|A host is like general: calamities often reveal his genius. - Horace|
No. 46, 09 March 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA DEMONSTRATORS, GORBACHEV ATTACK YELTSIN. A crowd of communists and pot-banging women demonstrated in Moscow on 8-March to commemorate International Women's Day and attack the policies of Boris Yeltsin, Reuters reported. Moscow police claimed that 1,000 attended the rally, demonstrators themselves insisted the crowd numbered half of a million, and RFE/RL's correspondent estimated that the turn out was several thousand. In the critical days before the convening of the Congress of People's Deputies, Yeltsin also came under attack by ex-Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev. Arguing that Yeltsin's entire program had failed and that the Russian people would not support his referendum, Gorbachev stated that neither the army nor the people would support Yeltsin if he tries to stage a "coup" against his parliamentary opponents. He called for new presidential and parliamentary elections in June or September 1993, Western agencies reported on 5-March. -Alexander Rahr RUTSKOI FOR PREMIER? PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN MAY BE SERIOUSLY CONSIDERING FORMING A COALITION GOVERNMENT. Such an idea was suggested recently by the chairman of the parliamentary Committee for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Economic Ties, Evgenii Ambartsumov. According to Argumenty i fakty (No.8), Yeltsin may replace Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, with Vice President Aleksandr Rutskoi. In the past few weeks, Rutskoi has distanced himself markedly from Yeltsin's opponents and portrayed himself as more loyal to the president than last year. Rutskoi's appointment, if it indeed happens, would please the Civic Union, a parliamentary coalition whose support Yeltsin needs now more than ever. -Alexander Rahr ZORKIN DISTANCES HIMSELF FROM YELTSIN. The head of the Russian Constitutional Court, Valerii Zorkin, told Der Spiegel (No. 10) he thinks the adoption of a new constitution is not necessary. He argued that the present constitution has been modernized since April of 1992 and has only little in common with the old version which existed under Leonid Brezhnev. He added that he is against the idea of holding a referendum on a new Constitution and argued that President Boris Yeltsin currently has enough powers to rule the country. Zorkin claimed that last December Russia was on the brink of the introduction of emergency rule and that the Constitutional Court intervened to prevent it. He called for a round table of democrats, centrists, and communists to solve the present political crisis. Alexander Rahr SHAKHRAI CALLS FOR SUPPORT FOR KHASBULATOV. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai said in an interview with Ekho Moskvy radio on 6 March that it was essential to support Ruslan Khasbulatov, chairman of the Russian parliament and President Yeltsin's main adversary in the constitutional crisis. The balance of power within the parliament had been destroyed, he said, since Khasbulatov could no longer count on both the democratic and the communist wings of the parliament. His position had been particularly weakened when the parliamentary administration had come under the control of the communist group, Shakhrai said. Khasbulatov needed support in order to retain some balance of power within the parliament and to forestall the coming to power of a "stronger, more authoritarian figure." Wendy Slater DEBATE ON RUSSIA'S PEACEKEEPING DRAFT. Debate of Russia's peacekeeping proposal, presented to the UN Committee on Charter Review on 5 March, continues, the RFE/RL UN correspondent reported on 9 March. Thus far, no objection in principle has been raised, but Finland has questioned the Russian draft and stressed that the Russian proposal must be compatible with the goals of the UN itself. -Suzanne Crow MILITARY THREAT TO RUSSIA SEEN. An article in the February issue of the Russian military journal Voennaya mysl' presents a detailed exposition of Russian military threat perceptions. The NATO threat figures prominently, particularly because of the Baltic States' interest in joining NATO, but it places more emphasis on the growing threat from Iran. Particular concern is expressed concerning the growing influence of Islam, of which the recent civil war in Tajikistan is cited as an example. It notes that Russia must be the primary guarantor of "subregional security" and suggests that Russia use all available means in case of a conflict, including nuclear weapons. While the article does not identify the protection of Russian minorities in other CIS states as a primary security mission it otherwise implies that the Russian military has not moved away from the rather tough stance called for in the draft military doctrine published in mid-1992. John Lepingwell SOLZHENITSYN ON RUSSIA. Ostankino TV's "Itogi" program of 7 March featured a letter from Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn to Vladimir Lukin, Russia's ambassador to the United States, in which Solzhenitsyn argued the present destruction of the country had begun in 1930 and had accelerated since 1985. The current reforms, though essential, had been carried out unthinkingly and had impoverished the people. Solzhenitsyn called for a strong president, "elected by the people, standing outside and above political parties." He said Russia's size and diversity demanded its presidency be no weaker than the U.S. presidency. He warned of the danger of "rash political change," and of "abandoning the course towards plenipotential presidential power." -Wendy Slater CHECHEN LEADERSHIP THINKS AUSHEV'S ELECTION WILL REGULARIZE RELATIONS. The head of the Chechen Information Service, Movladi Udugov, citing Chechen president Dzhokhar Dudaev, told ITAR-TASS on 8 March that Ruslan Aushev's assumption of office as the first president of Ingushetia and the creation of other power structures in Ingushetia should regularize relations between the Chechen and Ingush. He acknowledged that the frontier between the two republics was disputed in places, but said the Chechen and Ingush would be able to resolve the issue without outside assistance. Both sides claim Malgobek and Sunzha raions. Udugov rejected reports that Dudaev's hasty departure from the Ingush administrative center, Nazran, had been due to a cooling of relations with the Ingush leaders. He said Dudaev could not stay for the banquet because of the Muslim fast. -Ann Sheehy PRICES WITHIN CIS. According to data released by the Russian Ministry of Economics and published in Rossiiskie vesti on 26 February, prices used in trade during 1992 between Russia and other former Soviet republics were distorted. Unit prices of goods imported from Kazakhstan were 60-70% of world prices, while Russian exports to Kazakhstan averaged 30-40% of world prices. It could be argued that this imbalance resulted in a transfer of $2.8-billion from Russia to Kazakhstan. Similarly, Ukraine benefited by some $7.5-billion. Russia's trade with the other former Soviet republics in 1992 (excluding the Baltic States) registered a positive balance of 750 billion rubles. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA AZERBAIJAN, TURKEY TO SIGN PIPELINE DEAL. Turkish Foreign Minister Hikmet Cetin and Azerbaijan's oil minister Sabit Bagirov are to sign an agreement in Ankara on 9 March on construction of an oil pipeline from Baku via Iran to the oil terminal of Yurmutalik on Turkey's Mediterranean coast, Western agencies reported. Construction will take two years, at an estimated cost of $1.25 billion. Turkey had reportedly favored an alternative route via Armenia, but this option was rejected by Azerbaijani President Abulfaz Elchibey. -Liz Fuller NORTH OSSETIAN SUPREME SOVIET RECOGNIZES SOUTH OSSETIAN INDEPENDENCE. On 6 March the North Ossetian Supreme Soviet recognized South Ossetia as an independent state, ITAR-TASS reported. The Georgian parliament abolished South Ossetia's status as an autonomous republic within Georgia in December 1990; in January 1992, a referendum was held in South Ossetia in which 99% of the participants voted in favor of the region's secession from Georgia and unification with North Ossetia within the Russian Federation. -Liz Fuller POWERS OF KAZAKHSTAN'S CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TO BE LIMITED? THE COMMITTEE ON LEGISLATION OF KAZAKHSTAN'S SUPREME SOVIET IS PREPARING CHANGES TO THE LAW CREATING THE COUNTRY'S CONSTITUTIONAL COURT, RADIO ROSSII REPORTED ON 7 MARCH. A proposal has been made to deprive the Court of the right to decide the constitutionality of legal acts adopted prior to the election of the court or to pass judgment on whether high-ranking officials have observed the constitution if the issue of their removal from office has been raised. Kazakhstan's Constitutional Court has been very independent and very activist in its decisions, declaring unconstitutional at least two presidential decrees. So far it has succeeded in warding off attempts to limit its powers. -Bess Brown JOINT ENTERPRISES TO BE REREGISTERED IN UZBEKISTAN. Joint enterprises in Uzbekistan that engage in foreign trade are being re-registered and required to replace the word "Soviet" with "Uzbek" in their names, Radio Mayak reported on 7 March. Such firms are also forbidden to use stamps with the seals of either the USSR or the Uzbek SSR. The reason given for the order, which could involve considerable inconvenience and expense for the affected firms, is that enterprises engaged in foreign trade should make quite clear that Uzbekistan is an independent state. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN UPDATE. The 9 March Los Angeles Times says that US administration officials have rejected suggestions by UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that the world body could send forces to Bosnia to force Serbs out of some occupied territories assigned by a settlement to others. The American position is that UN forces can implement a mutually agreed peace accord, but not impose an unwanted settlement, the Washington Post adds. Meanwhile in Brussels, Western news agencies reported on 8 March that the EC has agreed on moves aimed at tightening sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro, but the Los Angeles daily quoted analysts as describing the measures as "relatively modest." The EC set a deadline of two weeks for the Serbs to accept the Vance-Owen peace plan or face the increased sanctions. Finally, the 15 March issue of Time magazine presents the following statistics for the fighting in Bosnia since May 1992: 130,000 killed; 20,000 raped; 70,000 detention camp inmates; 740,000 refugees within Bosnia; and one million more outside that republic. -Patrick Moore BLEAK PICTURE FOR THE CROATIAN ECONOMY. Croatia's economy has been badly dislocated since Serbian-led forces went on the attack in 1991, with factories destroyed, power systems disrupted, transportation links cut, and the Dalmatian coast's vital tourist industry crippled. Problems have been compounded by the loss of traditional markets in Serbia, other former Yugoslav republics, and in Eastern Europe, and by a government approach to privatization that seems primarily aimed at rewarding supporters of the current ruling party rather than at promoting efficiency. The 8-March Die Presse said that the Croatian government now estimates economic reconstruction costs at well over $20 billion in a program to be completed by 1997. Last year saw production and employment dive by 30% and the inflation rate for the year hit 1,000%. Prices for textiles rose by over 4,000%, and production in high-tech industries dropped by 70%, while iron and steel were virtually not produced. On top of this, Reuters reports that electricity supplies to the Dalmatian coast are to be cut from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, shutting most factories in the process. The region badly needs to restore local power supplies, either through more rainfall or else the restoration of power grids across Serbian-held territories. The Split daily Slobodna Dalmacija frequently runs articles suggesting that Zagreb is not doing enough to help relieve Dalmatia's monumental economic problems. -Patrick Moore VISEGRAD FOREIGN MINISTERS IN BRUSSELS. The foreign ministers of the Visegrad Group-Poland, Hungary, and the Czech and Slovak republics-met with a number of NATO and EC officials in Brussels on 8 March, Western agencies report. Polish Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski reminded the group that the strategy of the Eastern European countries is to gain EC membership. While these countries are happy with the political dialogue that has been established, he said, they are not satisfied with their access to European markets. Hungarian Geza Jeszenszky reported that political and trade cooperation among the Visegrad Four is "alive and well." The situations in Russia, Ukraine, and the former Yugoslavia were also on the agenda but, according to Danish Foreign Minister Niels Helveg Petersen, who chaired the meeting, East-West trade problems and restrictions on Eastern European imports were not discussed. Charles Trumbull KNAZKO ALLOWED TO TRAVEL. The Slovak government, meeting on 8 March in the absence of Premier Vladimir Meciar, reversed its earlier decision and allowed Foreign Minister Milan Knazko to travel to Brussels for the Visegrad meeting. The government press department informed the media that Meciar had been consulted prior to the decision. On 1-March the government banned Knazko from traveling to Brussels amid growing disputes between him and Meciar. After a highly public series of moves and statements, on the morning of 8 March-shortly before the government announced its decision to let Knazko go-TA SR reported that Deputy Premier Roman Kovac would make the trip in place of Knazko. Some Slovak dailies are speculating on the morning of the 9th that the government's change of mind might signal a truce between Meciar and his foreign minister. -Jiri Pehe SLOVAK PREMIER IN LONDON. Speaking to reporters during his visit to London on 8-March, Vladimir Meciar said that a devaluation of the Slovak currency is not necessary. Rumors that the economy is in poor shape are untrue, Meciar argued, and the balance of payments between Slovakia and the Czech Republic is stable. [However, the Czech Central Bank announced on 8 March that a 1.5-billion-koruny Slovak trade deficit has arisen during the first three weeks of the Czech-Slovak currency separation and that the bank is therefore revaluing the Czech koruna by 2% against the ecu, the currency unit used to settle trade between the two states. The revaluation of the Czech koruna will make Czech goods more expensive in Slovakia.] Meciar also told journalists in London that he would welcome anybody who wants to monitor the observance of the rights of the Hungarian ethnic minority in Slovakia. Meciar said that he could only wish that Slovaks living in Hungary enjoyed at least one half of the rights enjoyed by ethnic Hungarians in Slovakia. -Jiri Pehe TALKS ON TIGHTENING CZECH-SLOVAK BORDER. Czech and Slovak media report that officials from both countries have begun talks on the tightening of the common border. The talks come in the wake of recent announcements by the Czech government that it wants to turn the border into a standard one with controls on passports. Reuters quoted Czech officials on 8 March as saying that the Czech decision is prompted by efforts to keep out immigrants from third countries on their way to Germany. Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec and Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko are expected to meet in Brussels on 9 March to discuss the tightening of border controls. -Jiri Pehe MOST CZECHS AGAINST THE PARTITION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA. An opinion poll conducted by the Institute for Public Opinion Research at the beginning of February showed that 51% of Czech citizens now think that the split of Czechoslovakia was unnecessary. Some 40% of the respondents said it was necessary. The results of the poll, published by CTK on 24-February, show there has been a shift in the feelings of people about the split; in December 1992, a poll conducted by the same organization showed that 50% of the respondents thought that the split was necessary and 43% thought it was unnecessary. -Jiri Pehe BULGARIA, EC SIGN ASSOCIATION ACCORD. On 8-March Bulgaria became the latest East European country to reach an association agreement with the European Community, Western agencies report. At the signing ceremony in Brussels, Prime Minister Lyuben Berov said he hopes the accord will "impart a new quality" to relations with the EC. Negotiations stalled in the autumn as Sofia sought greater market access for its agricultural products, but an agreement was reached in December that provides for a gradual opening of markets in both directions, financial and technical assistance to the Bulgarian economy, and regular political consultations. The EC agreement with Bulgaria is similar to those struck earlier with Poland, Hungary, (then) Czechoslovakia, and Romania. An interim trade accord will be in force until the association agreement is ratified by the EC and Bulgarian legislatures. -Kjell Engelbrekt POLAND WINS IMF APPROVAL. In a unanimous decision, the International Monetary Fund approved a new one-year agreement with Poland on 8 March. The agreement, which is to be signed next week during Finance Minister Jerzy Osiatynski's visit to Washington, makes available $655 million in new loans. One-fourth of these are earmarked to service Poland's foreign debt. The new agreement replaces the original three-year pact that was suspended in the fall of 1991 when inflation and deficit limits were exceeded. The IMF's seal of approval makes possible a further reduction in Poland's debts to foreign governments; the negotiation of a debt-reduction agreement on Poland's $12 billion in commercial debts; and the use of the $1-billion "stabilization fund" to recapitalize banks. The agreement requires Poland to reduce its budget deficit from the 1992 level of 7.2% of GDP to 5% of GDP; to bring inflation down from 45% to 32%; and to hold social security payments to a constant proportion of the budget. Osiatynski told journalists that the IMF praised Poland's "pact on state firms" as an innovative attempt to improve the functioning of state firms and accelerate privatization. The government's "mass privatization" program was also praised. -Louisa Vinton FARMERS PROTEST IN WARSAW. Meeting in Warsaw on 8 March, Rural Solidarity's national leadership decided to stage an "active protest." The form of the protest will be decided in a few days' time. Before the union's leadership convened, some 500 farmers marched in Warsaw to demand limits on agricultural imports, low-interest loans, debt-relief, and control over the privatization of food processing plants and collective farms. Rural Solidarity Chairman Roman Wierzbicki told PAP that "the determination and disappointment of farmers has attained its zenith due to the worsening economic situation." The leadership nonetheless voted down a motion to reprimand union representatives in parliament who voted for the 1993 budget. Rural Solidarity's political arm, the Peasant Alliance, belongs to the government coalition; its former chairman is agriculture minister. A union leader told PAP that Rural Solidarity is itself in desperate straits, with debts amounting to 1.5 billion zloty ($94,000). -Louisa Vinton HUNGARIAN BUSINESSMEN IN POLAND. According to a 8 March Radio Budapest report, 36-presidents and representatives of Hungarian industries, led by newly appointed Industry and Trade Minister Janos Latorczai, are in Warsaw for a Hungarian-Polish economic forum and in order to inaugurate relations between firms in the two countries. The businessmen are seeking ways to take advantage of the free trade agreement among the Visegrad Group that went into effect on 1 March. -Judith Pataki SNOW CAUSES CHAOS IN ROMANIA, BULGARIA. Heavy snowstorms in Romania and Bulgaria have brought daily life virtually to a standstill. Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu called an emergency meeting of key ministers and a telephone conference of local government officials to discuss the emergency. The mayor of Bucharest banned private cars without four-wheel drive from the roads and parking on main roads. He appealed to citizens to help clear the snow. International flights and traffic on the Danube were also interrupted, Radio Bucharest said on 8 March. Reuters reports that Sofia airport remained opened to international flights, but roads north to the Danube ports of Ruse and Silistra and west to Macedonia are blocked. The Black Sea port of Varna has been closed since 7-March. Electricity, phone lines, and water supplies have been cut off in parts of northeast Bulgaria. A Transport Ministry official said were the heaviest snowstorms in the past 10 years. -Michael Shafir ROMANIA BLAMES EPIDEMICS ON POLLUTED WATER. Health Minister Iulian Mincu said water pollution and poor medical facilities were responsible for last year's hepatitis, smallpox, diarrhea and tuberculosis epidemics. Radio Bucharest reported on 8 March that Mincu told Parliament that the epidemics killed 220-people. He said water treatment plants are not working in half the towns, and industrially polluted water is a problem in rural areas. The government has announced a public investment campaign to modernize sewage systems and water treatment plants in 1993. -Michael Shafir HUNGARIAN, ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTERS TO MEET. Hungarian Foreign Ministry Spokesman Janos Hermann confirmed on 7 March that a meeting between Hungarian Foreign Minister Jeszenszky and his Romanian counterpart Teodor Melescanu will take place in the next few weeks, Radio Budapest reports. Hermann did not say when and where the meeting will take place. He was reacting to a report in Magyar Szo, a Hungarian language paper printed in Romania, that claimed that the meeting will take place soon in the Hungarian town of Gyula. Top item on the agenda will likely be the basic bilateral treaty. -Judith Pataki "DNIESTER" UKRAINIANS CALL ON KIEV FOR SUPPORT. The first congress of Ukrainians in Moldova's area on the left bank of the Dniester was held in Dubasari on 7-March. The group appealed to Ukraine to grant citizenship to ethnic Ukrainian residents there, support Ukrainian-language education and cultural activities, and contribute to determining the territory's political status, Moldovan media report. Ukrainian activists in the area have recently formed Povernenye [Return], an organization that advocates the area's transfer from Moldova to Ukraine (it was part of the Moldovan Autonomous Republic within Soviet Ukraine from 1924 to 1940). The Soviet census of 1989 found 40.1% Moldovans, 28.3% Ukrainians, and 25.5% Russians in this area, which is currently under the control of the Russian element as the "Dniester republic." The Ukrainians' growing assertiveness fractures the bloc they once formed with the Russians and undermines Russian claims to protecting the "Russian-speaking population" in eastern Moldova. -Vladimir Socor SEVASTOPOL UKRAINIANS TO CONVENE. Preparations are under way for a Congress of Ukrainians of Sevastopol, Radio Ukraine reported on 8 March. The organizational committee has prepared a draft program, which underscores that the main objective of the congress is to seek cooperation with various political parties and movements and with all nationalities in the city. Sevastopol has recently witnessed meetings and demonstrations in connection with a Russian parliamentary inquiry into its status. -Roman Solchanyk UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT COMMITTEE DISCUSSES START-1. A standing subcommittee of the parliament started hearings on the START-1 treaty on 5 March, according to reports by Ekho Moskvy and Ukrainian TV. The subcommittee heard testimony from legal experts that Ukraine is not at present a nonnuclear state and that it should be entitled to compensation for the fissile materials contained not only in the nuclear weapons located in Ukraine, but also from a proportion of those located elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. The experts also argued that the Ukrainian declaration of state sovereignty is not a binding document under international law, and thus no other state has the right to demand Ukrainian nuclear disarmament. -John Lepingwell ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN TALKS. Officials of both countries admit the ninth round of interstate talks has yielded little progress, Baltic media reported on 5-6 March. Russian Admiral Feliks Gromov told naval officers that Estonia's new leadership has assumed a harder line, which in turn has evoked a tough statement from the Russians. Estonians are unhappy about Russian military installations (about 300 belonging to the army and 6 to the navy) still operating on their territory and their unwillingness to address itself to the cleaning up the environmental damages they have left. Recent estimates indicate that there are still about 6,000 Russian troops in Estonia. -Dzintra Bungs NORWEGIAN HELP FOR HOUSING. Norway's Deputy Foreign Minister Helga Hernes told her Latvian counterpart Martins Virsis that her country is prepared to finance the construction of housing for commissioned officers of the Russian army withdrawn from the Baltic States. Similar offers have been expressed by Danish and American officials, Baltic media reported on 5-6-March. -Dzintra Bungs PREPARATIONS FOR LATVIAN ELECTIONS. During the past week, Latvia's National Independence Movement convened for its sixth congress and announced some of its candidates-including Andrejs Krastins, Odisejs Kostanda, Eduards Berklavs, and Aleksandrs Kirsteins-for parliament. Together with the Environmental Protection Club, the Green Party will compile a "green" list of candidates. A "Russian" list is being drawn up jointly by the Baltic Constitutional Party and the Center for Democratic Initiative; it is not yet clear if the Ravnopravie coalition, led by Sergejs Dimanis, will also join. The parliamentary faction Satversme elected Indulis Emsis, Aleksandrs Kirsteins and Girts Krumins as its leaders, replacing Janis Vaivads, who recently became a board member of the parliamentary election coalition Latvijas Cels (Latvian Way), and cochairmen Olegs Batarevskis and Einars Cilinskis. Batarevskis and Cilinskis are expected to run on the "green" ticket, Baltic media reported 5-8 March. -Dzintra Bungs LITHUANIAN AMBASSADOR TO MOSCOW. A proposal by Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys that Romualdas Kozyrovicius, former Minister of Material Resources and now president of the Baltijos Birza commodity exchange, be appointed ambassador to Moscow was approved by the Seimas Foreign Affairs Committee on 8 March, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reports. President Algirdas Brazauskas is expected to make the appointment in the near future. While the opposition approved the candidacy, the committee could not agree on the composition of the Lithuanian delegation for negotiations with Russia and the suggestion that Deputy Economics Minister Vytas Navickas be its head. -Saulius Girnius OPINION POLL IN LITHUANIA. A recent poll by Baltic Surveys indicates that President Algirdas Brazauskas is the most popular statesman in Lithuania, BNS reported on 8 March. Prime Minister Bronislovas Lubys, Deputy Seimas Chairman Egidijus Bickauskas, ambassador to Washington Stasys Lozoraitis, Seimas deputies Romualdas Ozolas and Kazimieras Antanavicius, and National Defense Minister Audrius Butkevicius followed. Among institutions, the Church enjoys the most trust, followed by the mass media, the government, and the Seimas. Economic matters remain uppermost in the mind of the populace, followed by social problems. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Suzanne Crow and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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