|Истиной дружбой могут быть связаны только те люди, которые умеют прощать друг другу мелкие недостатки. - Жан де Лабрюйер|
No. 51, 16 March 1993
RUSSIA KHASBULATOV CRITICIZES PRESIDENT, SUPPORTS GOVERNMENT. Konstantin Zlobin, press secretary to parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, made a statement on 15 March objecting to warnings made earlier that day by President Yeltsin's press spokesman that, following the Congress, the democratic gains of August 1991 were threatened, ITAR-TASS reported. Zlobin said that the guarantor of democracy in Russia was the representative branch of power, acting within the constitution and not "on the basis of numerous, sometimes contradictory decrees." The Congress, he said, had also strengthened the role of the government. The statement echoed Khasbulatov's remarks made earlier that day that the Congress had greatly increased the government's significance in economic decision--making. Mayak Radio reported Khasbulatov as saying that the parliament retained responsibility only for passing legislation and monitoring compliance with the constitution. Wendy Slater RUMYANTSEV PRAISES RESULTS OF CONGRESS. Oleg Rumyantsev, Russia's leading social-democrat and secretary of the Constitutional Commission, welcomed the results of the Congress which have led to a weakening of the presidential powers and the strengthening of the parliament. Western news agencies on 15 March quoted him as saying that the president should not possess all powers. At the same time, he characterized the Congress as typical of the old Soviet system where "traditionalism, conservatism, xenophobia and a lack of intellectual vigor prevail." Rumyantsev, who is close to the centrist Civic Union, deplored the fact that the Russian political spectrum lacks a strong center which could reconcile left- and right-wing forces. Alexander Rahr DEMOCRATS FOR COOPERATION WITH CIVIC UNION. Representatives of democratic parties and movements have met in Moscow to assess the results of the Congress, Radio Rossii "Novosti" reported on 15 March. They agreed that a "constitutional coup" had taken place in the country and that the conservative-dominated parliament has now obtained the right to impeach the president as soon as its next session. Democrats called for a referendum on three questions: (1) measures for adopting the new constitution, (2) creation of a presidential republic, (3) private ownership of land. Democrats also spoke out, for the first time, in favor of forming a united bloc with the centrist Civic Union. Alexander Rahr DEMOCRATS PREPARED TO FIGHT. An ITAR-TASS report of the same meeting said that democrats plan to hold a mass demonstration on 28 March in Moscow in support of President Boris Yeltsin and the executive. The leader of the Democratic Russia Movement, Lev Ponomarev, told the gathering that since democrats are unable to push their ideas through the legislature, the struggle should move outside the parliament. Another democrat, the priest Gleb Yakunin, accused two former democratic deputies--Oleg Rumyantsev and Vladimir Lysenko--of having defected to the "enemy." The leader of the People's Party, Telman Gdlyan, said that democracy should be saved with the help of miners, Cossacks and farmers. Another democrat, Viktor Mironov, called for the introduction of presidential rule. Alexander Rahr STEPASHIN ON RUTSKOI. The head of the parliamentary Committee for Defense and Security, Sergei Stepashin, told Ostankino TV "Novosti" on 14 March that it was significant that Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi had been invited to join President Boris Yeltsin, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, and chairman of the Constitutional Court Valerii Zorkin for closed talks during the latest Congress on finding a solution to the political crisis. He said that some observers had believed Rutskoi could head a future coalition government. Stepashin also said that during the Congress he had agreed with the ministers of security, internal affairs, and defense that none of them would have to take a new oath to Congress since there is no doubt that these three ministries are fulfilling their constitutional tasks. Alexander Rahr TEREKHOV SAYS ARMY READY TO ACT. In a long interview published by the Spanish newspaper El Pais, the head of the militant Officers Union claimed that a coup launched by the army against Boris Yeltsin would find considerable support within the officer corps and that a decision by Yeltsin to impose presidential rule would bring the army out against him. Stanislav Terekhov said that his organization has 30,000 members and enjoys the support of 70-80% of the Russian officer corps. Among other things, he labeled Boris Yeltsin a "traitor to the fatherland" and called for the restoration of the Soviet Union and the communist ideal. He said that he opposes the START-2 Treaty and favors the creation in Russia of a "new government of patriots." While Terekhov's claims of widespread support within the army are probably exaggerated, the Officers Union is part of the National Salvation Front and could, as the newspaper speculates, become the armed wing of this political movement. Stephen Foye KOZYREV UNDERLINES CONTINUED RUSSIAN PRESENCE IN BALTIC. Speaking to a gathering of Russian sailors in Baltiisk (Kaliningrad Oblast) on 15 March, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev said that Russia needed to maintain an "imposing presence" in the Baltic Sea region. Baltfax quoted Kozyrev as saying that while Russia faced no immediate military threat in the Baltic, a continued presence was essential to ensure that Russia not "be squeezed out" of the region. He also characterized Kaliningrad Oblast as an exceptionally important link in Russia's strategic and economic interests in the Baltic, and as "an indivisible and undisputed part of Russia." The ongoing Russian military withdrawal from the three Baltic States has highlighted the problem of Kaliningrad, where it is estimated that over 200,000 military personnel (including family members) may be stationed. Baltiisk is slated to become one of two Baltic Fleet headquarters. Stephen Foye RETROACTIVE INDEXATION OF SAVINGS PROPOSED. An expanded collegium of the parliamentary Supreme Economic Council met in Moscow on 9 March, "Russia" TV reported. Among the proposals discussed was the retroactive indexation of savings deposits to compensate for inflation (generally put at around 2,200% in 1992 alone). In the example given, someone with 1,000 rubles in his savings account would be credited with 50,000 rubles, of which 5,000 rubles would be in a special account and 45,000 rubles in the form of shares. Account-holders' future interest payments would also be indexed. It was suggested that a joint working group be set up to examine this proposal. Keith Bush PACIFIC FLEET COMMANDER DISMISSED. ITAR-TASS reported on 15 March that the commander of the Russian Pacific Fleet, Admiral Gennadii Khvatov, has been dismissed. The dismissal order, reportedly signed on 11 March by Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, came in response to a tragedy in early February this year when four servicemen died and a number of others were hospitalized as a result of atrocious living conditions on a remote island in the Russian far east. Following the incident Grachev swore that heads would roll for the negligence, but Khvatov is the first senior commander to be dismissed. Khvatov was originally named fleet commander in late 1986. He emerged as a forceful conservative critic of new political thinking in the spring of 1991. Stephen Foye STATISTICS ILLUMINATE ARMY'S PROBLEMS. An article in the latest issue of Nedelya (No. 10) carries a wealth of statistical and survey data which, if accurate, provide sobering evidence of the crisis in the Russian army. The author, military sociologist Yurii Deryugin, claims that some 30,000 of the army's best young officers have left the army over the past year. According to Deryugin, three soldiers on average are murdered in military units each day, while five more die from other causes (over 1500 in the last ten months of 1992). Approximately 25% of all these non-combat deaths are reported to be the result of suicide. Officers are apparently twice as likely to commit suicide as are conscripts. Deryugin also reports that approximately 16,000 crimes were reported in military units over the last ten months of 1992; some 120 conscripts desert each week. He argues that the army has become increasingly politicized and that his survey data suggest increasing numbers of officers are sympathetic to the idea of the army seizing power. Stephen Foye INFECTIOUS DISEASES ON THE INCREASE IN ST. PETERSBURG. The deputy chief medical officer of St. Petersburg told ITAR-TASS on 14 March that deaths from infectious diseases in the city have been increasing. Among the diseases he cited were tuberculosis, hepatitis, and diphtheria. He attributed the increase to the refusal by many to have injections for fear of contracting the AIDS virus. The city authorities were said to be most concerned by the incidence of diphtheria: in 1992, 845 cases were reported, of which 15 were fatal. Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA US CONSULTANTS DISCOVER OIL DEPOSITS IN ARMENIA. Two consultants from California's Department of Conservation who traveled to Armenia last month to inventory Armenia's energy potential have located 26 reservoirs that could prove to be significant and four which constitute prime prospects for drilling, according to an RFE/RL correspondent's report. The consultants further refer to previous studies indicating that Armenia may have oil reserves of 320 million barrels and natural gas resources of some 98,000 million cubic meters. Armenia is currently dependent on gas supplies via Georgia for the 7.5 million cubic meters of gas it needs per day. Liz Fuller KAZAKHSTAN'S PARTIES HELP DRAFT LEGISLATION. Representatives of a wide spectrum of Kazakhstan's political parties and trade unions are participating in the drafting of legislation on election of parliamentary deputies at the republican and local levels as well as legislation on political parties, Russian TV reported on 14 March. The plan to involve party and trade union representatives in preparation of draft laws for submission to the Supreme Soviet is supported by Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbaev; according to the report, some political leaders see the plan as an attempt to create a counterweight to the umbrella group Union of National Unity so that parliamentary elections can be conducted in a Western-style two-party system. Bess Brown PRIVATIZATION OF AGRICULTURE IN KAZAKHSTAN. Kazakhstan's agricultural enterprises should be privatized by the end of 1995 according to a decree of President Nursultan Nazarbaev, ITAR-TASS reported on 11 March. State farms and other state-owned agricultural enterprises are to be sold to and only on the initiative of their employees and pensioners. New owners will have the right to decide what to do with the enterprises, including creation of cooperatives, voluntary associations or small enterprises, provided that their plans violate no laws. Processing and service enterprises are to be converted into joint stock companies, with persons employed in agriculture-related activities given preference in the purchase of shares. Kazakhstan's privatization program does not envisage a private market in land. Bess Brown CENTRAL ASIAN STATES PARTICIPATE IN CHINA BORDER TALKS. Xinhua news agency reported on 16 March that the ninth round of negotiations on force reductions along the former USSR-Chinese border have ended. Minor progress was reported. Delegations from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Russia took part in the talks on the CIS side. The talks took place in Moscow, with the tenth round scheduled to be held in Beijing. Stephen Foye CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE RELIEF FINALLY TO REACH SREBRENICA? INTERNATIONAL MEDIA REPORT ON 16 MARCH THAT THE UN MILITARY COMMANDER IN BOSNIA, GEN. Philippe Morillon, reached an agreement during the night with the Bosnian Serb commander, Gen. Ratko Mladic. The Serbs pledged to allow a relief convoy into the town they have cut off for 11 months and which has been supplied only by the recent American airdrops. The mission is slated to arrive on 16 March and will evacuate some sick and wounded when it leaves. Morillon has been in Srebrenica since 11 March and has vowed to stay until relief arrives. The New York Times says he has become a "folk hero" among the local Muslims, and Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic said "the general has finally run out of patience with the Serbs. He's finally got it." -Patrick Moore BOSNIAN SERBS WARN HUNGARY. Radio Serbia reported on 14 March that the general staff of the Bosnian Serb army warned Hungary against interfering in areas of conflict in the former Yugoslavia. The statement specifically accused the Hungarians of meddling in the Serb-Croat conflict in Croatia and alleged incursions on Serb-held territory in eastern Slavonia, where a two-man patrol had been captured and later released to Hungarian authorities. The Bosnian Serbs also protested to the Hungarian General Staff against giving military training and weapons to Croats and claimed that 170 buses had transported Croat volunteers on 13-14 March from Croatia to the Maria Teresa garrison in Pecs for that purpose. The Hungarian Defense Ministry and border officials denied the Bosnian Serb claims, according to a Radio Kossuth report on 15 March. Radio Croatia also carried the Serb statement. A spokesman for the Croatian defense ministry called the Bosnian Serb allegations fallacious. -Milan Andrejevich CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TO BUCHAREST. On 15 March Zdenko Skrabalo began a two-day official visit in Romania. His counterpart, Teodor Melescanu, told Radio Bucharest after a round of talks that an agreement was reached to start negotiations on a general cooperation agreement. The two countries are interested in boosting bilateral ties, especially in the trade sector. Melescanu stressed that Romania seeks good relations with all former Yugoslav republics and does not want to take sides in conflicts among them. Skrabalo was also received by President Ion Iliescu and Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu. Iliescu, who received an invitation from President Franjo Tudjman to visit Croatia, reiterated Romania's earlier offer to mediate in the Balkan crisis. -Dan Ionescu CROATIA'S PRESIDENT AND THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS. On 10 March Western news agencies reported from Zagreb that Franjo Tudjman met with the secretary general of the International Federation of Journalists and the director of the International Federation of Newspaper Publishers. The two men told reporters that they expressed their concern over the Croatian government's attempts at controlling the media through a privatization program that in reality puts newspapers under the control of Tudjman's ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ). They noted in particular the intense campaign aimed at eliminating the independence of the Split daily Slobodna Dalmacija, the country's last independent paper, and recommended that the Council of Europe put off Croatia's admission as long as press freedom is in doubt. Tudjman accused them of being against Croatia and mourning the loss of Tito's Yugoslavia. Radio Croatia on 11 March said that Tudjman had met with the two men, that they had discussed a variety of issues including Slobodna Dalmacija, and that Tudjman had stressed his commitment to a free press. The progovernment daily Vecernji list on 10 March quoted a top HDZ official dealing with Slobodna Dalmacija as saying that his party's actions are democratic because it has won a series of elections. Finally, it might be noted that the staff of the Split daily went on a week-long strike on 8 March to call attention to the HDZ's attempted takeover. -Patrick Moore WALESA CRITICIZES EC FOOT-DRAGGING. EC External Affairs Commissioner Hans van den Broek began a tour of the four Visegrad countries with a visit to Warsaw on 15 March. President Lech Walesa used the occasion to chide the EC for dragging its feet in relations with Poland. Only four EC states have so far ratified Poland's association treaty, Walesa said, despite pledges that the process would be completed by the end of 1992. Walesa also criticized the EC for reinforcing customs barriers on East European steel, textiles, and agricultural goods, while Polish markets are open to EC exports. "We weren't counting on sympathy, but rather on treatment as equal partners by Europe," he concluded. During her meeting with van den Broek, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka likewise stressed that EC trade barriers are complicating Polish reform efforts. She restated past requests that the EC provide the Visegrad countries with clear criteria for full membership. Van den Broek confirmed that these questions will be discussed during the EC summit in Copenhagen in June, PAP reports. -Louisa Vinton POLAND'S ABORTION BAN TAKES EFFECT. The new law "on family planning," which takes effect on 16-March, permits abortions only in three restricted cases: when the pregnancy results from rape or incest (as documented by a prosecutor), to save a pregnant woman's life or health (as certified by two physicians in addition to the one performing the abortion), and when prenatal tests show the fetus is severely damaged. All abortions must be performed in public health facilities. Doctors who violate the law face two-year prison sentences; women who have abortions are exempt from punishment. Travel agencies arranging "abortion tourism" to neighboring states have already begun offering their services. The committee that gathered 1,300,000 signatures (more than 3% of the Polish population) in an unsuccessful effort to force a national referendum on abortion vowed on 15 March to continue lobbying for a more liberal law. The committee, headed by former Solidarity activist Zbigniew Bujak, said it would also document "the tragic consequences of this law for women." -Louisa Vinton HAVEL IN AUSTRIA. Czech President Vaclav Havel arrived in Vienna for a two-day official visit, Czech TV reported on 15 March. After a meeting with President Thomas Klestil, Havel told journalists that the construction of the controversial Temelin nuclear power plant, which is situated close to the Austrian border and has drawn massive protests from Vienna, is necessary. Havel said that all aspects of the project have been carefully considered and several expert studies taken into account. The president explained that "Temelin is a heritage of our past. It is almost completed and we have no alternative but to finish it." -Jan Obrman GERMAN TOXIC WASTE FOUND IN CZECH REPUBLIC. Mlada Fronta dnes reported on 15 March that authorities discovered 20 tons of toxic waste from a German factory in Northern Bohemia. According to the Prague daily, old dyes from a paint factory in Dresden were transported illegally to the city of Osek by a Hamburg-based company last year. -Jan Obrman KNAZKO ON HIS RELATIONSHIP WITH MECIAR. At a press conference in Bratislava on 15 March, Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko discussed the nature of his problems with Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar. He said that the disputes are based on personal, not professional considerations and that he received a financial award for superior performance from Meciar as late as December 1992. Agencies reported that Knazko rejected the notion that any criticism of Meciar constitutes criticism of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or even the government. The foreign minister made it clear that he is not interested in remaining deputy prime minister but that he will not step down as foreign minister. He also said that he is currently not considering the creation of a new political organization. Knazko warned that some of Meciar's attitudes could endanger Slovakia's parliamentary democracy. -Jan Obrman NO SLOVAK TANKS TO LIBYA AND IRAQ. Slovak Minister of Economy Ludovit Cernak dismissed a report published by the Daily Telegraph on 15 March that claims Slovakia has offered Libya and Iraq Slovak-made T-72 tanks. According to CTK, Cernak said that the last contracts on the export of T-72 tanks were signed in 1989. -Jan Obrman PROGRAM CHANGES AT HUNGARIAN RADIO. The heads of the three stations of Hungarian Radio told a press conference that effective 26 April the number of commentaries will be significantly reduced, while the time allotted to information programs, literature, and music will increase, MTI reports. Deputy head of Hungarian Radio Laszlo Csucs said that the new program structure is flexible and allows for a prompt coverage of daily events. He announced that he has asked for additional resources to launch programs in Serbian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, and Russian language programs and the expansion of existing foreign language programs. -Edith Oltay TEST TRANSMISSION OF COMMERCIAL TV PREVENTED IN HUNGARY. On 14 March officials from Hungary's Frequency Management Institute aided by the police confiscated broadcast equipment of CBC Hungary, a planned commercial television station, to prevent it from making a test transmission, MTI reports. A CBCH spokesman complained that the action abrogates a court ruling granting CBCH's application for a broadcast frequency. The head of the Frequency Management Institute told MTI, however, that CBCH was illegally seeking to appropriate a frequency originally granted to Russian TV for a test transmission. A moratorium on frequency distribution is in effect pending the enactment by parliament of a law on the media. -Edith Oltay ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT HEARS MOTION AGAINST CABINET. During a joint session of the two houses on 15 March, deputy Cristian Radulescu (National Salvation Front, Neamt County) read the text of a "vote of censure" against the four-year economic and social program presented by Nicolae Vacaroiu's cabinet on 4 March. The motion was signed by 122 deputies and senators from the opposition. The opposition has attacked the cabinet's program for being vague on details of free-market reforms and for favoring more state intervention in the economy. An NSF leader told Reuters that the parliamentary opposition was just 12 votes short of beating Vacaroiu's minority left-wing government. The ballot, which will take place later this week is the country's first no-confidence vote since the end of the communist regime in December 1989. -Dan Ionescu MOLDOVA DEFINES FOREIGN TRADE, INVESTMENT PRIORITIES. Made public through Moldovapres on 12 March, the government's conception of foreign economic relations provides for gradually expanding ties with the West while maintaining links with the East, mainly in the energy and fuel sectors. Reflecting Moldova's massive agricultural export potential, the document defines the urgent priorities as inviting Western capital and managerial expertise in food processing, preservation, refrigeration, and packaging, and the acquisition of Western technologies in these areas. -Vladimir Socor MOLDOVAN ELITE UNIT ATTACKED. One Moldovan soldier was killed and another was wounded in a hit-and-run attack with submachine gunfire and grenades on a special-purpose internal troop unit in a suburb of Chisinau, Moldova's Ministry of Internal Affairs announced on 15 March. The unidentified attackers escaped apparently unharmed. -Vladimir Socor NEW UKRAINE: NEW ELECTIONS. The recently concluded Second Congress if the New Ukraine coalition has called for new parliamentary elections, Radio Ukraine reports on 13 March. The resolution, which also supports the convening of a constitutional assembly to draft a new constitution, states that New Ukraine will participate in the organization of a referendum if the political situation in the country requires it. -Roman Solchanyk CONVERSION IN UKRAINE. Ostankino TV on 15-March reported that while defense orders in Ukraine were cut by 70% in 1992, civilian production in defense factories rose almost threefold. It did not, however, specify the absolute value of civilian production in defense plants. The report focused on a Kharkov plant that formerly produced armored combat vehicles but is now building tracked transporters that will be sent to Russia's Tyumen oil-producing region in partial payment for oil deliveries to Ukraine. Izvestiya on 12 March reported that Ukraine plans to convert its Tu-95 strategic bombers inherited from the Soviet Union into aircraft for UN environmental monitoring missions. These aircraft would be subject to the provisions of START-1-if Ukraine ratifies it-but the treaty does not provide for such a conversion process and special verification procedures might have to be negotiated. -John Lepingwell KOZYREV VISIT TO LITHUANIA. Russian Foreign Minister Kozyrev stopped in Vilnius on 15 March during his trip from Kaliningrad to Helsinki for the meeting of the Council of the Baltic Sea States. He held talks with President Algirdas Brazauskas, which he described at a press conference broadcast live by Radio Lithuania as exhaustive and businesslike, but useful. He noted that the situation of the Russian-speaking population in Lithuania is better than in Latvia and Estonia, but that agreements on Russian troop withdrawal and guarantees for servicemen and retired soldiers still have to be signed. He hopes to "open a new chapter in relations" between the two countries, he said, noting that there are no grounds to believe that Russia has neoimperialist ambitions and that Russia would not like to lose Lithuania as an equal, friendly, sovereign partner. -Saulius Girnius 1500 RUSSIAN SOLDIERS STILL IN PALDISKI. Igor Aaman, director general of the Estonian police department, spoke approvingly of the raid in Paldiski on 12-and 13 March by the police, Kaitseliit militia, and border guards and seemed to suggest that one of the purposes of the operation was to test the capabilities of the Estonian forces. He added that over 70 men remained in Paldiski to monitor the situation there. Aaman emphasized that the purpose of the Estonian operation was not open up Paldiski, a restricted-access military town, where some 1500 Russian soldiers are still stationed. The Estonian authorities are negotiating with the Russian armed forces on sharing responsibilities for guarding the nuclear reactors at Paldiski, BNS reported on 15 March. -Dzintra Bungs YOUNG BALTS NOT EAGER FOR THE DRAFT? BNS REPORTED ON 12-15 MARCH THAT ESTONIA MAY BE FACING SERIOUS PERSONNEL SHORTAGES IN THE DEFENSE OF ITS FRONTIERS OWING TO RECRUITING DIFFICULTIES. So far, only about one-third of the required number have joined. In anticipation of its spring draft, the Latvian Ministry of Defense held a seminar on 12 March. Aleksandrs Doniks told the press that about 2500 19-year-old men will be called up for service in the defense forces and the ministry of internal affairs, but noted that the number actually serving is likely to be smaller, partly as a consequence of health and family problems. Only citizens of Latvia can be conscripted. In Lithuania, according to a government decree of 10 March, 4000 recruits, aged 19 and over, will be called up for service in April and May; men will also have a choice of performing alternative service and demobilization from Lithuanian military units will be carried out simultaneously, BNS reported on 12--15 March. -Dzintra Bungs ESTONIAN ASSEMBLY MEETS. On 13 March at the urging of the leadership of the Estonian Citizens' Union headed by parliament deputy US Army Lt. Col. (Ret.) Juri Toomepuu, the Estonian Assembly met in Tallinn. The group represents an informal effort to set up a parallel legislature. They argue that the election law is not truly democratic since some candidates who received more votes were not seated as deputies. Of the 101 such people invited, only 13 attended, primarily because the government coalition and opposition People's Center Party do not support the effort. With only 23 people attending, the assembly adjourned after three hours canceling many activities, the RFE/RL Estonian Service reported on 15 March and BNS on 16 March. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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