|Treat your friends as you do your pictures, and place them in their best light. - Jennie Jerome Churchill|
No. 75, 21 March 1993
RUSSIA RUTSKOI SAYS HE WANTS TO STAND FOR PRESIDENT. Russian Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi, participating in a phone-in session with readers of Komsomolskaya pravda of 20 April, said that he intends to put forward his candidacy at the next presidential elections. Rutskoi, for the first time, strongly criticized President Boris Yeltsin personally for failing to solve the economic crisis in the country and for changing his position too frequently. He openly accused him of "robbing the people." He also claimed that Yeltsin's entourage has appropriated the funds of the former CPSU. Rutskoi praised the ideology of the centrist Civic Union coalition as being based on "the Russian idea." He criticized the fact that today one half of agricultural production is being lost, and promised to devote himself to problems in this sphere more seriously in future. -Alexander Rahr STANKEVICH, KHASBULATOV ON YELTSIN'S FUTURE. Sergei Stankevich, an advisor to Boris Yeltsin, said on 20 April that the president will agree to early elections this year if he fails to win more than half the votes cast in the forthcoming referendum, according to RFE/RL's Moscow correspondent. Yeltsin could not "simply resign" immediately, according to Stankevich, but would have to hand power to his successor (i.e.-Aleksandr Rutskoi). Meanwhile, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, continuing a visit to Voronezh, said that Yeltsin should resign immediately if he loses the vote of confidence in the referendum, according to Russian agencies. He claimed that Yeltsin could only win the vote through "manipulation, perpetual intrigue and pressure," according to Radio Rossii. He refused to exclude the possibility of convening a special Congress shortly after the referendum. -Wendy Slater FILATOV WARNS CONGRESS MAY BE CONVENED. The head of the presidential administration, Sergei Filatov, told journalists on 20 April that according to his information, Russian people's deputies had been ordered to be in Moscow on 26 April (the day after the referendum) ready for a session of the Congress. AFP said that people's deputies contacted by its correspondents confirmed the report. Filatov said that 64% of local soviets were hostile to the president, because a strong element of the communist party nomenklatura was still present in them, but that 80% of local executives supported Yeltsin. He warned that the opposition was undertaking provocative actions against supporters of the president, and described the timing of Rutskoi's 16-April speech to parliament as "not accidental." Filatov predicted a turnout of between 53% and 70% in the referendum. His remarks were reported by Russian and Western media. -Wendy Slater IMF SETS UP NEW AID FACILITY. The International Monetary Fund is creating a new lending program expected to channel $4 to 6 billion to countries of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe over the next eighteen months. Russia may be the first beneficiary of the new arrangement, called the Systemic Transformation Facility, qualifying for about $3-billion in loans for imports of various goods ranging from food to equipment. Gaining access to money under the new facility will be easier than is normally the case when borrowing from the IMF. Instead of meeting specific macroeconomic targets, the governments will merely have to show commitment to "significant" action towards stabilizing their economy. The loans will be granted for a 10 year period on favorable interest terms. -Erik Whitlock and Robert Lyle MORDOVIAN PARLIAMENT CONTINUES TO IGNORE YELTSIN'S DECREE. On 20 April the Mordovian parliament completed the process of the restoration of supreme executive power in the form in which it existed before the presidency was instituted in December 1991, ITAR-TASS reported. In forming the new council of ministers, in which, in fact, only four of the 12 ministers are new faces, the parliament completely ignored Yeltsin's decree insisting that the president Vasilii Guslyannikov continue to fulfill his functions. However, according to ITAR-TASS, some deputies believe that Yeltsin could institute presidential rule in Mordovia if he wins the referendum. This has aroused particular interest in the referendum in the republic. -Ann Sheehy YELTSIN MEETS RELIGIOUS LEADERS. At a meeting with leaders of the Russian Orthodox and Baptist churches, Muslim, Jewish and other religious organizations on 20 April, President Yeltsin was urged by Russia's chief Rabbi Adolf Shaevich to take a clear position against what the Rabbi said was increasingly "organized and open" anti-Semitism in Russia. Yeltsin denied that there was any anti-Semitism on a state level. The Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Aleksii II, as well as other religious leaders, called for curbs on foreign missionaries coming to Russia, often under the guise of tourism, and on the prevalence of US religious broadcasting on Russian TV. Both leaders spoke out in favor of a strong presidency. During the meeting, Yeltsin announced that a department of religious affairs was to be established in the Russian government, and would be headed by First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir Shumeiko. The department would be concerned with giving "concrete assistance" to religious communities. -Wendy Slater YELTSIN CALLS FOR CHEMICAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION. On 20 April President Yeltsin released a statement, published by ITAR-TASS, calling for the careful elimination of the former Soviet Union's chemical weapons. In accordance with the 1992 Paris Treaty on chemical weapons, Russia must eliminate its stockpile, the largest in the world, within the next ten years. However, at present Russia does not have any functional facilities for chemical weapons destruction, and local governments have strongly opposed their construction. Yeltsin's statement appears intended to reassure the population by calling for extensive safety precautions, the use of advanced technologies to reduce risks, and the minimal possible transport of dangerous substances in Russia. The statement calls for the authorities in Udmurtiya, Chuvashiya, and Saratov, where most of the weapons are located, to participate in an environmental impact study before further decisions are made. Yeltsin also promised increased funds for health care, cultural facilities, and infrastructure development in these regions. While a step forward, the statement indicates that the destruction of the weapons is becoming an increasingly complicated and expensive task. -John Lepingwell FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE DENIES INVOLVEMENT IN "RED MERCURY" AFFAIR. The Public Relations Office of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) has issued a statement denying Pravda's allegations that the SVR was involved in illegal dealing in "red mercury." The radio station Ekho Moskvy on 20 April reported that the SVR denied involvement in the affair and called for the Security Ministry to investigate how a secret memorandum by SVR Director Evgenii Primakov appeared in the "Yeltsingate" article published in Pravda on 17 April. According to that article, Primakov reportedly sent a memo to Yeltsin in early 1992 claiming that "red mercury" could be used as an explosive in nuclear and conventional weapons and is worth a dozen times more than gold. Pravda accused Yeltsin's advisers, the SVR, military intelligence, and the Russian academic community of setting up a "smoke screen" over "red mercury" while promoting its covert export as a source of hard currency. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 19 April, the SVR also denied that a substance having the alleged properties of "red mercury" exists. -Victor Yasmann and John Lepingwell SITUATION REMAINS TENSE IN CHECHNYA. Meetings of supporters and opponents of Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev continued in Groznyi on 20 April, ITAR-TASS reported. In the run-up to the congress of the Chechen people scheduled for 23 April, the agency said, both sides are trying to win the support of the population, and particularly of the clans. Observers in Groznyi note that by appointing the head of the Vainakh Democratic Party Zelimkhan Yandarbiev as vice-president and reinstating Elza Sharipova as prosecutor general Dudaev has significantly increased his support on the part of influential clans. In a speech in Voronezh on 20 April, reported by ITAR-TASS, the chairman of the Russian parliament Ruslan Khasbulatov claimed that the Dudaev regime was favored by Russian federal officials. Otherwise, according to Khasbulatov, it would long since have collapsed. -Ann Sheehy TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA TWO-DAY CEASEFIRE AGREED IN KARABAKH. A two-day ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh took effect at midnight local time on 19 April in order to allow for a visit of inspection to Karabakh and Kelbadzhar by a group of CSCE officials, an Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry spokesman stated on 20 April, according to Western agencies. The ceasefire may be extended if the CSCE delegation remains for a longer period. -Liz Fuller IZVESTIYA CLAIMS KITOVANI PLANNING COUP AGAINST SHEVARDNADZE. Renegade Georgian Defense Minister Tengiz Kitovani has held secret meetings in western Georgia with the commander of the Georgian forces loyal to ousted president Zviad Gamsakhurdia and with a Russian state security general, possibly in preparation for an armed coup against Georgian parliament chairman Eduard Shevardnadze, according to an article in Izvestiya of 21 April. The author hypothesizes that there are circles in both Russia and Georgia intent on removing Shevardnadze and destroying Georgia's independence, and that recent moves to weaken the leadership of Georgian forces fighting in Abkhazia are intended to precipitate the fall of the Abkhaz capital Sukhumi, which would engender widespread popular dismay and serve as a pretext for ousting Shevardnadze and dissolving the Georgian parliament. -Liz Fuller CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE HAVEL MEETS CLINTON. After an hour-long meeting with US President Bill Clinton on 21-April at the White House, Czech President Vaclav Havel told journalists that the Bosnian conflict could spread and that the international community should find a quick solution. Havel made it clear that it could become necessary to "decide on more resolute steps" to end the conflict and that the Czech Republic was prepared to support such steps. Replying to a question at the news conference, Havel said that launching air strikes against Serb positions would be "one of the alternatives." -Jan Obrman ILIESCU IN WASHINGTON. Romanian President Ion Iliescu said in Washington there is now a "better climate" in American-Romanian relations and this may lead to the return of the MFN trade status for his country, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 20 April. Speaking to a group of American businessmen at the US Chamber of Commerce, Iliescu said that in meetings with Congressional leaders and business people he has found "a better understanding of Romanian realities." Iliescu also met on 20 April with representatives of the Romanian emigration in the USA, Radio Bucharest said on the same day. He is expected to have a brief meeting with President Clinton on 21 April. -Michael Shafir ZHELEV: MILITARY MEANS MAY BE THE ONLY OPTION. On 20 April, during his visit to the United States, Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev said Western military involvement in the conflict in ex-Yugoslavia might be inevitable, an RFE/RL correspondent reports. Addressing the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, Zhelev told US officials, academics, and businessmen that the failure to punish Serbia could plunge the region into a series of ethnic land-grabs and dangerously growing confrontation between Christians and Muslims. Although he said it would probably be premature to send in ground troops, the Bulgarian President suggested that air strikes against factories, equipment, and supplies could stop "those who are feeding the war machine." -Kjell Engelbrekt TUDJMAN CALLS FOR CAMP-DAVID-TYPE BALKAN CONFERENCE. News agencies on 20-April quoted Croatian President Franjo Tudjman in Washington as urging that representatives from all six former Yugoslav republics be invited to Camp David talks led by President Bill Clinton. President Boris Yeltsin, he added, should also attend, since Russia has strong influence with Serbia. Tudjman said that the US should lead the international community in taking "resolute steps" to deal with the Yugoslav situation, and that the international community should launch "air strikes against all those unwilling to participate in the process." Meanwhile in Croatia, 19 April witnessed another round of price hikes as the cost of basic goods keeps up with that country's Latin American style inflation. The Croatian dinar has proven more stable than its Serbian counterpart but not as firm as the Slovenian tolar. Croatian Prime Minister Nikica Valentic is at pains to project an image of attacking Croatia's social and economic problems in a concerted and intensive fashion, as he demonstrated in his 15 April interview with Vecernji list, but many Croats doubt that the government has the will or the power to bring the situation under control in what remains a wartime economy. -Patrick Moore SREBRENICA DRAMA CONTINUES. The 21 April Los Angeles Times reports that UN officials say they will need three additional days to disarm the Muslim defenders of Srebrenica, but the Serbs apparently demand that the disarming be completed on schedule. The UN is trying to dispel the image that it has negotiated the surrender of the town, arguing instead that it is trying "to stop the killing and starvation." It is also seeking to make "safe havens" out of the other two Muslim-held enclaves in eastern Bosnia, Zepa and Gorazde. -Patrick Moore CROAT-MUSLIM FIGHTING HITS NEW INTENSITY. The struggle continues between the two nominal allies to secure and consolidate their respective holdings in central Bosnia and the Mostar area. The 21 April Washington Post quotes an EC observer as describing a Croatian assault on the mainly Muslim town of Konjic as involving "house-to-house fighting worse than in a Rambo movie" and says that "the latest fighting dwarfs all earlier strife between" the Croats and Muslims. Atrocities have been committed by both sides, but the New York Times quotes British observers as documenting some particularly grisly Croatian attacks on Muslim civilians in Vitez. Borba says that the situation has taken a "dramatic turn," particularly where fighting in and around Mostar is concerned. The Croats regard the town as the capital of their portion of Herzegovina, but it has a large Muslim population and a historic center that reflects centuries of Ottoman rule. Borba quotes Bosnian Radio as charging the Croats with killing infants, children, and leading intellectuals in Vitez, while it notes that Croatian Radio reports that Muslim snipers are terrorizing parts of Mostar. -Patrick Moore HUNGARIAN REACTION TO UN SANCTIONS. At a press conference on 20 April, Foreign Ministry spokesman Janos Herman told reporters about the adverse effects on Hungary of the stricter UN embargo against Serbia-Montenegro, MTI reports. According to the new regulations that go into effect on 26 April, prior permission must be granted for any goods that are transported through the area by train, truck, or boat. As a result of the embargo in effect now, Hungary has already lost half a billion dollars, and the stricter embargo will further hurt Hungarian industry and other economic sectors. Despite its adverse effects, however, Hungary will support the embargo, said Herman. -Judith Pataki BEROV ENDS MOSCOW VISIT. On 20 April Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov left Moscow after what he said had been a useful two-day working visit. Berov told ITAR-TASS he believed the results of the bilateral talks, which were held with his Russian counterpart Viktor Chernomyrdin, could help intensify trade relations between the two countries. Apart from the signing of protocols on cooperation in the fields of science, education, culture and law enforcement-as well as the ratification of a new friendship treaty negotiated last August-the Bulgarian premier singled out the decision to set up a joint bank for clearing payments in national currencies as an important achievement. Asked about the plans to dismantle a Red Army monument in Sofia, Chernomyrdin said he hoped the issue would be solved in a "civilized manner." Berov's next stop is Ankara, where he will attend the funeral of President Turgut Ozal. -Kjell Engelbrekt KRAVCHUK DISMISSES NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR. Without offering any explanations, Radio Ukraine reported on 19 April that Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk has dropped his national security advisor, Volodomyr Selivanov. The secretary of the President's National Security Council was simply said to have been transferred to another unspecified job. -Bohdan Nahaylo UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT DISCUSSES REVISED MILITARY DOCTRINE. On 20 April in closed session parliament discussed the revised draft of the military doctrine, which sets out the principles on which Ukraine's defense policy is to be based, Ukrainian TV reports. Among the speakers were President Kravchuk, who, according to Reuters, argued that Ukraine should become a nonnuclear state but added that Kiev has the right to expect far greater compensation to cover the costs of disarmament. The first draft of the military doctrine was rejected after a stormy debate on 28-October 1992. During the debate some deputies criticized the authors of the draft for not identifying Ukraine's potential enemies and for rejecting the idea of retaining a nuclear deterrent. Parliament will resume the debate in plenary session on 22 April after Kravchuk returns from the funeral of Turkish President Turgut Ozal. -Bohdan Nahaylo KRAVCHUK REJECTS CIS INTEGRATION. The president is quoted by CIS sources on 20-April as saying that Ukraine will not sign any documents on military, political, or diplomatic integration of the CIS at its forthcoming summit in May. But in his address to a closed session of parliament the Ukrainian leader is reported as having favored economic integration and closer economic contacts among CIS member states. Kravchuk explained that Ukraine's nonaligned status precludes military and political integration. -Roman Solchanyk GRACHEV ON BLACK SEA FLEET. Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev has stated that if the Black Sea Fleet is to be divided Russia expects the naval base in Sevastopol and naval aviation to be divided as well. According to an ITAR-TASS report of 20 April, Grachev's comment comes in response to a Ukrainian statement that Russia will not be able to lease Ukrainian territory for military bases. Grachev called for Sevastopol to become a joint base for separate Ukrainian and Russian Black Sea Fleets. -John Lepingwell LANGUAGE ISSUES IN ODESSA. Demands for official status for the Russian language in Odessa have evoked a sharp response from the local Rukh organization, Radio Ukraine reports on 19 April. The resolution "On the Language Situation in the City" adopted by the Civic Forum of Odessa and the demand for a referendum on the language issue resulted in a statement issued by Rukh saying that the action represents an attempt to destabilize the situation in Ukraine. -Roman Solchanyk CONSTITUTIONAL TRIBUNAL RULES ON RELIGION IN POLISH SCHOOLS. Poland's high court said on 20-April that the government's directive introducing teaching of religion into Polish schools is in conformity with the law. The tribunal added a number of caveats, however: that the educational authorities must not require from students a declaration that they either study religion as an extracurricular subject or elect not to do so; that they must not issue a certified grade in religion if the subject is taken as an extracurricular one; and that they must not regard a decision of the religious authorities to revoke a teacher's license to teach religion as synonymous with the termination of the teacher's contract. The tribunal said the government's directive allowing for the hanging of crosses in schoolrooms as well as for the school prayers conforms with the law. The ruling was prompted by a move by the ombudsman asking for clarification of the directive's legality. Immediately after the ruling was issued, the Polish media reported that the ombudsman accepted the ruling. The government will have to amend sections of its directive within three months. -Jan de Weydenthal POLAND'S ECONOMY GROWING AGAIN. The government reports that industrial production in the first three months of 1993 was 5.4% higher than in the comparable period of 1992. Productivity rose by 10.1 %. The figures were supplied by the Central Planning Office, a government agency, and were published in the Warsaw financial paper, Nowa Europa, on 20-April. The report also notes, however, that Poland is suffering from a growing deficit in foreign trade, which reached $345 million in the first two months of 1993. -Jan de Weydenthal SLOVAK UNEMPLOYMENT GROWS. An unnamed Slovak official revealed that the number of unemployed continues to grow, TA SR reported on 20 April. The official said that the number increased by more than 45,000 in the first three months of this year and reached a total of more than 300,000. While the overall unemployment rate is now 12.1%, there are regions with unemployment levels of up to 20%, he said. -Jan Obrman MDS' DROP OF POPULARITY HALTED. According to a new public opinion poll, the dramatic decrease in popularity of Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia has bottomed out, TA SR reported on 20 April. The opinion poll, conducted by the Slovak Statistical Office in late March, revealed that the MDS has the support of 20% of the Slovak population, a 2% increase over February's results. According to the poll, President Michal Kovac, with a favorable rating of 29%, is now the most popular politician in Slovakia. He is trailed by Meciar with 27% and Peter Weiss, chairman of the Party of the Democratic Left, with 24%. -Jan Obrman HUNGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER TO VISIT SLOVAKIA. Lajos Fur will pay a one-day official working visit to Slovakia on 23 April at the invitation of his Slovakian counterpart, Imrich Andrejcak, MTI reports. Fur will present a cooperation proposal for the defense ministries of the two countries and will discuss military cooperation between the countries of the Visegrad Group and other security questions. -Judith Pataki FORMER INTERIOR MINISTERS ON TRIAL IN ROMANIA. Tudor Postelnicu and Gheorghe Homostean are among nine people scheduled to go on trial on 21-April in connection with the killing by the former secret police of three people who tried to hijack a bus to the West in 1981, Radio Bucharest and Reuters report. Postelnicu is already serving a life sentence for his role in the repression of the revolt that brought down the former regime in December 1989. A senior military judge said three of the defendants are accused of murdering the hijackers after their capture near Timisoara. Their bodies were never found. Six hostages were also killed and twelve wounded when the secret police troops opened fire on the hijacked bus. Postelnicu told investigators the hijackers were captured alive but Ceausescu ordered that they be killed on the spot. -Michael Shafir ROMANIAN PRIVATIZATION VOUCHERS NOMINALLY PRICED. The Private Ownership Fund announced on 21 April that the value of pre-share voucher packages given to more than 15 million citizens has been set at 135,000 lei ($225) each, Radio Bucharest and Reuters report. The coupons account for 30% stakes in about 6,200 enterprises, which will gradually pass into public hands. The majority 70% stakes in these enterprises is held by the State Ownership Fund. The two funds will eventually function as Western-type mutual funds. Initially, the government wants to encourage citizens to trade their coupons for shares in 2,600 small enterprises that are up for privatization through worker-management buyout schemes. A senior executive with the Private Ownership Fund said that until the stock market is opened, the funds will give regular quotations for pre-share vouchers, staring off from their nominal value. Every three months, the funds will publish quotations for the vouchers, whose value would depend on the performance of the companies listed for privatization. The stock market is planned to open next year. -Michael Shafir LATVIAN-GERMAN COOPERATION ACCORDS SIGNED. Latvian and German media reported on 20-April that earlier that day Foreign Ministers Georgs Andrejevs and Klaus Kinkel met in Bonn and that four accords were signed dealing with the principles of bilateral relations, cultural and educational exchanges, and economic relations and investments. Kinkel said that Germany will make a strong effort to promote closer Latvian relations with the European Community and the Council of Europe. Noting that Germany is Latvia's leading Western trading partner and leads other countries in the number of joint ventures (registered at 167) in Latvia, Kinkel stressed that the new accord helps legally secure German investments. -Dzintra Bungs RUBIKS APPEALS TO LITTLE ROCK. Eager to enlist US support in legal proceedings against him for allegedly trying to overthrow the government of Latvia and supporting the failed coup in Moscow in August 1991, former Latvian Communist Party leader Alfreds Rubiks, has appealed to the residents of Little Rock, Arkansas, to endorse his status as honorary citizen of that city. He was given this title in February 1988 when he visited the city and the mayor was Bill Clinton. The Rubiks case is expected to go to court on 14 June. The Latvian Supreme Court met on 15 April to review the testimony against Rubiks by about 2,000-witnesses. Rubiks's attorney, Aleksandr Ogurtsov, told the press that the court session will not allow Rubiks to be released from custody until the trial starts as was done in the case of Rubiks's codefendant Ojars Potreki, Baltic media and an RFE/RL correspondent in Riga reported on 15 and 16-April. -Dzintra Bungs DEMONSTRATION IN LATVIA OVER RESIDENCE PERMITS. Radio Riga reported that about 200 demonstrators gathered near the Supreme Council to voice disapproval of parliament's decision to suspend temporarily the issuance of temporary residence permits to indivuals whose stay in Latvia is necessiated by the provisional deployment of Russian troops. The parliament wants to discuss the matter in detail this week so that the Latvian delegation can bring up specific proposals on the issue at the next session of the Latvian-Russian talks, scheduled for 28 April in Jurmala. -Dzintra Bungs 300 MILITARY MEN BROUGHT TO LITHUANIA TO FACILITATE TROOP PULLOUTS. About 300 additional Russian unarmed military men are being brought to Lithuania to help with the withdrawal of Third Coastal Defense Division of Russia's Baltic Sea Fleet. More than 100 men arrived in Klaipeda on 15 and 16 April, and the rest are expected this week. Their arrival has been approved by Lithuanian Minister of Defense Audrius Butkevicius. -Dzintra Bungs RADIOACTIVE WASTE IN ESTONIAN LAKE. Environment Minister Andres Tarand has warned that a lake near the town of Sillamae poses serious dangers for the population because of the radioactive wastes dumped there during the postwar decades, Baltic media reported on 20 April. Local enterprises have reportedly dumped thousands of tons of substances, including thorium, radium, calcium sulfate, chlorides, and uranium wastes. As a consequence, radioactive contamination has been registered in the local drinking water, along the Estonian coast, and the Gulf of Finland. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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