|Words that open our eyes to the world are always the easiest to remember. - Ryszard Kapuscinski|
No. 57, 24 March 1993
RUSSIA PARLIAMENT VOTES TO CALL CONGRESS ON FRIDAY. The session of the Russian parliament opened on 24 March; its proceedings were broadcast live on both Russian radio and TV. In the morning, the parliament heard a report from the Constitutional Court secretary, Yurii Rudkin, and voted to convene an extraordinary session of the Congress of People's Deputies on 26 March, presumably to discuss the possibility of Yeltsin's impeachment. The previous day, parliament had cut short its session because Yeltsin was attending his mother's funeral and the legislators found it "unethical" to discuss the president's eventual impeachment at such a time. After the break, deputy speaker Yurii Voronin announced that the parliamentary leadership had received the text of Yeltsin's decree. At 15:00 (Moscow time) Yeltsin, Khasbulatov, and Zorkin are scheduled to meet, and at 17:30 these three are to appear before the parliament. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. CONSTITUTIONAL COURT RULES YELTSIN'S DECREE UNCONSTITUTIONAL. The Constitutional Court spent the day and entire night, discussing Yeltsin's TV address of 20 March. In the morning of 23 March they issued a ruling that the introduction of "a special regime" contradicted a number of clauses of the Russian Constitution and the Federal Treaty with the subjects of the Russian Federation. The ruling passes over the question of whether or not the president should be impeached. Nine judges voted for this ruling, three (including the court's deputy chairman Nikolai Vitruk) voted against it. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. RULING OF CONSTITUTIONAL COURT ON YELTSIN'S ADDRESS. In their ruling the twelve judges of the Constitutional Court who examined "the actions and decisions of the President...in connection with his appeal to the citizens of Russia of 20 March 1993" found that these violated the Russian Constitution, the Federal Treaty, and the law on a referendum on several counts. First, the constitution makes no provision for the introduction of special rule except under a state of emergency. Secondly, Yeltsin's statement that under special rule any decisions of bodies or officials annulling or suspending the president's decrees would have no legal force was a limitation of the powers of the bodies of representative and judicial authority. Thirdly, while the president had the right to hold a referendum on a vote of confidence in the president and vice president, he had no right to say that the vote would decide whether the president or the Congress of People's Deputies ruled the country. His decision that the people would vote simultaneously on the draft of a new constitution and a law on elections to the federal parliament was a violation of the constitution and the law on a referendum. Moreover, his decision that the new constitution and the law on elections would come into force if the citizenry supported the president and vice president meant that voters were being asked to decide three issues with one vote, which violates the law on a referendum. Finally, his decision that under special rule the heads of executive power and government of the subjects of the Russian Federation would be subordinated directly to the Russian president and government and that their powers could not be suspended without the decision of the president was clear interference in the competence in the subjects of the federation and a unilateral alteration of the Federal Treaty which created a real threat to the integrity of the Russian Federation. Ann Sheehy, RFE/RL Inc. "YELTSIN ATTEMPTED A COUP," KHASBULATOV SAYS. At a news conference on 23 March, the speaker of the Russian parliament, Ruslan Khasbulatov alleged that the Yeltsin team was going to continue their "bankrupt" economic reforms by force and to this end had committed "an attempted coup d'etat." According to Khasbulatov, only the resistance of Yeltsin's opponents and the fear of Western public opinion have thus far prevented the executive power from turning to violence. Khasbulatov confirmed that the parliament was going to start the process of Yeltsin's impeachment. According to the constitution, Khasbulatov went on to say, Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi would step in, should the president be impeached. Khasbulatov vigorously denied that the parliament consists of communists, adding that Yeltsin inherited the entire CPSU Central Committee staff, which is applying communist party methods to fight his opponents. A report on the press-conference was broadcast on Russian television later that night. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. YELTSIN TAKES MEASURES TO ENSURE COMPLIANCE WITH HIS DECREES. President Yeltsin has issued a decree to secure the compliance of local executive bodies with his decrees and federal government decisions, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 March. The decree, which was signed by Yeltsin on 22 March, said: "I warn officials of the executive who do not carry out their duties or, equally, who block legislative acts of the Russian Federation of their personal responsibility before the president." The decree did not specify, however, what would happen to officials who do not comply with presidential decrees. The decree said that Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and the presidential chief of staff Sergei Filatov should check compliance with the presidential decrees and government decisions in two weeks' time and suggest what to do about the situation. The document also said that heads of regional administrations should report to Yeltsin within one month on evidence of concrete failures to comply with decrees and decisions. Vera Tolz, RFE/RL Inc. KOZYREV IN WASHINGTON. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and US Secretary of State Warren Christopher held talks on 23 March about the current political crisis in Russia and the US-Russian summit scheduled to take place on 3 and 4 April in Vancouver. Kozyrev and Christopher agreed on an agenda for the summit, and Kozyrev said that Russia will support the proposed UN resolution on enforcing a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina. Kozyrev also held talks with US Defense Secretary Les Aspin about further arms reductions. Kozyrev is scheduled to meet US President Bill Clinton on 24 March. Clinton expressed support for Boris Yeltsin at a news conference on 23 March, at which he enumerated three US interests in cooperating with Russia: reducing the threat of nuclear war and nuclear proliferation, supporting democracy in Russia, and supporting the development of a market economy, Western and Russian agencies reported. Suzanne Crow, RFE/RL Inc. IZVESTIYA: WEST MUST NOT SIDE WITH YELTSIN AGAINST PARLIAMENT. On 19 March, Izvestiya (one of Russia's most pro-Yeltsin and anti-parliament newspapers) published an article by Stanislav Kondrashov, the paper's veteran foreign affairs observer, entitled "Congress in Moscow and Meeting in Vancouver," which said that US President Clinton, and the West in general, must not side with Yeltsin against the parliament. According to this article, such a one-sided attitude is counterproductive as it only adds fuel to the domestic Russian conflict. It claims that the Western perception of Yeltsin being "almost the only guarantor of Russia's movement toward democracy and the West" is misleading, as the American media merely reiterate what the most radical (and very small) part of Russia's political spectrum have told them. Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. PARLIAMENTARY HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE SUPPORTS YELTSIN. The Human Rights Committee of the Russian parliament adopted a resolution on 23 March saying that President Yeltsin's introduction of special rule conformed to the highest principles of the Russian Constitution: the supremacy of the people and the priority of human rights, ITAR-TASS and Russian TV "Vesti" reported. The resolution described the current constitution as contradictory and thus subject to violation by all state bodies. It also said that the Constitutional Court has failed to achieve the status of an independent judicial body for which it was created, citing the statement of the court's chairman on the unconstitutionality of Yeltsin's decrees which was issued before the court had examined them, and the court's failure to examine a petition from pro-Yeltsin deputies on the legislature's infringement of the constitution. Wendy Slater, RFE/RL Inc. FEDOROV CALLS FOR GERASHCHENKO'S REPLACEMENT. In a further escalation of his dispute with Russian Central Bank Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko, Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov has called for Gerash-chenko's replacement, ITAR-TASS reported on 23 March. In letters to Yeltsin and Khasbulatov, Fedorov asserted that all attempts to compromise with Gerashchenko had failed and that it was in Russia's national interest to "raise the question of replacing the leadership of the Central Bank." The ruble fell to 684 rubles to the dollar on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange on 23 March, while commercial banks in Moscow raised their price for dollars to nearly 800 rubles. Keith Bush, RFE/RL Inc. CENSORSHIP IN OSTANKINO TELEVISION. On 22 March, the pro-"Democratic Russia" management of Ostankino TV failed to broadcast a prerecorded interview with Andrei Grachev (the last spokesman of former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev). The interview was supposed to be broadcast in the framework of an "independent" show, entitled "New Studio." The Ekho Moskvy radio station on 23 March cited the interviewer, Matvei Ganopolsky, as saying that neither he nor Grachev had been informed in advance that the interview was to be censored. Meanwhile, Western agencies on 21 March quoted Gorbachev as saying to a Russian TV journalist who had asked him to comment on Yeltsin's imposition of special rule: "It's useless for me to respond to you. You won't broadcast my remarks. I'll save them for Radio Liberty." Julia Wishnevsky, RFE/RL Inc. REPORTS ON OFFICERS ASSEMBLY. The newspapers Sovetskaya Rossiya and Segodnya carried articles on 23 March that provided some additional details on the 20 March All Army Officers Assembly meeting in Moscow. The former reported that 255 delegates from 19 krais and oblasts were in attendance, although it did not reveal how many of those delegates were active duty officers. Segodnya reported that a number of conservative political leaders also took part, and put the total number of participants at around 500. Aleksandr Sterligov, a former KGB general who now heads the nationalist and pro-communist Russian National Assembly, apparently gave a keynote speech in which he called upon the army to defend the constitution and to attempt to gain control over the Moscow mayoral election campaign. The assembly adopted an appeal to generals and officers in the army and the internal and security ministries urging them to disobey "anticonstitutional" orders from the president's office. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT BUNGLED IN TAJIKISTAN. Some 8,000 refugees who were encouraged by the Tajik government to return to their homes in southern Tajikistan a week ago are now facing starvation, Reuters quoted an official of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees as saying on 23 March. Inhabitants of the towns of Shaartuz and Kabodien refused to accept the returnees, who had fled to Dushanbe during the civil war of 1992, because the refugees are of a different regional origin. The Tajik government is eager to remove the refugees from Dushanbe, at least partly because they were sympathizers of the defeated democratic-nationalist-Islamic opposition coalition. UN and Red Cross officials in Geneva told Reuters that their organizations would help provide shelter for 30,000 displaced people in Tajikistan. Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. BATTALION FROM KYRGYZSTAN STATIONED ON TAJIK-AFGHAN BORDER. On 23 March ITAR-TASS reported that a battalion of troops from Kyrgyzstan has been brought up to strength on the Tajik-Afghan border. The press office of Russia's border guards described the battalion from Kyrgyzstan as part of the special CIS forces which CIS heads of state had agreed at the Minsk summit to provide for the protection of Tajikistan's border with Afghanistan. The border continues to be the site of frequent clashes between Russian border guards and Tajiks and Afghans trying to cross illegally, carrying weapons to anti-government fighters or smuggling drugs. In early March, Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev said that the Kyrgyz troops stationed on the border were not part of the CIS peacekeeping force. Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. AKAEV ON YELTSIN. Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev is the first Central Asian head of state to issue a statement in support of his Russian counterpart, Boris Yeltsin, Russian and Western news agencies noted on 23 March. ITAR-TASS carried Akaev's text, in which the Kyrgyz leader, himself committed to the creation of a democratic state, said that Kyrgyzstan is vitally concerned that Russia not turn away from the path to democracy and a market economy, and that Yeltsin is one of the fundamental guarantors that Russia will remain on the right road. Akaev described Yeltsin's plan for a referendum on reform as completely legal. The same day the press service of Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev announced that Nazarbaev has not yet made a statement on the political situation in Russia. Bess Brown, RFE/RL Inc. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE CENTRAL EUROPEAN INITIATIVE MEETS IN BUDAPEST. MTI reported on 23 March 1993 that Hungarian Foreign Minister Geza Jeszenszky opened a meeting of the foreign ministers of the group, whose members include Italy, Austria, Slovenia, Poland, Croatia, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Hungary. Miklos Nemeth, representing the EBRD, was also present. The delegation from Bosnia did not show up, but sent greetings. Hungary has the rotating presidency of the political organization, formerly known as the Pentagonale and Hexagonale. In his opening speech Jeszenszky said that the international community cannot allow territorial gains or ethnic cleansing in Europe and that European integration will not be possible without the integration of the Central European states. A joint statement was passed expressing support for Boris Yeltsin and the Russian democratization process. A summit meeting of the CEI prime ministers is planned for 16-17 July 1993, and a plan to hold a conference on minorities at the end of 1993 was also endorsed. Karoly Okolicsanyi, RFE/RL Inc. POLAND: SUPPORT FOR "DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS," NOT INDIVIDUALS. In comments to Polish TV on his return from the meeting of the Central European Initiative in Budapest, Foreign Affairs Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski stressed that Poland's support for Russian President Boris Yeltsin is intended as support for democratic institutions, not specific individuals. "Democratic forces in Russia must be supported," Skubiszewski said. "As a democratically elected president, Yeltsin is an expression of these forces. Other bodies in Russia do not have this attribute. This is not taking sides with certain people, but rather on behalf of democratic institutions." Skubiszewski also noted that President Lech Walesa had already expressed Poland's support for Yeltsin on 17 March. Walesa then commented that "it is not wise to fight over the steering wheel when you are driving, but parliaments often try." Louisa Vinton, RFE/RL Inc. KLAUS ON SUDETEN GERMANS, VISEGRAD. Speaking to journalists in Prague on 23 March after his return from a two-day visit to Germany, Czech Premier Vaclav Klaus said that the problem of Sudeten Germans is not fundamental to Czech-German relations. He said that the problem is more important in Bavaria than in the Czech Republic, because "every tenth person in Bavaria is of Sudeten-German origin" and the Bavarian government must react to the concerns of this constituency. Klaus said that in his talks with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl the issue of Sudeten Germans was not even touched upon. Klaus and Kohl agreed to speed up a deal to help the Czech Republic cope with a tide of refugees after Germany introduces limits on its asylum laws. In a speech in Munich on 22 March, Klaus said his government opposes the institutionalization of cooperation among the Visegrad Group (Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic) as an alternative to Czech membership in the European Community and rejects "any concept of the group as a poor man's club and buffer zone intended to keep the Balkans and the former Soviet Union at a safe distance from Western Europe. Jiri Pehe, RFE/RL Inc. IS THE UN TOUGHENING ITS STANCE ON THE SERBS? THE 24 MARCH WASHINGTON POST QUOTES THE UN'S CHIEF REFUGEE OFFICIAL IN SARAJEVO, LARRY HOLLINGWORTH, AS SAYING THAT THE UN SHOULD TAKE ACTION TO "STOP THE SERBS FROM GETTING IN TO SREBRENICA; SOMEONE HAS GOT TO STOP THE SERB ADVANCE." Hollingworth said he fears a mass exodus of Muslims if the place falls, and also called attention to the abusive treatment dealt out by Serb militias to UN troops and convoys. The New York Times and the BBC add that UN officials in Bosnia have decided to go ahead with the helicopter evacuation of wounded Muslims from Srebrenica even though Serb officials have not given their final approval. The helicopters will not stop for inspections in Serb-held Zvornik, as the Serbs want. Meanwhile back at the UN headquarters in New York, the vote on enforcing the no-fly zone over Bosnia has again been postponed. As to the Bosnian peace talks, negotiator Lord Owen told the New York Times: "It's the end of this period of talks. I'm afraid they'll go off and fight." Finally, Reuters on 23 March quoted French military sources as suggesting that there might be a role for former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev as the UN "envoy to oversee UN activities in former Yugoslavia." Patrick Moore, RFE/RL Inc. NEW CAUCUS FORMED IN BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT. On 23 March a new faction was registered in the Bulgarian National Assembly, BTA reports. All 19 members of the New Union for Democracy caucus are former deputies of the Union of Democratic Forces but have sided against the leadership of the coalition and now support the government led by Lyuben Berov. In a declaration, the NUD faction said its members will try to be a stabilizing factor in parliament. Defections have shrunk UDF representation from 110 to 90 deputies in the 240-seat legislature. Kjell Engelbrekt, RFE/RL Inc. BULGARIAN PRESIDENT TO VISIT ROMANIA. Zhelyu Zhelev will pay a one-day official visit to Bucharest on 27 March for talks with Romanian President Ion Iliescu. According to Radio Bucharest, the talks will focus on ways to boost bilateral relations as well as on the situation in former Yugoslavia. The two sides are expected to sign a series of protocols. Zhelev's visit comes amidst a flurry of contacts in recent weeks among Balkan leaders. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. ROMANIAN AUTHORITIES DROP CASE AGAINST CORNEA. Rompres reported on 23 March that Romanian authorities have decided to drop an investigation against human rights activist and former anticommunist dissident Doina Cornea. Last month a prosecutor in Cluj, where Cornea resides, called her in for questioning. Three persons accused Cornea of inciting the violent overthrow of President Ion Iliescu in a television appearance she made in September 1991, during a miners' riot which had forced Petre Roman's cabinet to resign. Cornea defended herself by saying that she actually appealed for an end to the violence; she filed a countersuit for slander against her accusers. The prosecutor's office conceded that the complaints against Cornea could not be substantiated. Dan Ionescu, RFE/RL Inc. MOLDOVANS ADMIT TO RECRUITMENT BY ROMANIAN INTELLIGENCE. A statement was issued in Chisinau by three young Moldovans from among a group of Popular Front supporters recently named in Russian-language newspapers as being trained in Romania purportedly for subversive actions against the Moldovan government, as part of an alleged Romanian Intelligence operation to advance Romanian-Moldovan unification. In their statement, which they handed in person to Kishinevskie novosti, the three confirmed that they had moved to Romania, become Romanian citizens, and were training there--"but training to fight against terrorism, not to engage in it." The three expressed confidence that the disclosures could not have originated within Romanian Intelligence, blaming unspecified Moldovan circles instead; decried the attempt to harm Romanian-Moldovan relations; and announced that they would refrain from suing for defamation in order to avoid further publicity, Basapress reported on 16 March. The episode follows several public statements by Romanian Intelligence that it works to advance Romanian-Moldovan unification. Moldova has sharply protested and opened an investigation. Vladimir Socor, RFE/RL Inc. CONTROVERSY OVER BLACK SEA FLEET COMMANDER. Krasnaya zvezda reported on 23 March that Adm. Eduard Baltin, appointed Black Sea Fleet commander by Presidents Boris Yeltsin and Leonid Kravchuk, is being blamed by Kiev for new tensions within the fleet. According to the newspaper, Ukrainian Defense Minister Konstantin Morozov has accused Baltin of hindering officers from transferring to the Ukrainian navy and of acting independently of the Ukrainian Defense Ministry. Morozov reportedly has asked that Baltin ignore orders from the Russian side; he is also said to be working toward insuring that Baltin be subordinated to the Ukrainian Defense Ministry. Krasnaya zvezda, he Russian Defense Ministry newspaper, is hardly an impartial source, but the report may nevertheless accurately reflect a new rise in tensions over the fleet. Stephen Foye, RFE/RL Inc. CONFLICT BREWING IN SEVASTOPOL. The political tension in the Crimean port city is likely to reach a crescendo on 28 March, Rossiiskii vesti of 23 March reports. On that day both the Congress of Ukrainians and the Congress of Russians are scheduled to convene. The latter is sponsored by the local National Salvation Front, which supports "a Russian Crimea, a Russian Sevastopol, and a Russian Black Sea Fleet," writes the newspaper. Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc. ZLENKO TO US. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Anatolii Zlenko is scheduled to arrive in Washington on 24 March for two days of talks with government officials and congressmen, Western news agencies report. Zlenko will meet with Secretary of State Warren Christopher, and Ukraine's delay in ratifying the START-1 treaty is likely to be high on the agenda. Another issue is expected to be the UN embargo against Serbia. On the 23rd Zlenko met with UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Roman Solchanyk, RFE/RL Inc. BALTS EYE SITUATION IN RUSSIA. A special group headed by Aivars Vovers has been set up under Latvia's Foreign Affairs Ministry to monitor developments in Russia, Diena reports. The Riga daily also says that as early as 9 February Commander of the Northwestern Group of Forces Leonid Mayorov had issued an order to start explanatory work among the troops concerning the need of the armed forces to support Boris Yeltsin. Adm. Yurii Belov, head of the Russian garrison in Tallinn, told the press that Russian forces have not received any specific orders related to Yeltsin's assumption of special powers, but refused to comment on the mood of the troops under his command; he did, however, note that the situation in the armed forces is becoming tense and that a split in the army could not be ruled out. Estonia's Internal Affairs Minister Lagle Parek said the situation in her country is normal and that the security police are observing the Russian military units stationed in Estonia, BNS reported on 23 March. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. ESTONIA AMENDS CITIZENSHIP LAW. BNS reported on 23 March that the Estonian parliament has approved amendments expanding the eligibility for citizenship through one's forebears, including also the maternal line. Now the country's citizens are those who were recognized as such at the time the existing law was in force, persons who are regarded as citizens by international treaties, persons born to at least one parent who was a citizen at the time of birth, and children found in Estonia whose citizenship in another country cannot be established. The amendments were needed to bring Estonia's citizenship law in line with the Constitution and European standards and to facilitate Estonia's admission to the Council of Europe. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. ESTONIAN PRIVATIZATION AGENCY SELECTS BUYERS. On 23 March Jaan Manitski, the chairman of the Privatization Agency founded in the summer of 1992 on the model of the German Treuhand Agency, announced that invitations will be sent to 37 potential buyers of large state companies, BNS reports. Fifty bids from Estonia and 53 from abroad were submitted by the November 1992 deadline, but some were withdrawn or rejected. Agreements are expected to be signed within the next few weeks, after which the names of the buyers, negotiated provisions concerning employment, and other conditions will be made public. The selling prices will remain secret. The government is planning to merge the Privatization Agency with the Department for State Property. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. LATVIA ADOPTS BUDGET FOR 1993. After many weeks of debate, the Latvian Supreme Council finally adopted the compromise version of Latvia's annual budget proposed by Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis. The budget, which is for the whole calendar year starting on 1 January, envisions expenditures of 88.3 billion Latvian rubles, revenues of 85.7 billion rubles, and a deficit of 2.6 billion rubles, Diena reported on 23 March. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. SMOOTH INTRODUCTION OF NEW VISA REGULATIONS IN LATVIA. No special problems have been reported after the introduction on 22 March of Latvia's new visa regulations. The provisions especially affect travelers from the former USSR, who make up the overwhelming majority of persons coming to Latvia. Border authorities told Radio Riga on 23 March that 97 persons, most traveling on trains from Russia, had been turned back for lack of valid travel documents. Dzintra Bungs, RFE/RL Inc. LITHUANIAN GOVERNMENT PROGRAM. Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius presented his cabinet and program to the Seimas session on 23 March, broadcast live by Radio Lithuania. The Cabinet will begin working only after the parliament approves the program. The Seimas approved the nomination of Romualdas Visakavicius as chairman of the Bank of Lithuania but postponed a vote on the nomination of Juozas Zilys as the chairman of the Constitutional Court. On the urging of President Algirdas Brazauskas, a statement was approved expressing its concern about the situation in Russia and the hope that President Boris Yeltsin will be able to continue democratic reforms in the country. The Seimas will discuss the social services, national defense, and foreign policy aspects of the program on 25 March and the more important economy program on 30 March. Slezevicius stressed the need to gain greater foreign investments, liberalize prices, revise customs policies, and pass more agricultural reform legislation. He said that the new currency, the litas, can be introduced only after a stabilization fund for it has been created. Saulius Girnius, RFE/RL Inc. [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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