|Принципы всегда осуществляются медленно, но люди всегда торопятся. - О. Бальзак|
No. 50, 15 March 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN REACTS TO CONGRESS. On 15 March Russian President Boris Yeltsin's press secretary issued a statement that harshly denounced the Congress, warning that it had raised "grave dangers," deepened the constitutional crisis and increased the imbalance of powers between the executive and legislative branches. The statement went on to note that the decisions of the Congress had "endangered state structures and public order" and that it had embarked on a path towards "violating the constitution and direct confrontation with the lawfully elected president of Russia." The statement accused Khasbulatov of trying to reverse the democratic achievements made since August 1991, and suggested that he had called for the parliaments (soviets) to seize power in the center and in the regions. Yeltsin is reportedly studying the situation and will make further decisions and statements in the next few days. The statement was carried by ITAR-TASS. -John Lepingwell CONGRESS ENDS BY CUTTING YELTSIN'S POWERS; PRESIDENT PROMISES TO CONTINUE THE FIGHT. On 13 March on the final day of the Congress, deputies gave final approval to the resolution cutting among other things President Yeltsin's power to issue political and economic decrees and rejecting Yeltsin's call for a referendum, the Russian media reported. The resolution said a referendum would have dangerous consequences for the state and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation. Yeltsin's chief of staff Sergei Filatov said, however, that Yeltsin would go ahead with plans for a non-binding plebiscite on who should be supreme ruler in Russia-president or parliament. Filatov said that new questions not initially among those drafted for the referendum would be put to the people. These questions, he said, could deal with the fate of the Congress of People's Deputies. The tentative date for the plebiscite is 25 April. Filatov also said the president would appeal to the Constitutional Court against the Congress resolution. -Vera Tolz CONGRESS CONCLUDING STATEMENT ATTACKS YELTSIN. The concluding statement from the Congress, "an appeal to the citizens of the Russian Federation," reported in full by ITAR-TASS on 13 March, claimed that the work of the Congress had been entirely directed at reinforcing democracy in Russia. The past two years, marked by increased presidential power, had seen economic reforms "turned against the majority of the people" and constant infringements of the Constitution by the authorities. The Congress had refused to support Yeltsin's attempts to retain his extraordinary powers because this went against "the construction of a law based state and democratic society" in Russia. The Congress was not disregarding the views of the people, but rather attempting to protect them "from political adventurism, chaos and the tragedy of Russia's disintegration." -Wendy Slater KHASBULATOV ATTACKS WEST. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov clearly allied himself with the most conservative forces when he told deputies in his closing speech to the Congress that Western aid to Russia was "another large-scale deception", ITAR-TASS reported on 13 March. He stated that it was wrong to say that the decisions taken at the Congress have halted Western aid to Russia. He said that Russia wants to establish beneficial cooperation with Western economies and does not need aid such as is given to underdeveloped countries. He added that US Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush had promised "a lot" to former Soviet leaders Mikhail Gorbachev and Eduard Shevardnadze "for dissolving Comecon and the Warsaw Pact, then for breaking up the Soviet Union" but then "never gave a single penny for it." -Alexander Rahr CONSTITUTION COURT CHAIRMAN COMMENTS ON CONGRESS RESULTS. In his first comments after the closure of the Congress, the Constitutional Court chairman evaluated its results less negatively than Yeltsin. Valerii Zorkin was quoted by ITAR-TASS on 13-March as saying that the Congress had avoided taking an unconstitutional turn, although "this was in the air." Zorkin said it was better to live with a bad constitution than without a constitution. He said that it was essential to adopt a new constitution, but in the light of the current crisis, it was necessary to abide by the current one. The latter proclaims the Congress to be the "supreme power" on all questions relating to the Russian Federation. Zorkin also called for the formation of a "national salvation government", consisting of "sober, centrist forces." -Vera Tolz KOZYREV ASSURES US ON YELTSIN. Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev telephoned US Secretary of State Warren Christopher on 12 March to assure his American counterpart that Boris Yeltsin remains committed to democracy, human rights, and the maintenance of civic order, US State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher said in a briefing on 12 March. Kozyrev added that Yeltsin is still looking for ways to consult the Russian people on their views and to give them a means to exercise their democratic rights. Kozyrev also expressed appreciation for the support shown by US President Bill Clinton during Yeltsin's struggle with the Congress of People's Deputies. -Suzanne Crow CHANGES IN RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY? THE CHAIRMAN OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY EVGENII AMBARTSUMOV WAS QUOTED BY ITAR-TASS ON 13 MARCH AS SAYING THAT AS A RESULT OF THE WORK OF THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT, PRESIDENT YELTSIN HAS RECOGNIZED THAT RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY SHOULD NOT COPY THE LINE OF US FOREIGN POLICY AND THAT FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV IS NOW CONDUCTING FOREIGN POLICY IN LINE WITH THE PARLIAMENT'S WISHES. Therefore, he said, there is no need for Kozyrev's resignation, as demanded by the Congress. -Alexander Rahr. IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC POLICY REMAIN UNCLEAR. The resolution on constitutional reform passed on 12 March by the Congress contained four statements of direct relevance to Russian economic policy-making. First, it gave the Council of Ministers jurisdiction over management of federal state property and "economic services" and confirmed its responsibility for formulating and implementing the nation's economic anti-crisis program. Secondly, the resolution states that the chairmen of the Central Bank, Federal Property Fund and State Statistical Committee may become members of the Council of Ministers while at the same time remaining accountable to Parliament. Thirdly, it provides that any decisions concerning expenditures of the state budget and extrabudgetary funds will require government input. Although the vagueness of each point makes the significance of the resolution difficult to gauge, the document has formally increased the powers of the Council of Ministers over federal economic policy. -Erik Whitlock BORIS FEDOROV WELL RECEIVED AT G-7 MEETING. Russian Deputy Prime Minister for Economics and Finance Boris Fedorov attended the last day of a three-day meeting of G-7 "sherpas" in Hong Kong on 14 March. According to the New York Times and the Washington Post of 15 February, he was well received, and elicited promises of prompt and concrete support. Although no specific details of forthcoming aid were released, at a news conference after the meeting, Fedorov stressed that any Western aid must be "well-targeted, well-defined, and visible, and that people feel that this contribution truly helps." An informative interview with Fedorov appears in the Financial Times of 15-March. -Keith Bush MINERS SUPPORT YELTSIN. Coal miners in the Kuzbass and Vorkuta regions expressed their support for President Yeltsin during the Congress, Western and Russian agencies reported. A telegram from Kuzbass miners on 13 March urged Yeltsin to take "decisive measures to stabilize the political and economic situation," assuring him of their support by "all available means." Earlier they had warned that they retained the right to declare a political strike. Radio Rossii reported on 13 March that Vorkuta miners had criticized the Congress decisions for excluding Russia's citizens from participation in the country's affairs. -Wendy Slater TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA 300,000 REFUGEES REPORTED TO RETURN HOME TO TAJIKISTAN. 300,00 persons who became refugees during the Tajik civil war in 1992 are reported to have returned to their homes, and the conservative government in Dushanbe is using the refugees' return as a measure of the normalization achieved in Tajikistan, Khovar-TASS reported on 12 March. The report indicated that the refugees who have gone home included those who fled to Dushanbe and Leninabad Oblast, the northern region which supported the pro-communist side in the war. According to earlier reports, many conservative supporters who fled to Uzbekistan have also returned to their homes in Tajikistan. Thousands of supporters of the Islamic opponents of the conservatives remain in Afghanistan and may not be eligible for an amnesty decreed by Tajikistan's Supreme Soviet on 12 March. The amnesty grants exemption from criminal prosecution to persons who illegally crossed Tajikistan's border before 31December 1992. Many of the refugees in Afghanistan fled in January 1993. -Bess Brown BADAKHSHAN CRITICIZES DUSHANBE. Autho- rities in Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast have complained that the authorities in Dushanbe are violating an agreement under which Badakhshani officials would assume responsibility for disarming armed groups on their territory, ITAR-TASS reported on 14-March. According to the Badakhshani complaint to Tajik chief of state Imomali Rakhmonov, military units and armored vehicles have entered Badakhshan despite promises that Dushanbe would not send troops to the region. Badakhshan, which has long sought greater autonomy, supported the democratic-nationalist-Islamic side in the Tajik civil war; the Badakhshani message to Dushanbe warned of "unpredictable consequences" if the military units are not removed. -Bess Brown TURKIC-SPEAKING COUNTRIES AGREE TO ADOPT COMMON ALPHABET. ITAR-TASS, quoting the Anatolian News Agency, reported on 11 March that participants in a conference on Turkic orthography had agreed on the adoption of a common alphabet by Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Representatives of all these countries had taken part in the conference in Ankara, organized by Turkey's Foreign Ministry and the Turkish Agency for Cooperation and Development. In a declaration at the end of the gathering, participants announced that they had decided on a 34-letter alphabet. (Turkey's present Latin-based script has 29 letters.) Azerbaijan introduced the use of Latin script in 1992. The other Turkic countries have been discussing such a step. The conference's decision must be confirmed by the heads of the Turkic states. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MORILLON HOLDS OUT IN SREBRENICA. International media reported on 15 March that the commander of UN forces in Bosnia, Gen. Philippe Morillon, is determined to remain in the besieged mainly Muslim eastern Bosnian enclave until the Serbs agree to let relief convoys through their lines. He arrived in the town on 11 March, but fearful residents subsequently refused to let him leave. The general is now staying on of his own volition to draw attention to the plight of the town. Its size has doubled to 60,000, with more refugees on the way according to the 15 March New York Times, which reports on the fall of nearby Konjevic Polje. The BBC quoted UN aid officials as describing the situation in Srebrenica as "horrific," noting that most people there have "not eaten in days." Some US airdropped aid packages are reaching the town, but "the law of the jungle" operates there and prevents the weakest from getting food. The 15 March Washington Post quotes a UN medical expert as saying that malnutrition and indiscriminate shelling are killing up to 30 people per day in Srebrenica, adding that his work there is harder than previous assignments in Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and Liberia. -Patrick Moore BOSNIA CONDITIONALLY ACCEPTS VANCE-OWEN PLAN. The BBC reported on 15 March that Bosnian legislators the previous day agreed to the international arbitraters' proposal but raised a series of demands. They then gave President Alija Izetbegovic a "free hand" to negotiate. He said that it was more important to preserve the Muslim nation than the Bosnian state, since the nation could someday later recover its state. This is an apparent reference to the widespread feeling among Muslims that provisions of the Vance-Owen plan' partitioning the republic into 10 highly autonomous provinces effectively means the end of a Bosnian state. The New York Times notes that the Bosnian objections to the plan touch on a number of points, including a refusal to divide Sarajevo among the three ethnic groups, as well as an insistence that any agreement be enforced. -Patrick Moore ROMANIA STILL DETAINS EMBARGO-BREAKING VESSELS. Eight barges and one ship carrying goods falling under the UN embargo against Serbia and Montenegro are still detained in the Romanian port of Drobeta-Turnu Severin. Rompres said that four Ukrainian and four Romanian barges as well as one German-flag ship have been at anchor in the Danube port for over one week. The news agency emphasized that none of the vessels is Yugoslav but provided no details on the cargoes. Serb shipping trade unions threaten to stage a new Danube blocked in the Iron Gates sector in case Romania does not allow free navigation on the river. Negotiations are underway between Romanian and Serb authorities to prevent a second Danube blockade in less than a month. -Dan Ionescu EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RECOMMENDS RECOGNITION OF MACEDONIA. With a vote of 136 for, one against, and 12 abstentions, the European Parliament on 12 March called upon the EC to recognize the Republic of Macedonia, AFP reports. The vote was taken in the context of an amendment to a human rights document. -Duncan Perry UDF CONFERENCE URGES ELECTIONS, LINES UP BEHIND LEADERSHIP. A resolution adopted at the national conference of the Union of Democratic Forces held 13-14 March says the coalition has now exhausted all possibilities to restore a majority in the Bulgarian parliament and should therefore seek to bring about early general elections. According to BTA, the resolution demands not only the resignation of Prime Minister Lyuben Berov but also that of President Zhelyu Zhelev. Although Zhelev is a cofounder of the UDF, the delegates agreed that the president's actions have "repeatedly exceeded his constitutional powers and caused nothing but disunity in the nation." In the meantime the conference called on UDF members to use all legal means to resist the present government's "policy of returning the communists to power." Following a review of the UDF's strategy over the last few months, a majority of the delegates expressed confidence in the National Coordinating Council but strongly criticized individual parliamentary deputies for having lent support to Berov's cabinet. Former Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev, who recently questioned both the competence and political integrity of UDF Chairman Filip Dimitrov, was not allowed to address the conference. -Kjell Engelbrekt NEW CHARGES AGAINST ZHIVKOV. On 13 March former Bulgarian communist leader Todor Zhivkov was indicted on a new set of misappropriation charges, agencies report. Zhivkov, who in September last year received a seven-year sentence for embezzlement of public funds, is this time accused of having used $22.5-million of the state budget to sponsor foreign communist movements and terrorist groups. Prosecutors said Bulgaria took part in the scheme between 1957 and 1987, though the money was allocated through a Soviet fund. Meanwhile, a Supreme Court official told AFP that Zhivkov is unlikely to be charged with premeditated murder in another trial scheduled to open on 4 May. That trial concerns the deaths of 147 inmates in two labor camps operating from 1959 to 1962, and run by the then interior minister Mircho Spasov. The official said there is still no evidence of a link to Zhivkov. -Kjell Engelbrekt SUCHOCKA ADDRESSES GERMAN MINORITY. During a visit to the Silesian city of Opole on 13-14-March, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka devoted a major address to relations between the ethnic Polish majority and the German minority. Speaking at the Opole concert hall on 13 March, Suchocka said that the direction of reform in Poland was to shift responsibility and power from the central authorities to local communities, reducing the state's former dominance to a more limited role of assistance. In remarks carried by PAP, she called Silesia's ethnic diversity a major asset, and pledged that Polish democracy would respect minority rights and prohibit discrimination. She also praised the German work ethic and said that the German minority's political successes should evoke admiration, not hostility. But she also reminded ethnic Germans of their "civic responsibility" to respect Polish law and raison d'etat. "Ethnicity is a spiritual matter, a question of language, cultural traditions, sentiment," Suchocka said. "Citizenship is an objective legal state and carries with it legal consequences." -Louisa Vinton PUBLIC SERVANTS MARCH IN WARSAW. Public sector employees demonstrated in Warsaw on 12 March to demand increased spending on education, health care, and culture. Solidarity organized the demonstration. Polish TV reported that some 4,000 people took part. Solidarity Chairman Marian Krzaklewski said that the march was meant to pressure legislators to make "corrections" to the 1993 budget. "This is not a political protest," he said. Some demonstrators nonetheless shouted "Olszewski for President" and other opposition slogans. Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Goryszewski told the protesters that any surplus revenues would be devoted to the public sector. In a separate demonstration on 12 March, 200 employees of the Lucznik arms plant picketed the German and US embassies. They demanded that the German government halt the extradition of Lucznik's deputy director, Rajmond Szwonder, who faces prosecution in the US for allegedly attempting to sell arms to Iraq. -Louisa Vinton POLISH-TURKISH TREATY INITIALED. Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin and his Polish counterpart, Krzysztof Skubiszewski, initialed a new treaty on friendship and cooperation in Warsaw on 11 March. The pact supplements an existing treaty dating from 1923; it will be signed later this year, during the visit to Poland of the Turkish prime minister, Polish TV reports. Cetin told Skubiszewski that Turkey will support Polish membership in NATO if the alliance decides to expand. Skubiszewski expressed Poland's support for Turkey's efforts to find a solution to the Yugoslav conflict. During a meeting with Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka on 12-March, Cetin said Poland will be permitted to use Turkey's $750,000 contribution to the $1-billion stabilization fund to help restructure the banking system. Cetin also met with President Lech Walesa at the Gdansk shipyard. The meeting could take place outside the capital, Walesa said, "because things are in order in Warsaw, especially relations with the prime minister." -Louisa Vinton SLOVAK RULING PARTY ON KNAZKO. Leaders of the Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, meeting on 13-March in Lucenec, decided that Foreign Minister Milan Knazko had violated a resolution of the party leadership adopted in early February that asked party leaders not to inform the media about internal developments in the party and disputes within the government. Knazko has made a series of highly publicized statements about his conflicts with the MDS chief, Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar. The party leadership also decided that Meciar no longer has to remain silent on his dispute with Knazko. Meciar told the media after the meeting that his efforts to recall Knazko as foreign minister are prompted by concerns over the direction of the country's foreign policy. Meciar argued that Knazko's ministry has failed to follow the MDS program and "acted against the interests of Slovakia" abroad. Knazko has been spreading disinformation about developments in Slovakia and statements made by the premier in closed meetings, said Meciar. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK LEADERS ON GABCIKOVO. Ivan Gasparovic, chairman of the Slovak parliament, sent a letter to the European Parliament, in which he requests that Hungary revoke its parliament's resolution asking help from the UN on solving the dispute over the Gabcikovo hydroelectric dam project. Gasparovic's letter, which was released to the press on 13 March, also disputes Hungary's claim that the Danube dam project violates the Slovak-Hungarian border. The European Parliament passed a resolution on 12 March asking Slovakia and Hungary to resolve their dispute at the International Court of Justice at the Hague. Both countries have said they support the idea. Also on 12th Premier Vladimir Meciar formally offered to meet Hungarian Premier Jozsef Antall to discuss the Gabcikovo dam dispute and other issues. -Jiri Pehe HUNGARY CLOSER TO LAW ON MINORITIES. On 11-March the six parliamentary parties reached the much-needed consensus, paving the way to the passage of the country's first law on national and ethnic minorities, Magyar Hirlap reports. The law, which requires a two-thirds majority vote, has been in the works since 1991. It is expected to set an example for Hungary's neighbors in their treatment of the ethnic Magyar minorities living there. The last hurdle to the consensus was overcome when the government agreed to provide 500 million forint a year in 1994 and 1995 to local governments for the support of minority organizations. The parliamentary human rights and ethics committee will next complete the codification of the draft law, whose passage by parliament is now virtually assured. -Alfred Reisch HUNGARIAN DEMOCRATIC CHARTER DEMONSTRATES FOR PRESS FREEDOM. Several thousand people followed the call of the Democratic Charter on 14 March to demonstrate in support of freedom of the press and reconciliation among the peoples of East Central Europe, MTI reports. The Democratic Charter is a civic group founded two years ago by independent intellectuals to defend the rule of law in Hungary; it has the support of the opposition parties. Elemer Hankiss, who recently resigned as head of Hungarian TV under government pressure, addressed the crowd. The writer Gyorgy Konrad said that Hungary should serve as a bridge between the peoples of the region. The demonstration was held a day before Hungary's national holiday marking the anniversary of the 1848 war of independence against the Habsburg empire. Official celebrations are scheduled to be held throughout the country on 15-March. -Edith Oltay EX-KING'S WIFE VISITS ROMANIA. Anna of Romania, wife of former King Michael, arrived in Bucharest on 11-March for a five-day private visit. Radio Bucharest reports that Anna received leading political and cultural figures, including Corneliu Coposu and Ion Ratiu from the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic and human rights activist Doina Cornea. Anna's agenda includes visits to a women's hostel, a children's hospital and other charitable institutions in the Bucharest area. -Dan Ionescu MOLDOVA'S PRIVATIZATION LAW, SCHEDULE APPROVED. Moldova's parliament on 12-March overwhelmingly passed the government's draft privatization law and the schedule for its implementation, both worked out by the Social Democrat-controlled State Department for Privatization. Starting in April 33% of state-owned property is to be privatized through the distribution of vouchers to citizens of Moldova who will redeem the vouchers for stock within two years. The program covers small- and medium-sized firms, mainly in light industry, construction, trade, and services. Several of the best-equipped medium-sized firms are listed separately for sale to foreigners for hard currency. Military plants and most municipal utilities are exempted. Large industrial plants are to be privatized in a subsequent stage, and the privatization of land is being handled separately. -Vladimir Socor UKRAINIAN LEADERS SUPPORT YELTSIN. President Leonid Kravchuk and his main political opponent, Rukh leader Vyacheslav Chornovil, both expressed support for Russian President Boris Yeltsin, Reuters reports on 12 March. Kravchuk is quoted by his spokesman as saying that Ukraine supports the development of democracy in Russia "with all of its force." Chornovil, while noting that there had been disagreements with Yeltsin in the past, said that the Russian president is the guarantor of Ukrainian independence. -Roman Solchanyk GERMAN RESETTLEMENT IN UKRAINE A FAILURE. President Leonid Kravchuk is quoted in the current issue of Der Spiegel as saying that plans to resettle ethnic Germans in Ukraine have failed. Part of the problem, he said, is that the Germans still hope to emigrate to Germany. Currently, only about 1500 ethnic Germans are reported to have taken advantage of the resettlement project, which receives financial support from Bonn. -Roman Solchanyk ESTONIAN AUTHORITIES TAKE OVER PALDISKI. On 12 March several hundred members of reinforced police units, border guards, and the Kaitseliit militia, headed by Police Department Director-General Igor Aaman, entered the town of Paldiski in an operation against "criminal organizations" [most likely illegal arms traders], BNS reports. Although the leadership of the Russian navy base in the town was not informed of the operation beforehand, the military did not become involved. The police confiscated some illegally held weapons and ammunition and arrested several persons. Three Estonian border defense launches blocked the port and one of them will remain there after the operation is ended. The Russian navy maintains a training center for submarine crews with two nuclear reactors in Paldiski and had barred even Estonian ministers from entering the town. -Saulius Girnius NEW JUSTICE MINISTER IN LATVIA. On 11 March Juris Kaksitis was chosen to replace Viktors Skudra, who resigned. Kaksitis had been deputy minister. Skudra announced that he will head his own law firm, BNS reported on 12 March. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIA TO INTRODUCE NEW VISA REGULATIONS. According to Deputy Minister of State Viesturs Pauls Karnups, Latvia will introduce new visa regulations on 22 March, not 20-March, as had been announced earlier. A transition period will be established between 22-March and 18 April to ease traveling for CIS citizens who had not heretofore required a visa. During that time, passports will be stamped at the border stating the passport bearer had entered Latvia without a visa and permitting him to stay in Latvia until 1 May; after 18 April CIS citizens will need a visa. The citizens of other countries will have to abide by Latvia's entry visa regulations on 22 March, Baltic agencies reported on 12-March. -Dzintra Bungs SOVIET PASSPORTS STILL VALID IN LITHUANIA. On 11 March the government extended the validity of old Soviet passports for travel to countries of the former USSR until 1 July, BNS reports. It had earlier decreed that the passports could not be used after 1 March, but due to the inability of the Interior Ministry to issue enough new Lithuanian passports quickly enough the decision was extended. Only Lithuanian passports are valid for travel to other countries. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.16 March 1993 1 16 March 1993 1 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 51 RFE/RL Research Institute RFE/RL Daily Report, No. 51
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