|History is made out of the failures and heroism of each insignificant moment. - Franz Kafka|
No. 49, 12 March 1993
RUSSIA YELTSIN SUFFERS DEFEAT. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has been thrown back into the same situation he was in at the end of the previous Congress of People's Deputies (December 1992) when legislators passed a variety of constitutional amendments which severely curtailed the power of the president. On 12 March, the Congress voted against amendments proposed by Yeltsin that day to the draft constitutional agreement adopted in December, Ostankino TV reported. Congress also voted to cancel the April referendum. While curtailing presidential powers, deputies decided to strengthen the executive powers of the cabinet of ministers, led by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin. Viktor Aksyuchits, a deputy from the nationalist opposition, was quoted as saying that Russia will have a strong president but it won't be Yeltsin. Alexander Rahr YELTSIN, SUPPORTERS WALK OUT. According to Ostankino TV's newscast at 9:00 A.M. GMT, Yeltsin's supporters, including the government, walked out of the 12 March morning session. Yeltsin, who had already abandoned the hall, declared that he would not return, and Ostankino TV quoted Vyacheslav Kostikov as confirming that Yeltsin had no intention of returning to the Congress. First Deputy Prime Minister Shumeiko stated that the government intended to go ahead with the referendum on a new date, April 25. John Lepingwell YELTSIN MAY CONSIDER PRESIDENTIAL RULE. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov dropped a hint on 11 March that Yeltsin may seriously be considering the introduction of direct presidential rule and the dissolution of the reform-resistant Congress. Western news agencies on 12 March quoted Kostikov as asking journalists whether they noticed that Yeltsin, when he entered the meeting hall on 11 March, pointedly greeted the ministers of defense, security and interior affairs, Pavel Grachev, Viktor Barannikov and Viktor Erin (respectively) first. At the beginning of the Congress, parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov condemned attempts to involve these three ministries in the present power struggle between the executive and the legislature. -Alexander Rahr CONGRESS TO CONSIDER MEDIA TAKEOVER. On the morning of 12 March, ITAR-TASS and Ostankino TV reported that the Congress will consider a draft decree that would subordinate the Ostankino (formerly all-Union) and Russian television companies as well as the ITAR-TASS news agency to the parliament. This would place the most important media in the country under the supervision of Khasbulatov. The TV companies have been the subject of increasing political battles between the legislature and executive branches in recent weeks. John Lepingwell WESTERN SUPPORT FOR YELTSIN. Western governments expressed their concern on 11-March about the deepening political crisis in Russia, according to Western and Russian news agencies. The G-7 countries agreed to invite a Russian representative (Boris Fedorov) to a meeting of the G-7 finance ministers in Hong Kong this weekend that will discuss aid to Russia. President Clinton noted that he had confidence in Yeltsin, while Secretary of State Warren Christopher stated that, "we continue to support [Yeltsin] and will be following these events, hoping that the outcome is one that strengthens his position." Reports also indicate that Yeltsin told German Chancellor Kohl during the first week in March that it might be necessary to introduce presidential rule, prompting Kohl to contact other Western leaders to urge their support for Yeltsin and forestall such a move. Japanese Foreign Minister Watanabe stated on 12 March that "Yeltsin must remain in his post as President of Russia," however the Japanese government also indicated that it did not plan to increase aid to Russia. -John Lepingwell VARIOUS VIEWS ON REFERENDUM. Yeltsin's supporters think that he should go ahead and hold the referendum, despite the Congress' vote against it. Deputy Prime Minister Shumeiko said the government supports the referendum, Ostankino TV reported on 12-March. On 10-March, 30 democratic political parties in Russia expressed support of the idea of the referendum, saying that its cancellation or postponement will further delay the adoption of a new constitution. One of the provisions of the new constitution is the right for individuals to own land. Opposition to the referendum is voiced not only by Communist and nationalist blocs within and outside the parliament, but also by politicians who fear that the referendum would threaten the unity of the Russian Federation, the Russian TV news program "Vesti" reported on 11 March. There is a danger that some subjects of the federation will refuse to take part in the referendum. Tatarstan already announced earlier this week it will not hold the referendum on its territory. Vera Tolz CONSTITUTIONAL COURT CRITICIZES YELTSIN TEAM. On 11 March, at the afternoon session of the Congress, the Constitutional Court's deputy chairman, Nikolai Vitruk, summed up the Court's statement distributed earlier among the deputies stirring a heated debate. Afterwards, the Court's chairman, Valerii Zorkin, addressed the deputies saying that Russia's constitutional system was threatened and that the country was on the verge of a "catastrophe." The Court stated that the blame for the crisis does not reside in the Constitution but rests in the unwillingness of both the executive and legislative branches to abide its provisions. They particularly criticized the growing tendency of the executive to trample on the prerogatives of the legislative powers. -Julia Wishnevsky DRAFT AGREEMENTS, CHERNOMYRDIN ON GREATER GOVERNMENTAL POWERS. Amendments strengthening the role of the government in the Russian constitutional structure were made to the 11 March draft Congress resolution. Presidential spokesman Vyacheslav Kostikov, told an RFE/RL correspondent that following a meeting between Yeltsin and Khasbulatov, the original draft had been amended (1) to allow ex officio the heads of the Russian Central Bank, the state property and pension funds, and the statistics committee fund to join the Cabinet of Ministers, while still leaving them answerable to the parliament; and (2) to insist that parliamentary and presidential decisions on public spending be considered by the government. The amendments followed Prime Minister Chernomyrdin's speech to Congress in the morning session, in which he criticized the parliament's interference in the budget process and the Central Bank's irresponsible credit policy, and called for strengthening the powers of the government. Nevertheless, Chernomyrdin seemed careful to distance his cabinet from the presidency, calling for increased participation by ministers in formulating presidential decrees on issues falling within the cabinet's competence. -Wendy Slater & Erik Whitlock SHARP DISPUTE ILLUSTATES CHANGES IN POLITICAL SPECTRUM OF CONGRESS. The discussion that followed the address of the deputy chairman of the Constitutional Court on 11 March illustrates the changes in the political composition of the Congress since it was elected in March 1990. Minister of Justice Nikolai Fedorov and two deputies, representing democratic factions of the Congress, attacked speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov. Four other deputies, who can also be counted as members of the democratic or centrist camp, objected. Of the six deputies who attacked Yeltsin and urged that he be impeached, only one was a communist, two were nationalists, and three were elected on the "Democratic Russia" list. Julia Wishnevsky GOLOVKOV PREDICTS EARLIER PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. Aleksei Golovkov, the former head of the government apparatus and free-lance advisor to Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, told the 14 March edition of Moskovskie novosti on that various Russian politicians have already started their preparations for presidential elections which, he claimed, could be conducted in the spring of 1994. Golovkov stated that a referendum will not solve the present crisis. He said he did not believe that presidential elections could soon be held on a multi-party basis but said that all political forces, including the reformers, must start building up their electoral campaigns. Golovkov also said that he does not see much political future for parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov. -Alexander Rahr TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA BREAKDOWN OF LAW AND ORDER IN TBILISI. Buses on routes in the center of Tbilisi are now being provided with a police escort between the hours 5 p.m.-11 p.m. after drivers refused to leave the depots during the evening because of fears over rising criminality, and Tbilisi public prosecutor Mikhail Kurdadze was shot dead near his home on the night of 10-11-March, ITAR-TASS reported. -Liz Fuller TAJIK OFFICIAL ON TREATMENT OF OPPOSITION. Tajikistan's Minister of Internal Affairs Yakub Salimov told ITAR-TASS on 11 March that rumors of mass flight of population from former opposition strongholds are being spread by "enemies of the Tajik people" in order to create distrust of the government. Salimov claimed that movements of large numbers of people merely represent the return to Dushanbe of refugees who had fled into the mountains after having been warned by the opposition that forces supporting the conservative government would kill opposition supporters from the pro-Islamic Garm region and from Badakhshan when the conservatives took over Dushanbe in December 1992. Salimov added that government pacification efforts are enabling refugees to return to their homes in many parts of Tajikistan. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIA PEACE EFFORTS UPDATE. Western agencies report on 11 March that Serbia's President Slobodan Milosevic declined to endorse the international-mediated peace plan for Bosnia saying that such a decision must be made by Bosnia's Muslims, Serbs and Croats. Milosevic told French President Fran¨ois Mitterrand and UN-EC mediators Cyrus Vance and Lord Owen that an unconditional cease-fire and the lifting of sanctions on Serbia-Montenegro are the most realistic methods to spur the peace process. He noted that cooperation is difficult while Belgrade is being punished by sanctions; he told CNN that cooperation cannot be "based on blackmail." Meanwhile in Sarajevo, Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic met with other top government leaders to review the peace process, but no agreement on accepting the Vance-Owen plan was reported. According to Radio Bosnia, unofficial sources say Izetbegovic favors the Vance-Owen map with minor adjustments, while the hard-line opposition wants Izetbegovic to hold out for major territorial concessions. -Milan Andrejevich CORRUPTION SCANDAL WIDENS. Belgrade media on 10 and 11 March report that Milosevic's pledge last month to rid the country of corrupt officials is in full swing. Reports say that several government ministers past and present have been arrested and others are under investigation. Independent Studio B TV commented that the government's campaign might expose suspected links between war profiteers and top officials in the Serbian and federal governments. Among those under investigation are Radoman Bozovic, former Serbian prime minister and currently President of the Chamber of Citizens, the Federal Assembly's lower house, and Zeljko Raznjatovic, a.k.a. Arkan, a legislator from Kosovo and militia leader who has been identified as a war criminal by the West. Earlier in the week, millionaire financier Jezdimir Vasiljevic left Belgrade for Israel, vowing not to return. He accused officials of absconding with millions of dollars in state funds and extortion and says Montenegro's prime minister confiscated several million dollars worth of oil that Vasiljevic's Jugoskandic Bank had arranged to deliver to federal Yugoslavia. He told Borba corruption is so widespread that Milosevic has lost control of the situation. -Milan Andrejevich MILOSEVIC ON INSPECTION TOUR. On 10 March the Serbian president paid a visit to a number of units and facilities of the Yugoslav Army. Milosevic toured the Batajnica airfield near Belgrade and the Air Force Experimental Center. He met with Col. Gen. Zivota Panic, chief of staff of the Yugoslav Army, and Col. Gen. Bozidar Stevanovic, commander of the air force and antiaircraft defense. According to Radio Serbia, Milosevic addressed a group of officers at the end of his visit and said that he is impressed by the level of combat readiness of the air force units and stressed that "the greatest attention ought to be paid to all conditions-.-.-. regarding the degree of combat readiness for the country's defense." In a related story, Gen. Ljubomir Domazetovic, deputy chief of staff, told the Belgrade daily Vecernje novosti on 9 March that in the event of foreign aggression, the Yugoslav armed forces are "fully prepared for the greatest sacrifices" and that it "would also be tragedy for the invaders." -Milan Andrejevich DANUBE BLOCKADE FAILS TO MATERIALIZE. A threatened Serbian blockade on 11-March failed to materialize. A spokeswoman for the Romanian Foreign Ministry told RFE/RL that the Serbian or the federal Yugoslav government might have played a role and said that her ministry is in permanent touch with Serbian and Yugoslav authorities about the situation on the Danube. Serbian crews had threatened to block the Danube if Romanian restrictions on navigation to and from Serbia were not lifted. -Dan Ionescu NEW POLISH JUSTICE MINISTER NOMINATED. Shortly after accepting the resignation of Justice Minister Zbigniew Dyka on 11 March, Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka announced she would nominate the new candidate proposed by the Christian National Union to replace him. The candidate, Jan Piatkowski, now serves as chairman of the Sejm's national minority commission. He has worked previously as a prosecutor and attorney. A Solidarity activist in the 1980-81 period, he was interned under martial law. In remarks carried by Polish TV, Piatkowski said he will try to establish order in the justice ministry and "dynamize" its work. His predecessor was criticized for failing to resolve prominent financial and corruption scandals. President Lech Walesa's approval is still required for Piatkowski to assume the justice minister post. Gazeta Wyborcza reports on 12 March that Suchocka also plans to replace the ministers of industry and environmental protection in a general cabinet shakeup. -Louisa Vinton WALESA ON THE OFFENSIVE. Suchocka is taking great pains to secure the president's support for government policy, but a quiet tug-of-war over the division of power continues. Suchocka met with Walesa on 9-March, after controversy erupted over the president's "naming" of the chairman of the new national broadcasting council. Under pressure from the government, which argued that the appointment requires the prime minister's approval, Walesa retreated from his initial position and said he had merely "designated" a chairman. Suchocka stressed after the meeting that she "could not imagine being prime minister without close cooperation with the president." There was press speculation at the time that Suchocka was trying to dissuade Walesa from rallying support by criticizing the government. For several weeks now, Walesa has been engaging in one of his periodic campaigns of interviews and public appearances designed to suggest that he is setting the public agenda. This offensive, which culminated in an appearance during a meeting of Solidarity's national leadership on 10 March, has renewed speculation that Walesa wants to set up a "presidential party." -Louisa Vinton JARUZELSKI DEFENDS MARTIAL LAW-.-.-. In two days of testimony before the Sejm's constitutional responsibility commission on 9-10 March, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski defended his decision to impose martial law in 1981. Soviet pressure made martial law unavoidable, he argued. At the same time he insisted that it was a sovereign Polish decision. It spared Poland a "sea of bloodshed," he claimed, and paved the way to the round-table talks of 1989. Detailing the incessant pressure brought to bear by Soviet leaders in 1980-81, Jaruzelski discounted recent Russian suggestions that Soviet forces had no intention of invading Poland. "I was all too familiar with the Soviet Union's imperial status," he said. "I knew there was a threshold of risk that could not be crossed." Jaruzelski conceded that the Polish communist party bore some of the blame because of its "overblown sense of its own historical mission" and its "false assessment of some people in Solidarity." Jaruzelski acknowledged that the plans for martial law were drawn up in March 1981 but claimed these were intended only as a "last resort." -Louisa Vinton .-.-.-AS TRIAL OPENS IN 1981 SHOOTINGS. The trial of 24 former police officials and riot troops opened in Katowice on 10 March. The defendants, who include former Internal Affairs Minister Czeslaw Kiszczak, face charges in connection with the shooting deaths of nine miners during the pacification of the Wujek mine in the first days of martial law. The prosecution contends that the special troops shot to kill and that Kiszczak had authorized the use of firearms against striking workers. The defense says the shots were fired to because the lives of riot police were in danger. Kiszczak claims he expressly forbade the use of firearms. The former internal affairs minister failed to appear in court on 10-March; he submitted a doctor's statement saying that a heart condition would prevent him from testifying for several months. The trial was adjourned indefinitely to assess Kiszczak's condition. -Louisa Vinton MECIAR ON CZECH-SLOVAK BORDER. Speaking at a press conference in Modra on 11-March, Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar sharply criticized the Czech government's plans to tighten the Czech-Slovak border. Meciar argued that "administrative and political barriers" are being erected on the Czech side of the border. In his opinion, "someone is trying to erect a new frontier between the East and the West," and push Slovakia to the east. Meciar said that if the Czech government wants "to proceed with this, it should also renounce [other] treaties" with Slovakia. "Let them not expect me to sign on to this." -Jiri Pehe NEW ROUND OF PRIVATIZATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC. Privatization Minister Jiri Skalicky told journalists in Prague on 11 March that the Czech Republic will launch the second wave of mass privatization this year. The first wave, during which some 1,400 were privatized, ended in December 1992. During the second wave, some 2,100 enterprises, worth some 500 billion koruny, are to be privatized. Most of the property will be privatized through standard methods, such as sales of parts or entire enterprises to foreign investors, but property worth some 150 billion koruny will be privatized with the help of the voucher method used successfully last year. Skalicky said that citizens will be able to purchase vouchers in the summer of 1993 and start exchanging them for shares in the companies slated for the second wave of privatization at the end of 1993. Skalicky warned that the government may decide not to transfer shares in Czech companies to Slovak citizens and investment funds purchased during the first wave of privatization in1992. He said that the money the government would gain by confiscating the shares will be used to repay large Slovak debts to the Czech Republic. Many more Slovaks purchased shares in Czech companies than vice versa and, as a result, the total value of shares in Czech companies owned by Slovak share-holders is some 19 billion koruny more that the total value of shares in Slovak companies owned by Czech shareholders. -Jiri Pehe NEW HUNGARIAN STATE SECRETARY FOR DEFENSE. Lt. Gen. Antal Annus, administrative State Secretary for Defense since June 1990, has been relieved of his post effective 31 March at the request of the defense minister, MTI reported on 11 March. Annus will become ambassador to an unnamed country and work for the Foreign Ministry during the period of his assignment. He will be replaced by Deputy State Secretary for Defense Rudolf Joo, a civilian. The three top posts in the Defense Ministry (with Defense Minister Lajos Fur and Political State Secretary Laszlo Szendrei, who replaced Erno Raffay in February 1993) are now held by civilians, all members of the ruling Hungarian Democratic Forum. -Alfred Reisch- HUNGARIAN CHRISTIAN NATIONAL BLOC FOUNDED. On 11 March, at the initiative of the Independent Smallholders' Party faction led by Jozsef Torgyan, 17 organizations joined to found Christian National Unity. The founding members said they want to offset the strengthening left-wing political forces and "the liberal Bolshevik bloc" and ensure the success of Christian national forces in the 1994 elections. They have expressed their intention to follow a centrist policy, which would seem to contradict the bloc's name and stated goals. The 17 organizations include some Gypsy and Jewish groups as well as, apparently, some parts of the Hungarian Path Circles, whose goals, Torgyan claims, are identical with those of the ISP. For this reason, he says, the circles should not be associated with the controversial founder of the Hungarian Path foundation, Istvan Csurka, who opposes the ISP. The Christian Populist Union will campaign to abolish the Constitutional Court, whose decisions, Torgyan says, have led to legal insecurity in the country. -Judith Pataki ROMANIAN OPPOSITION CALLS VOTE ON CABINET'S PROGRAM. On 11 March the two houses of Parliament continued their joint debate on the four-year economic and social strategy of the government. Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu, Minister of State Misu Negritoiu and other members of the cabinet took the floor to defend the program against criticism by the opposition. Corneliu Coposu, president of the National Peasant Party and a leading figure in the Democratic Convention, called for a "vote of censure" on the program. Coposu told Reuters that he does not expect a majority vote but that the motion was important in principle. The opposition is particularly critical of what it describes as a lack of practical solutions in the program presented to Parliament on 4 March. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER TO GERMANY. Teodor Melescanu held talks in Bonn with German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel and other officials on 11-March. The talks touched on bilateral issues as well as the crisis in former Yugoslavia and the UN embargo against Serbia and Montenegro. Kinkel told Melescanu that Germany attaches great importance to development of relations with Romania. He said that Germany is closely following the process of economic and democratic reforms in Romania and that Bonn supports Romania's application for full membership in the European Community. -Dan Ionescu GREEK, TURKISH VISITORS IN SOFIA. On 11 March Greek Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis arrived in Sofia on a two-day visit to exchange opinions with Bulgarian officials on a range of Balkan problems, primarily the situation in the Republic of Macedonia, Western and Bulgarian media report. Mitsotakis and President Zhelyu Zhelev stated that differing views regarding Macedonia should not represent an obstacle to close bilateral ties, which they said they would like "to give a new impetus." Meanwhile, Turkish Defense Minister Nevzat Ayas is on a three-day trip to Bulgaria. Having met with Zhelev and Bulgarian Prime Minister Lyuben Berov, Ayas and his counterpart Valentin Aleksandrov on 11 March signed a five-year agreement on cooperation in the military technology sector. -Kjell Engelbrekt NEW BULGARIAN TV DIRECTOR APPOINTED. The National Assembly on 11 March elected Hacho Boyadzhiev the new head of Bulgarian TV, BTA reports. The 61-year-old TV director, who was supported by 173-of the 205 deputies present in parliament, said he will continue the reforms begun by his predecessor Asen Agov but with a minimum of personnel changes. Agov, who sympathized with the previous government, was ousted by parliament on 24 February. -Kjell Engelbrekt DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS AMONG BULGARIA'S UN SOLDIERS. An army general has said 400 soldiers from the Bulgarian battalion serving under the United Nations command in Cambodia will be taken home due to repeated violations of military discipline, BTA reports. On 11 March Gen. Zahari Iliev told a press conference in Sofia that numerous Bulgarian soldiers violated discipline by arguing with officers, drinking while on duty, and created a bad relationship with the local population. Iliev said he hopes a number of changes suggested by a Bulgarian fact-finding mission will help to improve the situation. -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINE TO DECOUPLE START-1 AND NONPROLIFERATION TREATY? REPORTS IN PRAVDA UKRAINY AND OTHER UKRAINIAN NEWSPAPERS ON 11 MARCH INDICATE THAT THE HEARINGS IN PARLIAMENT ON THE START-1 TREATY ARE PRODUCING LARGELY NEGATIVE APPRAISALS. The hearings, organized by a group of deputies, are a prelude to the official ratification debate. The reports suggest that the parliamentarians might consider ratifying the START-1 treaty while delaying ratification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Such a move would allow Ukraine legally to retain some of its nuclear weapons, while entering into negotiations with the other CIS states as to how the START-1 cuts would be apportioned among them. -John Lepingwell UKRAINIAN COMMUNISTS DEFINE THEIR POSITION. In an interview with Ukrainian TV on 11 March, three parliamentarians who participated in the recent all-Ukrainian conference of communists in Makiivka (the Donbass) claimed that the media had disinformed the public about the decisions taken at the meeting. The three maintained that the conference resolved that the ban on the Communist Party of Ukraine be lifted and that the party's activities be renewed, but not within the framework of the CPSU. According to the lawmakers, the idea of reanimating the communist party as a constituent part of the CPSU was rejected by the conference participants. -Roman Solchanyk MOLDOVA'S CONSTITUTIONAL DEBATE. Parliament on 11 March completed the first reading of the draft constitution. The ethnic Moldovan parliamentary majority, centered on the Agrarian Democratic Party, opposes defining Moldova as a "national" state on the ground that it includes important ethnic minorities. It also opposed references in the text to the ethnic Moldovan population as "Romanian," called for replacing the current state anthem, "Romanians, Awake," with a specifically Moldovan anthem, and ruled out a proposed preamble stating that the Moldovan state has been formed owing to circumstances which do not permit unification with Romania. On all these issues the Agrarians and their ethnic Moldovan allies easily prevailed over the opposition Popular Front. The majority did accept the definition of the state language as "Romanian." -Vladimir Socor RUSSIAN NAVY TO SELL EQUIPMENT TO ESTONIA, LATVIA? BNS REPORTED ON 11 MARCH THAT, ACCORDING TO RECENT REPORTS FROM KALININGRAD, RUSSIA'S BALTIC NAVY HAS STARTED TO SELL OFF OLD SHIPS AND EQUIPMENT AND THAT SOME OF THE PROSPECTIVE BUYERS MAY BE FROM LATVIA AND ESTONIA. A Latvian-Dutch company is to buy three submarines, while a Latvian-Italian firm is negotiating to purchase ten vessels. The Russian naval base in Tallinn is reported to be willing to sell to Estonia equipment worth 156 million rubles. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIA SUSPENDS EXPORT LICENSES FOR CATTLE. On 11 March the Agriculture Ministry suspended the issuing of licenses for exporting cattle, poultry, and animal skins, BNS reports. The measure was taken due to the decreasing number of cattle that is resulting in meat shortages. About 10,000 licenses were issued this year, but only about 3,000 head of cattle were actually exported. The government also postponed its decision to replace the licenses with import-export duties from 15 March until 1 July. Economy Minister Julius Veselka said that the postponement was due to unreasonable tarifs, especially for exports. These rates will be lowered, but the export of certain agricultural products will be banned, since the government intends to subsidize agricultural production. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.1 No. 5, January 11, 1993 RFE/RL Daily Report RFE/RL Daily Report No. 5, January 11, 1993 1 RFE/RL Daily Report A Publication of the RFE/RL Research Institute
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