 March after a six-party consensus was reached, MTI reports. The document states that Hungary will take into account the security interests of its neighbors and that its army cannot possess weapons of mass destruction. While a military draft will be retained for the time being, several deputies felt that the number of draftees can be reduced by at least 25% in the next two years, as can the length of military service. Alfred Reisch HUNGARY REFORMS HIGHER MILITARY EDUCATION. By the middle of this year the Defense Ministry will work out a program to reform military higher education, Col. Jozsef Hollo told Radio Budapest on 30 March. The program will take into account the need to train a professional army and will be linked to the reform of Hungary's higher education system by the year 2000. Hungary plans to set up a university for national security and military science, which will also train civilian defense and security experts. A training center for international peacekeeping forces for military personnel from the entire region will also be established soon in Hungary, Hollo said. Alfred Reisch UKRAINIAN WARNING ON BLACK SEA FLEET. On 31 March the Ukrainian Defense Ministry issued a statement warning that it is considering asking parliament to renounce the 1992 Yalta agreement with Russia under which the fleet would be jointly commanded by the two countries until 1995. The statement accuses the Russian side of violating the agreement by unilaterally redeploying equipment and giving orders. The statement comes at the same time that Russia is apparently adopting a tougher stance towards Ukraine on military issues. John Lepingwell MOROZOV, GRACHEV ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN UKRAINE. At the North Atlantic Cooperation Council meeting on 29 March, Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov clarified Ukraine's position concerning nuclear weapons. According to Ukrainian Radio of 30 March, he urged NATO to take a more active role in assisting Ukraine with the elimination of nuclear weapons, rather than just telling Ukraine to do so. Morozov proposed that a working group be established to estimate costs and propose funding for the disarmament process. Morozov also suggested that the West assist in integrating Ukraine into a ballistic missile early warning network. The recent negotiations with Russia over the elimination of nuclear weapons, stated Morozov, achieved nothing more than demonstrating Russia's tough stand on the issues. As a precondition for Ukraine's denuclearization, Morozov called for the US and Russia to sign an agreement recognizing Ukraine's borders and territorial integrity and pledging not to use military or economic threats against Ukraine. The UN Security Council would also be expected to endorse the agreement. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 31 March, Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev called for the West to take tougher measures to get Ukraine to eliminate the nuclear weapons on its territory, warning that they are becoming increasingly unsafe. The statement was rejected by Ukrainian Deputy Foreign Minister Boris Tarasyuk, who called Grachev's comments part of "a policy of blackmail and intimidation." John Lepingwell WOULD UKRAINIAN TECHNOLOGY SUFFER IF KIEV YIELDS NUKES? AS SUMMARIZED IN THE 25 MARCH ISSUE OF THE MILITARY NEWSPAPER NARODNA ARMIYA, A RECENT CONFERENCE OF THE RADICAL NATIONALIST UKRAINIAN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY DEVOTED TO THE ISSUE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS HEARD NUMEROUS ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR OF UKRAINE'S "NUCLEAR MUSCLES." Conference participant Oleksandr Kovalenko, a former staff member at the Institute of Nuclear Studies who currently works in the Cabinet of Ministers, bemoaned the "poor state of the Ukrainian military-industrial complex and basic sciences" and said that the destruction of the nuclear arsenal under the terms of START-1 would accelerate the decline of Ukrainian science and technology. UNA consultant S. Artemenko warned that compromises with Russia or the US would be a sign of weakness and could lead to an escalation of demands on Ukraine. Artemenko further maintained that American military doctrine bears witness to "the impossibility of a nonnuclear strategy." Kathy Mihalisko LITHUANIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVED. On 31 March the Seimas approved the government program of Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius by a vote of 73 to 27 with 21 abstentions, Radio Lithuania reports. This step confirmed the nomination of his Cabinet of 16 ministers of whom only three had not been ministers in the government of his predecessor, Bronislovas Lubys. Saulius Girnius PALECKIS APPOINTED ADVISOR TO LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT. Former Lithuanian Communist Party secretary Justas Vincas Paleckis, who has joined the Social Democratic Party, has been appointed foreign affairs adviser to President Brazauskas, BNS reported on 30 March. The appointment was unexpected since his party is in opposition to the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party. Saulius Girnius POSSIBLE NEW CHAIRMAN OF LDLP. On 28 March Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party leaders Povilas Gylys, Justinas Karosas, Gediminas Kirkilas, and Jurgis Kuncinas, rumored to be competitors for the party's chairmanship at its Congress on 17-18 April, met with President Algirdas Brazauskas, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. It was decided that the best candidate would be Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius, who suspended his membership in the party's council upon learning that he would be prime minister. At the Seimas session on 31 March he said that he had decided to remain in the council. Saulius Girnius LITHUANIA ENDS PARTICIPATION IN SURGUT MEETING. The government has reemphasized that the participation of Albertas Sinevicius, the minister of industry and trade, in the talks on the multilateral agreements with CIS republics on oil and natural gas extraction (held on 2 March in Surgut) was only as an observer and does not signify Lithuania's adherence to the agreements, BNS reported on 30 March. The opposition in Lithuania fiercely condemned participation by a Lithuanian representative. President Brazauskas has stated that Lithuania will satisfy its oil needs with bilateral agreements and will not join any post-Soviet union. Saulius Girnius ESTONIA PROTESTS SEIZURE OF HYDROGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT. On 30 March Prime Minister Mart Laar said that his country is protesting the removal by the Russian ship Kompas of hydrographic equipment, as well as over 20 tons of navigation and other equipment, including four buoys. Laar said that removal of property is illegal under the Estonian-Russian treaty of 17 December 1992, which states that such materials must be handed over to Estonia, BNS reported on 30 March. Dzintra Bungs LATVIAN, ESTONIAN, RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTERS TO MEET? THE DEFENSE MINISTERS OF LATVIA, TALAVS JUNDZIS, AND ESTONIA, HAIN REBAS, TOLD THE PRESS THAT THEY NOW ANTICIPATE MEETINGS WITH RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV TO DISCUSS RUSSIAN TROOP WITHDRAWALS FROM THE BALTIC STATES. Grachev reportedly said that the pullouts depend directly on talks with his Baltic counterparts. It is not clear when these meetings will take place. The next Estonian-Russian negotiations are scheduled for 67 April in Nakhabino, near Moscow. Russian delegation leader Vasilii Svirin was optimistic about the progress of those talks, while the Estonian delegation head Juri Luik noted that unexpected problems have cropped up. He said that Estonia will not make concessions of issues of principle, BNS reported on 29-31 March. Dzintra Bungs FIRST LATVIAN ELECTION LIST SUBMITTED. On 31 March the Anticommunist Association submitted its list of parliamentary candidates--about a dozen for each district--to Latvia's Central Electoral Commission. The association, whose program was adopted on 13 February, calls for the "deoccupation, decolonization and debolshevization" of Latvia. It is the first group formally to submit its candidates for the June elections, BNS reports. Dzintra Bungs As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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