|Experience is in the fingers and head. The heart is inexperienced. - Henry David Thoreau|
No. 56, 23 March 1993
RUSSIA CONSTITUTIONAL COURT STARTS HEARING ON YELTSIN'S ADDRESS. The hearing on Yeltsin's "actions and statements" opened in the Russian Constitutional Court on 22 March. The Constitutional Court is considering Yeltsin's TV address of 20 March introducing "a special regime" in Russia, but not his decree, the text of which has not yet been published. At a news conference held later that evening, the court's chairman Valerii Zorkin rebuffed his critics, particularly Yeltsin's spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov, who had attacked Zorkin and the Constitutional Court for the former's condemnation of Yeltsin's TV address. Zorkin reiterated that he had criticized the president after consultations with other judges, rather than unilaterally as Kostikov had claimed, adding that neither he nor the court were "in Khasbulatov's pocket" or that of Yeltsin's opponents. Zorkin also said that he had appealed to Yeltsin to reach a compromise with the legislature. Julia Wishnevsky CONSTITUTIONAL COURT REMAINS SILENT. According to several Western news agency reports on 23 March, the Constitutional Court sitting defied President Boris Yeltsin's move to introduce special rule. However, the court seems to be split on the issue. The majority of judges have reportedly proclaimed Yeltsin's decree to be anti-constitutional, but some have supported Yeltsin and others have abstained. The decision of the Constitutional Court has, however, not yet been published and thus remains without legal force. The Constitutional Court is obviously waiting for Yeltsin to publish his decree first. Alexander Rahr RUTSKOI RENEWS CRITICISM OF YELTSIN. Russian and Western news agencies reported on 22 March that Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, who stands to succeed Yeltsin as president for three months until fresh elections if the latter is impeached, had issued a further statement severely criticizing Yeltsin for introducing special rule. He identified the government's reform plans as being the main source of the current confrontation between executive and legislature, and criticized the economic reforms as being based too much on "mythical western aid and not on Russia's own potential." Rutskoi accused Yeltsin's advisors of having provoked the recent measures for fear that they would be called to account for the political and economic situation in Russia. Rutskoi's statement drew an angry response from the presidential side, which issued a warning that the planned 25 April plebiscite would include a vote of no-confidence in Rutskoi, unless he retracted his criticism. Wendy Slater YELTSIN'S DECREE ON MASS MEDIA. President Yeltsin has issued a decree "protecting the independence of the mass media," ITAR-TASS reported on 22 March. The decree is aimed at preventing a "monopolization of the media" and "illegal interference" in the operation of radio, TV, news agencies and periodicals. At its latest session the Congress of People's Deputies debated subjecting radio, TV, and ITAR-TASS to parliamentary control. The decree orders the Russian Interior Ministry to take "necessary measures" to defend the premises of radio and TV broadcasters as well as information agencies and publishing houses. Meanwhile, on 22 March, the Russian parliament criticized the TV coverage of the parliament's reaction to Yeltsin's decree introducing special rule. ITAR-TASS quoted the parliament as saying the media have no right to "try to convince the people that nothing has happened." Vera Tolz YELTSIN ORDERS ASSESSMENT OF HIS REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES. President Yeltsin has ordered an assessment of his representatives in Russia's regions and the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 March. The inspection process will be held in May and June. The report said that presidential envoys will be assessed from the point of view of their "ability to represent the president in a proper way and uphold the interests of the state." The wording makes it clear that the main criterion of the assessment will be the envoy's loyalty to the president. The very existence of the institution of presidential envoys is opposed by local governments in many regions of the Russian Federation. Vera Tolz REPUBLICS REACT NEGATIVELY. Reactions in the republics to Yeltsin's decree, as reported in the Russian and Western media on 22 March, have been generally negative. A joint session of the presidiums of the Karelian parliament and council of ministers said that the introduction of special rule could further destabilize the situation and undermine the basis of the state. A statement issued by the Bashkortostan government maintained that the existing constitution and federal treaty were adequate to implement reforms and that the introduction of special measures should be seen as an attempt to establish an authoritarian regime or a political maneuver to escape responsibility. The authorities in Sakha also expressed alarm over the crisis in Moscow, stressing the need for strict observance of the Russian constitution, and further criticism came from Tuva. Ann Sheehy DEMOCRATS SUPPORT YELTSIN. Russian democrats held a rally in Moscow's October Cinema on 22 March in support of President Boris Yeltsin's actions, Russian news agencies reported. The meeting was presided over by First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko--a former associate of the centrist Civic Union who has now allied himself with democrats. Shumeiko strongly criticized Vice President Rutskoi for "always betraying the president." He promised that Yeltsin's decree introducing special rule will be published "very soon" and stated that the "international opinion" may become the "arbiter" in the Russian state crisis. Also present at the rally were Yeltsin's chief of staff Sergei Filatov and former State Secretary Gennadii Burbulis. The latter said that a return to "monstrous communism" was unimaginable. Alexander Rahr DZHERZHINSKY DIVISION REMAINING IN MOSCOW. According to an AFP report of 23 March, the Interior Ministry has ordered the Dzherzhinsky Division, a unit trained for riot control and law enforcement, to remain in Moscow. The unit was reportedly scheduled to leave for North Ossetia on Tuesday to relieve other troops stationed there. John Lepingwell YELTSIN CALLS FOR EMERGENCY ECONOMIC MEASURES. As part of his special rule announced on 20 March, Yeltsin instructed Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin to introduce a series of important economic measures over the next two weeks. They include 1) introducing privatization vouchers for the purchase of land; 2) guaranteeing ownership of property newly transferred from state to private hands; 3) creating financial and technical support for small and medium-sized businesses; 4) developing public works programs and measures to strengthen job security as bankruptcy and plant closures appear increasing likely; and 5) establishing fixed limits on money creation to counter inflation. Yeltsin also confirmed the government's intention to compensate citizens' savings eroded by inflation and emphasized action to combat corruption in state organizations. Chernomyrdin, who spoke before parliament the following day, while expressing support for the president, gave no indication that he had been party to formulating these measures or knew of Yeltsin's intentions in advance. Erik Whitlock START-2 STALLED. The political crisis in Russia has brought the START-2 ratification process to a halt. Radio Moscow--1 reported on 22 March that hearings on the treaty would begin that day, but Radio Mayak later reported that they had been canceled. These reports conflict with previous reports which indicated that hearings were not scheduled to resume until 29 March. The Supreme Soviet has been meeting in committees on 22-23 March while awaiting the Constitutional Court's decision on Yeltsin's moves, but it is highly unlikely that it will consider the treaty until the constitutional crisis is resolved. John Lepingwell FEDOROV ATTACKS CENTRAL BANK. Despite the resolution passed on 12 March by the Congress of People's Deputies designed to increase the government's influence on Central Bank policy-making, the two bodies continue to attack one another. In the latest clash, according to Izvestiya on 23 March, Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov has sent a formal castigation of Central Bank leadership to parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov. The Central Bank's recently released a policy program for the year, entitled "Basic Directions of Credit and Monetary Regulation for 1993," which contradicts the government's economic plans, Fedorov insists. He claims the Central Bank program represents a continuation of the highly inflationary policy of the past instead of the return to financial austerity promised by the government. Erik Whitlock G-7 MINISTERIAL MEETING ON AID TO RUSSIA. US Secretary of State Warren Christopher announced on 22 March that Japan will invite Russian President Boris Yeltsin to attend the G-7 ministerial meeting in Tokyo that is to focus on aid to Russia, an RFE/RL correspondent and Western agencies reported. The meeting is scheduled for April, but no firm date has been set. Japanese Finance Minister Yoshiro Hayashi said on 23 March that the meeting may take place one week earlier than the originally proposed date of 20 April, but that such a meeting will be of little use if the G-7 fails to come up with a concrete plan for providing aid. Reuters on 22 March reported that Russian Deputy Prime Minister Boris Fedorov had presented the G-7 sherpas' meeting in Hong Kong earlier this month with a detailed request for assistance, bearing a price tag of more than $20 billion, including a $6 billion stabilization fund and up to $7 billion for industrial restructuring. Keith Bush MORE FINANCIAL PREFERENCES TO RUSSIAN ENERGY INDUSTRY. To counter the expected continued decline in the production of gas and oil this year, the Russian government has taken new action to increase resources to the sector. Oil and gas exports will be duty free with the cost savings to be reinvested in production, various news agencies reported on 16 March. Last week President Yeltsin signed a decree freeing the energy sector from mandatory resale of its hard currency earnings to the state, ITAR-TASS reported on 22 March. These measures follow the state's granting hundreds of billions of rubles worth of low-interest investment credits to the industry. Erik Whitlock RUSSIAN CHURCH APPEALS FOR RESTRAINT. Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church appealed to the leaders of the Russian Federation in a letter calling on them to halt their confrontation, even if this cost them their "political careers." Presumably for fear of eventual bloodshed, the authors also instructed their flock to pray for the country's rulers and soldiers. The appeal was read in the course of the 22 March Russian TV "Vesti" newscast by Metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk. Julia Wishnevsky US, RUSSIAN SUBS COLLIDE. A US attack submarine collided with a Russian ballistic-missile submarine in the Barents Sea early on the morning of 20 March, according to Western and Russian press agencies. Both submarines sustained only minor damage and returned to their bases without incident. Russian sources claimed that the submarine was a Delta III class vessel, while the New York Times reported that the submarine was a more modern Delta IV. US submarines routinely monitor and track the movements of Russian subs. John Lepingwell TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA NIYAZOV VISITS US. Turkmenistan's President Saparmurad Niyazov is on an unofficial visit to the US this week organized by former US Secretary of State Alexander Haig's consulting firm, Worldwide Associates. A Washington Post article of 23 March reported that Niyazov has chosen Haig's firm to represent Turkmenistan in the US and one of Haig's firms is seeking a contract to review foreign investment proposals for the Central Asian state. On 22 March ITAR-TASS reported that Niyazov had met with UN Secretary-General Butros Butros-Ghali. The Washington Post quoted Washington officials as saying that meetings with high-level US officials will not be arranged unless Turkmenistan reverses its refusal to grant visas to three Turkmen human-rights activists who have been invited to a conference at the University of Wisconsin in April. Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BALTIC LEADERS' STATEMENT ON RUSSIA. On 22 March the three Baltic heads of state--Lennart Meri of Estonia, Anatolijs Gorbunovs of Latvia, and Algirdas Brazauskas of Lithuania--issued a joint statement expressing concern about the serious political crisis in Russia, which, they said, poses a threat not only for democratic reforms in Russia itself, but jeopardizes also the stability and security of Europe and Asia. They stressed that the Baltic States have always supported the democratic forces in Russia and believe that Russia's historic transition from totalitarianism to democracy is the best guarantee for good-neighborly relations based on mutual respect, international law, and international accords. They also expressed the conviction that the people and leadership of Russia will overcome the current crisis by nonviolent means, Baltic media reported on 22 March. Dzintra Bungs UKRAINIAN POLITICAL PARTIES SUPPORT YELTSIN. Ukrainian TV on 22 March reports that most political parties and movements in Ukraine are supporting Russian President Boris Yeltsin in his conflict with the people's deputies. According to the report, the Ukrainian parties see the conflict as one between supporters of democracy and those forces interested in bringing back a communist regime. The Socialist Party of Ukraine (former communists) blames Yeltsin's economic reform program for the political conflict. Roman Solchanyk ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT ON RUSSIAN CRISIS. The Romanian government issued a statement on 22 March saying it supports the continuation of the democratization process in Russia, which is "powerfully marked by president Boris Yeltsin's personality." The statement, carried by Radio Bucharest, said Russian reform was important to Romania, Europe and the world. The hope was expressed that the situation in Russia would be resolved without confrontation. Romania's president, Ion Iliescu, said he backs the government's statement. Earlier on 22 March Rompres quoted the chairman of the Democratic Convention of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, as saying the confrontation in Russia is a "struggle between the past and the future." Corneliu Coposu, leader of the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic, said there is a dangerous revival of conservatism and sabotage of the democratization launched by Yeltsin in Russia, adding that extreme left forces in Romania are eagerly awaiting a signal from Moscow. The DCR as a whole said it firmly supports the democratization process in Russia. On the other hand, the Socialist Labor Party, the heir of the Communist party, said it opposes "any interference in the internal affairs of another country." [Note: Petre Roman, who is the leader of Romania's opposition National Salvation Front, was erroneously identified in yesterday's RFE/RL Daily Report.] Michael Shafir SERBS STEP UP SHELLING OF SARAJEVO. The 23 March Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports that Serbian forces subjected the Bosnian capital to massive shelling on 21 and 22 March. The paper quotes UN headquarters there as saying that 2400 shells hit the city the first day alone, with over 400 of them directed at the historic old town, where no Bosnian forces are stationed. The UN deputy commander for that embattled republic charged the Serbs with deliberately pounding nonmilitary targets. Meanwhile at the UN in New York, international media reported on 22 and 23 March that Russia has lodged some last-minute objections to a pending measure aimed at enforcing a no-fly zone over Bosnia. The BBC said that Russian domestic political considerations probably were behind the delaying tactics. Also at the UN, pessimism spread regarding the chances that the Bosnian Serbs will ever sign the Vance-Owen peace plan. Finally at the Hague, Bosnian authorities on 22 March filed a suit with the World Court against rump Yugoslavia, which Bosnia accuses of war crimes. Patrick Moore DALMATIA UNDER MASSIVE POWER CUTS. Croatia's coastal region continues to be without electricity for most of the day, laming industry and dampening hopes for an early recovery of the vital tourist trade. The government is using its hold over the media to promote a search for scapegoats other than itself, with the Bosnian Muslims and their electric power resources being one target. In another development, the formerly independent Split daily, Slobodna Dalmacija, was the subject of a recent concerted takeover by forces close to the ruling party and is increasingly coming to resemble Zagreb's tame papers. Patrick Moore FLAP IN CROATIA OVER BUDAK. Jewish leaders on 22 March protested plans to rename a street in Zagreb after Mile Budak, a prewar Croatian author who subsequently held top positions in the ustasha government under Nazi sponsorship. Western news agencies quoted the leaders as saying that Budak remains for them a war criminal because of his involvement with the ustashas' anti-Semitic policies, adding that the Jews fear a revival of anti-Semitism in independent Croatia. Government spokesmen have said that Budak, who became a convert to Croatian nationalism after being beaten up by Serbian police, is being honored as an author and a patriot. Whatever the case, many observers regard the rehabilitation of Budak as yet another political blunder in dealing with minorities by a government whose president has been known to make anti-Semitic and anti-Serbian remarks in public. Patrick Moore GREEK DEFENSE MINISTER ENDS BULGARIAN VISIT. After a three-day visit, on 22 March Ioannis Varvitsiotis left Bulgaria, BTA reports. Varvitsiotis and his Bulgarian counterpart Valentin Aleksandrov told a news conference in Sofia that they had discussed bilateral and regional problems, as well as Sofia's wish to develop closer ties with NATO. The Greek minister said he would bring that message to Brussels next week. Varvitsiotis also met with President Zhelyu Zhelev and Prime Minister Lyuben Berov. Kjell Engelbrekt DEMOKRATSIYA: BULGARIAN MUSLIMS BEING "TURKIFIED." Reports in the press organ of the Union of Democratic Forces say Bulgarian Muslims in some regions are being pressured to repudiate their ethnic identity. In articles on 20 and 22 March, Demokratsiya claims that activists of the mainly Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms are behind a campaign to "Turkify" those ethnic Bulgarians who follow Islam. According to the reports, local MRF activists are exerting pressure on the population in Muslim villages near Gotse Delchev to change their Bulgarian names and learn Turkish. Contrary to most other dailies, Demokratsiya has previously treated minority issues with care, but that policy appears to be changing following the breakdown of the UDF-MRF parliamentary alliance last autumn. Kjell Engelbrekt POLISH COALITION TO TRY AGAIN. Meeting in special session on 22 March, the Polish cabinet voted unanimously to resubmit its mass privatization program to the Sejm. Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka told Polish TV that "we cannot permit political games to undermine reform." An official communique said that the program will now be divided into two stages. Initially, some 200 firms will be privatized; shares in the mutual investment funds set up to manage them will be distributed to pensioners and public servants as compensation for benefits suspended in 1991 and reinstated by the Constitutional Tribunal in 1992. In the second phase, shares in mutual investment funds set up to manage 400 additional firms will be distributed to the general public. These revisions are designed to court votes from the former communist Democratic Left Alliance, which has demanded that the government attempt a limited pilot program before making larger experiments. Suchocka also announced that the government will begin the program--on the basis of existing legislation--without waiting for the Sejm's approval. Mass privatization was also the subject of President Lech Walesa's meeting with Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski on 22 March. Walesa urged the government to push ahead with its economic reform plans, PAP reports. Louisa Vinton POLAND'S FORMER COMMUNISTS UNREPENTANT. Aleksander Kwasniewski was reelected chairman of the Social Democracy of the Polish Republic (SdRP) at the party's second congress on 20-21 March. The SdRP, the direct successor to the communist party, dominates the Democratic Left Alliance, the largest caucus in the Sejm. It has 60,000 dues-paying members. Most delegates expressed satisfaction that the party has defied predictions that it would vanish from the political scene. In the interests of unity, the congress decided not to adopt a motion designed to settle accounts with the party's past. SdRP leaders said the party will remain in the opposition until new elections, but that this does not preclude supporting the government on specific issues. Louisa Vinton KLAUS IN GERMANY. The Czech Prime Minister arrived in Munich on 22 March on a two-day visit of Germany. He met with Bavarian Prime Minister Max Streibl and other officials. Streibl told reporters after his meeting with Klaus that Bavaria attaches great importance to creating a stable economic zone in the center of Europe and improving traffic infrastructure along the Czech-Bavarian border. He also said that both sides agreed on closer cooperation to cope with problems such as organized crime and smuggling of asylum seekers from the Czech Republic into Bavaria. Klaus repeated Prague's rejection of the demands by Sudeten Germans for compensation of the losses which they suffered when they were forcibly expelled from Czechoslovakia after World War II. Jiri Pehe CZECH, HUNGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTERS MEET. Speaking at a press conference in Prague on 22 March after his meeting with Hungarian Defense Minister Lajos Fur, Czech Defense Minister Antonin Baudys told reporters that "relations between the Czech and Hungarian armies are free of conflict." Baudys stressed that the two sides have identical opinions about the situation in former Yugoslavia and Russia as well as about cooperation within the Visegrad group and relations with NATO. Fur said that his country is following with great interest developments in Russia because "what is happening in Russia may prove to be of decisive importance for Hungary." According to Radio Budapest, the topics discussed included implementation of the 1991 Hungarian-Czechoslovak military cooperation agreement, the two armies' aging Soviet-made military hardware, and ways to coordinate the two countries' goal of becoming members of NATO. A possible first meeting of the Visegrad Quadrangle's defense ministers in the near future was also mentioned. Jiri Pehe & Alfred Reisch BUDAPEST CHIEF RABBI CRITICIZED. MTI reported on 18 March 1993 that the Jewish Religious Council expressed shock and sharply criticized a public statement by Chief Rabbi Gyorgy Landeszmann. In a 26 February press interview Landeszmann said that without Jewish contributions, Hungarian culture amounted to little more than "leather pants and apricot brandy." The council accepted the Chief Rabbi's apologies and asked him to take steps to repair the damage. The incident led to an exchange of letters between Prime Minister Jozsef Antall, who is concerned about the possibility of an outgrowth of anti-Semitism, and David Kraus, Israeli Ambassador to Hungary, who called Landeszmann's statement a "mistake." Karoly Okolicsanyi UKRAINIAN-MOLDOVAN ACCORDS. Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma with a large governmental delegation paid a two-day visit to Moldova for talks with President Mircea Snegur, Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli, and other Moldovan officials, Moldovan media reported on 20 March. Kuchma said Moldova is "one of Ukraine's principal partners, both economically and politically," and an "ally" of Ukraine (the two countries recently concluded a comprehensive military agreement). He contrasted Ukrainian-Moldovan relations and "Russia's chosen path, that of interstate conflicts, which leads us nowhere." Both sides complained of a "Russian fuel blockade" and said that they are discouraged about investing in Siberian oil development through direct deals with the regions because of the risk that Russia would say after a while that everything belongs to her. The two sides granted each other most-favored-nation status and signed agreements on cooperation in transport, energy, telecommunications, finance, culture, and education. Ukraine will partly make up for shortfalls in Russian fuel deliveries to Moldova through supplementary deliveries of Ukrainian coal in exchange for Moldovan agricultural produce. Vladimir Socor MOLDOVAN, "DNIESTER" LEADERS MEET. In yet another conciliatory gesture, Moldovan Parliament chairman Petru Lucinschi and Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli met near Bendery with "Dniester republic" president Igor Smirnov, Moldovan and Russian media reported on 18 and 22 March. The sides agreed to pursue a political dialogue and to focus at this stage on restoring economic links, which the "Dniester" side conditions on Moldova's renunciation of its intent to introduce a national currency in place of the ruble. On 22 March President Mircea Snegur told a news conference that Chisinau urges Tiraspol to sign an agreement on the inadmissibility of using force under any circumstances. Chisinau will keep negotiating despite escalating demands from the "Dniestr republic" for republican status, entry into the CIS, and now open claim to eventually join the Russian Federation. Chisinau offers administrative-territorial autonomy to the Transdniester and the Gagauz. Vladimir Socor LITHUANIA GETS EC LOAN. On 22 March European Community Economics Affairs Commissioner Henning Christophersen and Lithuanian Finance Minister Eduardas Vilkelis signed an agreement for a 100-million-ecu ($119million) loan, Reuters reports. Half of the sum will be released immediately and the other half by the middle of the year. The deal is part of the $285-million loan from the G-24 industrialized nations. Christophersen commended the Lithuanian authorities for the reforms they have implemented and urged them not to slow down or deviate from them. Saulius Girnius NEW ELECTION COALITION IN LATVIA. Another election coalition, will field candidates for the parliamentary elections on 5-6 June. Among the participants in the left-of-center coalition are Latvia's Support Foundation, led by former foreign minister Janis Jurkans, Union of Latvia's Youth for Progress (former Komsomol), Latvia's Agrarian Association, the Central Alliance of Latvia's Employers, and the Fishermen's Union. Two spokesmen for Conciliation for Latvia-Rebirth for the Economy are deputies Vilnis Edvins Bresis and Edvins Kide, who are also members of the board of Latvia's Democratic Labor Party. Upon learning about the coalition, the LDDP leadership expressed objections to the candidature of its members on other election lists, Diena reported on 19 March. Dzintra Bungs CONGRESS OF ESTONIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY. On 20-21 March the Estonian Social Democratic Party held its third congress, BNS reported on 22 March. Party chairman Marju Lauristin read a report on the party's activities, noting that the party would have to state its positions on the main issues in Estonia's political life clearly because the party's close cooperation with right-of-center political forces has raised questions. She said that the party supports Russian democrats and intends to establish contacts with them. Swedish Social Democratic Party Chairman former Prime Minister Ingvar Carllson attended the congress as a guest. The party is small, having only 212 members and 58 associate members at the opening of the Congress. Saulius Girnius NEW ESTONIAN OIL TERMINAL STARTS OPERATION. On 22 March the first complex of facilities at the new oil terminal at Muuga, Tallinn was opened, BNS reports. The terminal belongs to the Finnish-Estonian joint venture Estonian Transoil in which Finland's Neste owns a 55% stake and the fuel company Eesti Kutus, 45%. With its eight tanks and storage capacity of 4,000 cubic meters, the facility should make Estonia less dependent on oil from the CIS. Another terminal for crude and heating oil, belonging to Pakterminal Ltd., will be opened in Muuga on 24 March. Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.RFE/RL Daily Report
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