|The sum of human wisdom is not contained in any one language, and no single language is capable of expressing all forms and degrees of human comprehension. - Ezra Pound|
No. 44, 05 March 1993
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Inc. RUSSIA CONGRESS DATE SET. The Russian parliament has voted to convene an extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies on 10 March, ITAR-TASS reported on 5-March. The parliament's conservative majority wants to use the Congress to annul the proposed referendum on the basic principles of the future Russian Constitution and to strip President Boris Yeltsin of most of his powers. Yeltsin needs the Congress to adopt his proposal for a constitutional agreement, which would preserve his own powers and reduce these of the legislature for a period of stabilization. Yeltsin had rejected invitations from the deputies to attend the parliamentary sessions on 4 and 5 March, but called a cabinet meeting for 5-March. -Alexander Rahr and Wendy Slater DEPUTIES PRESS YELTSIN ON MILITARY. On the initiative of hardline deputy Sergei Baburin, the parliament at its 4 March session asked President Yeltsin to present the deputies with stenographic accounts of the meeting of the Security Council and Yeltsin's meeting with representatives of the military, both held on 3 March. Some parliamentarians fear that Yeltsin had discussed the introduction of emergency rule with the military, according to ITAR-TASS on 4 March. Yeltsin has stated that if a constitutional agreement is not reached with the legislature, he will pursue a "final option," leading Yeltsin's opponents to think that the president is planning a coup. Yeltsin also asked Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev not to leave the country until the Congress meets on 10 March. Meanwhile, Yeltsin expressed interest in meeting leaders of the communist faction for a dialogue prior to the Congress. -Alexander Rahr SKOKOV DENIES COUP RUMOUR. The Secretary of the Russian Security Council, Yurii Skokov, told parliament that Wednesday's meeting of the Council had not dealt with the issue of introducing emergency rule in the country, Western news agencies reported on 4-March. Skokov said that he is being attacked from various sides, accused of preparing a coup, but added that these accusations do not concern him. Parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov complained that he has been isolated from the work of the Security Council. He stated that if it turns out that the supreme military command has sided with Yeltsin in the present political dispute, then Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev will be sacked. The liberal newspaper Izvestiya reported on March 3 that military leaders had expressed concern over the continuing power struggle. -Alexander Rahr HARD-LINE OFFICERS WARN OF COUP. The leader of the militantly nationalist Russian Officers' Union charged on 4 March that Yeltsin's meeting with the military leadership was connected to preparations for introducing a state of emergency and presidential rule in Russia, AFP reported. Stanislav Terekhov, who was recently elected chairman of an unofficial military association said to represent the All-Union Officers Assembly, claimed to have obtained from "secret but very reliable sources" plans for a coup that would be launched by Yeltsin if the legislature refused to support his plans for resolving the crisis of power in Russia. Terekhov alleged that the Defense and Interior Ministries had also drafted contingency plans for creating special military detachments to reinforce police units. AFP also reported that Terekhov had met with Valerii Zorkin, chairman of the Russian Constitutional Court, to warn him of Yeltsin's plans. Terekhov has long called for the ouster of Yeltsin and the dismissal of Russian Defense Minister Pavel Grachev. -Stephen Foye DATE OF CONGRESS CRUCIAL. The deputy parliamentary speaker, Nikolai Ryabov, reminded deputies on 4 March that parliament had to convene the Congress no later than 10 March in order not to be held responsible for spoiling plans for the referendum, ITAR-TASS reported. By law, the questions for the referendum must be decided upon 30 days before the voting, which is scheduled for 11 April. Conservative deputies in the Russian Unity parliamentary faction had attempted to convene the Congress on 17 March, which would have scotched Yeltsin's plans to hold a referendum and allowed them to set their own agenda for negotiating the future constitutional structure of Russia. -Wendy Slater US OFFICIALS CONCERNED OVER START TREATIES. Senior US government experts have told Reuters of their apprehensions that Russia may never approve the START-2 Treaty, the news agency reported on 4 March. One expert said that the treaty had become a "symbol" of the radical reform efforts that Yeltsin had backed, and that growing opposition to it might lead to the treaty being voted down in the Russian parliament. The experts also reportedly expressed concern over the fate of the START-1 Treaty, pointing in this instance to opposition to ratification in Ukraine. -Stephen Foye COMBAT READINESS PLUMMETS IN PACIFIC FLEET. A naval captain tasked by local authorities to investigate living conditions in the Russian Pacific Fleet has told RIA that the fleet's battle worthiness has plummeted and that servicemen are living under appalling conditions. According to a Reuters report on 4 March, Viktor Cherepkov said that approximately one half of the servicemen serving on the remote island base of Russky were in the sick bay or in hospitals. He charged that Pacific Fleet commanders were guilty of criminal negligence. The investigation comes in the wake of a report in early February that four conscripts in the Pacific Fleet had died of pneumonia caused by malnutrition and atrocious living conditions. On 2 March Defense Minister Pavel Grachev warned that heads would roll for the negligence. -Stephen Foye KOKOSHIN IN ST. PETERSBURG. Russia's First Deputy Defense Minister in charge of military-technical policy, Andrei Kokoshin, flew to St. Petersburg on 4-March for consultations with military and defense industrial leaders in the region. According to ITAR-TASS, Kokoshin told a gathering of Leningrad Military District commanders that an increase in government defense orders was necessary to stabilize the situation in the defense industrial sector and to ensure that Russia retained the capability to produce advanced weaponry. He said that a 67% decline in defense procurement in 1992 had been the result in part of a decision to increase spending on programs aimed at raising living standards for servicemen. He added that the Defense Ministry had worked out a program for arms production through the end of the decade. On 17 February ITAR-TASS reported that Kokoshin had been named chairman of a newly created independent council on military-technical policy. -Stephen Foye KOHL VISITS YELTSIN, DISCUSSES G-7 SUMMIT. On the evening of 3 March German Chancellor Helmut Kohl stopped off in Moscow while returning to Germany from a visit to South Korea. Kohl met briefly with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, and discussed Yeltsin's current political difficulties. Western news agencies reported that Kohl indicated that the G-7 countries would decide within a week whether to invite Yeltsin to the forthcoming G-7 summit in Tokyo. Russia has been hinting that it would appreciate such an invitation, but any invitation needs to be approved by all the G-7 members. Such a trip would provide Yeltsin with the opportunity to discuss the Kuril islands and economic aid issues with Japanese leaders, an opportunity missed after the cancellation of his planned fall 1992 visit. -John Lepingwell GAIDAR ON RUSSIAN UNEMPLOYMENT. Addressing a meeting in Washington DC on 4 March, former acting prime minister Egor Gaidar confirmed that unemployment in Russia is still mostly restricted to female white-collar workers. He said that, thanks to the continuing tendency of Russian enterprise directors to cut real wages and working hours before shedding labor, unemployment still only amounts to somewhere between 0.8% and 1.2% of the workforce. (The figures are for 1 February 1993.) He said he believed that, "under any kind of policy that we can realistically expect" in Russia, unemployment is unlikely to rise above 4% of the workforce by the end of 1993. -Elizabeth Teague . . . HARD CURRENCY AND GOLD RESERVES. In answer to a question, Gaidar said that Russia's hard currency reserves as of 1 January 1992 had been "virtually zero"; on 1 January 1993, they amounted to US $2 billion. One billion of that was IMF money; the other billion was money which the Gaidar government had managed to accumulate. As for gold reserves, Gaidar said that they were 290 tons on 1 January 1992, and 380-tons on 1 January 1993-"not a lot," Gaidar said, "but moving in the right direction." He also said that the Russian Central Bank is thinking of raising interest rates from 6% to 8% per month. This, he said, would do nothing for the economy but would nonetheless be important, since it would "raise expectations" of a further possible increase and therefore send a significant signal. -Elizabeth Teague RUSSIA'S FOOD PURCHASES ON THE WORLD MARKET. On 3 March Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandr Shokhin left Washington without any agreement on Russia's overdue payment for past US grain deliveries. The total arrears for all CIS states is put at over $400 million. On the same day, Australia announced that it would resume selling grain to Russia, as Russia had resumed payments for wheat shipped more than one year ago; and on 4 March, the New Zealand agricultural minister told the Russian delegation headed by Vice-President Aleksandr Rutskoi that Russia's outstanding debt of about $200 million must be paid before further sales of agricultural produce could be contracted. -Keith Bush TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA KAZAKHSTAN STATE COUNSELOR ON YELTSIN'S REMARKS. State Counselor of Kazakhstan Tulegan Zhukeev commented in Alma-Ata on 4 March on Yeltsin's remarks at his recent meeting with the Civic Union on a special status for Russia within the CIS and confederative ties, ITAR-TASS reported. Zhukeev said that in his view it was best to drop talk of a confederation for the present and try to strengthen the CIS institutions that already exist. He stated that at the January summit in Minsk no real economic, let alone political, steps had been taken. He also maintained that, if the CIS states observed their existing agreements, there would be no need for special powers and an appeal to the UN. Zhukeev went on to argue in favor of the Hague-type interstate court proposed by Kazakhstan's president Nursultan Nazarbaev six months ago and now under consideration by CIS states. Zhukeev said that such a body could deal with questions of preventing conflicts on the territory of the former Soviet Union. -Ann Sheehy NEGOTIATIONS IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajikistan's Foreign Minister Rashid Alimov told an ITAR-TASS correspondent on 4 March that there had been no fighting in the country for a week because a delegation from Gorno-Badakhshan, the mountainous eastern region that has supported the democratic and Islamic coalition against pro-Communist forces during the 1992 Tajik civil war, has been negotiating with government officials in Dushanbe. According to Alimov, the Tajik government is leaving the problem of disarming anti-government groups in Badakhshan to the region's own authorities. Alimov also reported on Tajik government measures, including the opening of a consular station on the Afghan border, to prepare for the return of the thousands of refugees who fled to Afghanistan in December and January to escape the supporters of Tajikistan's present government. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UN FACES DILEMMA IN EAST BOSNIA. International media reported on 4 and 5 March that the UN said it had reached an agreement with Bosnian Serb leaders for a cease-fire over the coming weekend to allow Muslims to leave Cerska, Srebrenica, and Zepa. About 10,000 Muslims could be involved, almost half of whom are children, sick, wounded, or elderly camping out in the open. While the international organization wants to rescue these people, it is again faced with the familiar dilemma that to evacuate refugees from Serb-held areas is, in effect, to help ethnic cleansing. One UN worker told the BBC that he did not like being part of a "bus service for ethnic cleansing." Meanwhile, the Serbs pressed their attacks in what UN human rights envoy and former Polish Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki called "intensifying ethnic cleansing." The 5 March Washington Post also quoted a local Serb commander as calling his troops "the most civilized in the world." Finally, Bosnian armed forces commander Sefer Halilovic told Reuters that intervention by UN troops was necessary to stop "the savagery of the chetniks." -Patrick Moore CLINTON SAYS US WON'T BE INTIMIDATED. The 5-March Los Angeles Times quotes president Bill Clinton as saying: "I don't think the American people can afford to be afraid." He was referring to veiled threats by Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic to the effect that continued US relief missions to the Muslims could prompt Serbian terrorism against America. Karadzic, who speaks excellent English, later claimed that his thoughts had been mistranslated and withdrew part, but not all, of his original statement. Elsewhere, US Secretary of State Warren Christopher said that a grenade attack on the US embassy in Belgrade would not affect American policy. -Patrick Moore OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN THE YUGOSLAV AREA. The Washington Post and New York Times on 5 March say that the Bosnian peace talks have reached an impasse. Bosnian Muslim leaders are now not convinced that the cease-fire they had earlier accepted goes far enough to ensure UN control over Serb heavy weapons, and they , like the Serbs, remain opposed to the plan to divide their republic into ten cantons. Meanwhile in Bosnia, US aircraft made the fifth airdrop in as many days, although Serbs continued to block land-based convoys. In Geneva, some UN experts said they regretted that the five-member war-crimes panel includes no women. The International Herald Tribune quotes them as saying that this was a "defect," since the issue of mass rape as a Serbian political weapon against primarily Muslim civilians is a major war-crimes issue. Finally, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reports that a UN investigation team is slated to reach Vukovar in Serbian-occupied Croatia on 5 March. The forensics and other experts are looking into partially confirmed reports that there are mass graves of sick and wounded Croatian hospital patients and soldiers near Vukovar, which fell to Serb forces in November 1991. -Patrick Moore HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ON HUNGARIAN-SERB RELATIONS. Geza Jeszenszky said in an interview with RFE/RL's Hungarian broadcasting service on 4 March that Budapest's future relations with Serbia depend upon the status of the large Hungarian minority in Serbia's Vojvodina province. Jeszenszky also said that the situation of minorities in Vojvodina had deteriorated a great deal lately and that he does not understand why the Serbs oppose a form of autonomy for Hungarians in Vojvodina. -Karoly Okolicsanyi BULGARIAN MERCENARIES MAY BE PROSECUTED. In a declaration adopted on 4 March, the Bulgarian government says it will prosecute any of its citizens who have committed war crimes while fighting in former Yugoslavia, BTA reports. Although there is no law which explicitly prohibits Bulgarians from serving as mercenaries, the government warns it will hold responsible those who "have committed or ordered crimes against peace and humanity, offenses against the laws and practice of warfare, as well as gross and substantial violations of human rights." During the last couple of months there have been occasional press reports suggesting that Bulgarian citizens are taking part in the fighting in Bosnia, but no definite proof has been presented. -Kjell Engelbrekt SUCHOCKA APPEALS FOR BRITISH INVESTMENT. On the last day of her official visit to Britain, Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka on 4 March urged the Confederation of British Industry, an organization of 250,000 firms, to increase their investment in Poland. She stressed that the risk is lower than her audience probably imagined and that the Polish market is stable. Poland does not need a "new Marshall Plan," she said, but rather is counting on better access to Western markets and rapid integration with the EC. Gazeta Wyborcza reports that Suchocka named 2002 as an appropriate date for full EC membership. Poland is Britain's largest trade partner in Eastern Europe, with imports from Britain worth $670 million and exports to Britain worth $560 million in 1992. -Louisa Vinton NEW DELAY FOR POLISH MASS PRIVATIZATION. Although a final vote on the issue was scheduled for 4-March in the Sejm, yet another hitch has developed in Poland's long delayed mass privatization program. After a full day of debate, the mass privatization bills were returned to commission because of the large number of amendments proposed from the floor. The plan submitted to the parliament proposes privatizing 600 firms through the distribution to the public of shares in a dozen mutual investment funds. To participate, citizens would pay a registration fee worth about 10% of the average wage. Employees of privatized firms would receive 10% of the shares in their firms free of charge. The program is designed both to improve the management of the chosen firms and to give the broader public a chance at ownership. The mass privatization program is supported by the government coalition but opposed by the rest of the parliament. The final vote, expected in the next few weeks, is too close to call. -Louisa Vinton BALCEROWICZ OFF THE HOOK. The Polish Sejm on 5 March voted down a motion that would have forced former Deputy Prime Minister Leszek Balcerowicz to face charges before the Tribunal of State. The vote was 159 to 150 with 73 abstentions, PAP reports. A Sejm commission had recommended charging Balcerowicz with improper supervision of the "creation of legal acts" in connection with "Schnappsgate," a scandal in which a legal loophole permitted the tax-free import of huge quantities of alcohol in 1990. The attempt to bring charges against Balcerowicz is highly politicized, and two similar efforts were voted down in the past. The debate on the issue, held on 4 March, was bitter and personal. Former Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki protested that there was "a horrible disproportion" in attempts to "trample [Balcerowicz] in the same mud" as true criminals and urged the Sejm to rise above "petty acts of revenge." A peasant deputy responded by charging Mazowiecki with "escaping from a sinking ship" when he resigned after his defeat in the 1990 presidential elections. These remarks in turn drew indignant protests from Mazowiecki's party. -Louisa Vinton VACAROIU PRESENTS REPORT, PLAN TO PARLIAMENT. Prime minister Nicolae Vacaroiu presented a report on 4 March to the two chambers of the Romanian parliament on the government's activity in its first 100-days and the future strategy for reforms. He said the new planned strategy abandons what was termed as "classical liberalism" and calls for more state intervention in the economy. The plan calls for privatizing 20% of state industry and ending the last subsidies on prices for foodstuff and services. Inflation, Vacaroiu said in a speech carried live by Radio Bucharest, should be brought down to 80% from the present 200% and by 1996 it should be no higher than 15%. The parliament will start debating the plan on 9 March. -Michael Shafir LABOR UNREST CONTINUES IN ROMANIA. Thousands of workers demonstrated again in Bucharest on 4 March, demanding wage rises and job security. It was the second consecutive day that the Romanian capital was besieged by workers' protests. This time, the demonstration was organized by the Univers trade union confederation, which represents 175,000 employees in the communications, power, and gas industries. Union leaders quoted by Radio Bucharest said they demanded that the government double the minimum monthly pay. The Alfa and Fratia trade union confederations announced on 4 March that sanctions would be undertaken unless the government and the representatives of the employers sign the country-wide collective working contract by 5 March. The government said it would start negotiations over pay rises and other labor demands next week. Also on 4-March, the federation of trade unions representing teachers declared a two-hour warning strike. -Michael Shafir ROMANIANS FLOCK TO ARGENTINE EMBASSY FOR IMMIGRATION VISAS. Thousands of Romanians have been crowding Argentina's embassy in Bucharest this week for visa forms, after Argentina announced new immigration opportunities. Reuter quoted an embassy official as saying about 11,000 people had come to the embassy since the announcement was made on 1-March. The embassy was besieged despite heavy snowfalls in Bucharest in the last two days. According to data released by the ministry of interior on 3 March, 222,670 Romanian citizens have applied for, and been granted, the right to settle abroad since 1990. However, many more Romanians are known to have emigrated without an official request. -Michael Shafir MOLDOVA PROTESTS YELTSIN'S "SPECIAL POWERS" REQUEST. In a statement issued on 4-March, Moldova's Foreign Ministry expressed "astonishment and concern" over Russian President Boris Yeltsin's public request on 28 February that Russia be given an international mandate and "special powers" as "guarantor of peace and security" on the territory of the former USSR. Russia's claim "contravenes the norms of international law" and "Moldova will resolutely reject any attempt at intervention in its internal affairs," the Moldovan statement said. "All disputed issues must be resolved in accordance with international law and with the active participation of international organizations including the UN and the CSCE," Moldova's statement said. -Vladimir Socor MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT, RUSSIAN DEPUTIES FIRM UP CONSENSUS. Mircea Snegur met on 4 March with the parliamentary deputies of the Soglasie [Accord] Club, consisting of virtually all the Russian and "Russian-speaking" deputies from the right bank of the Dniester, where 70% of Moldova's Slavic population resides. The deputies, who form a component of the parliamentary majority and whose nominees sit in the government, reiterated their support for Moldovan statehood and for Snegur's call for a referendum to confirm Moldova's independence, Basapress reported. They also urged that the question of administrative autonomy for the left bank of the Dniester and the Gagauz-inhabited areas be resolved in close linkage with the process of debating and adopting the new Moldovan constitution, in order to ensure the latter's acceptance by the left-bank Russians and the Gagauz. The deputies urged the publication of native-language textbooks in greater print runs and at lower prices in order to facilitate the Russian-speakers' study of the state language. They further requested an extension of the application deadline for Moldovan citizenship (non-natives are automatically eligible for citizenship under Moldova's "zero option," but most have not yet applied). The deputies also offered to "build bridges" between the Moldovan parliament and Russia's Supreme Soviet. Snegur promised to support the deputies' proposals and requests. -Vladimir Socor TURBULENCE IN BULGARIAN TV. Protests against the sacking of Stefan Dimitrov, head of the first channel of Bulgarian TV, on 4 March prompted the parliamentary Committee on Radio and Television to demand a moratorium on personnel changes in the organization, BTA reports. Dimitrov was fired by acting General Director Militsa Traykova, who had replaced Asen Agov on 24 February as the result of a parliamentary decision. While President Zhelyu Zhelev said he was concerned that the Bulgarian TV is being "destabilized," trade union branches are demanding that Dimitrov be reinstated immediately and argue that Traykova has no right to carry out major changes as she only holds a temporary mandate. Twenty-two intellectuals said the incident shows that freedom of expression in Bulgaria is under attack from neocommunists. -Kjell Engelbrekt KOZLOVSKY CALLS FOR END TO POLITICS IN ARMY. Belarus Defense Minister Pavel Kozlovsky has put forward a proposal that would forbid servicemen from taking part in political activities even in their free time and when they are off-base. According to a Belinform-TASS report on 4 March, Kozlovsky made the proposal, which would involve an amendment to the law "on the status of servicemen," before the parliamentary commission for national security, defense, and crime fighting. The law now reads that servicemen can take part in political activities on their own time. The commission reportedly supported Kozlovsky, and the proposal is to be discussed in the parliament. -Stephen Foye RUSSIAN PLANES PREVENTED FROM WITHDRAWING TROOPS FROM ESTONIA. Major Valerii Sinyavsky, head of the Russian garrison in Tartu told RFE/RL on 4 March that Russia's 196th air transport regiment is supposed to leave Tartu by the end of April, but that Estonian officials have not enabled Russian planes to land to remove troops and equipment. Sinyavsky was being sent from one office to another. Urmas Tensing, head of the Estonian border guards in Tartu, confirmed Sinyavsky's account and added that normally such permission is granted in five days, but, in this case, already ten days had passed since the authorization for the planes to land was requested. -Dzintra Bungs LATVIAN-RUSSIAN ACCORD ON EXTRADITION OF CRIMINALS. On 4 March an agreement was signed in Moscow by Latvian General Prosecutor Janis Skrastins and his Russian counterpart Valentin Stepankov on the extradition of convicted criminals. The accord stipulates that citizens of Russia and Latvia who committed crimes and were convicted in the other country be sent back to their native land to serve their sentences. The exchanges would be made with the consent of the convicted criminal and after the court sentence goes into effect. The country receiving the convicted criminal would see that his punishment is continued., Baltic agencies reported on 4 March. -Dzintra Bungs DEMOCRATIC LABOR PARTY ANNOUNCES CANDIDATES FOR LATVIA'S PARLIAMENT. Latvia's Democratic Labor Party has announced the first of about 50-candidates that it intends to field in the June parliamentary elections. The initial list is headed by the party's chairman Juris Bojars and deputy chairman Karlis Podnieks. The other candidates are mostly professionals living outside Riga. Podnieks told Diena of 3 March that party stands a chance of getting at least 15% of the parliamentary mandates. -Dzintra Bungs DIFFERENCES IN LITHUANIAN DEMOCRATIC LABOR PARTY. The unity of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party (LDLP) may disappear now that its chairman Algirdas Brazauskas has left the party on becoming president. The party will elect a new chairman at its congress in Vilnius on 17-18 April. The race is likely to be between acting chairman Gediminas Kirkilas, a Seimas deputy, and Vilnius University physicist Andrius Meskauskas who appears to have the backing of many party intellectuals, the RFE/RL Lithuanian Service reported on 4 March. In an unrelated matter, Lietuvos rytas reported that a group of the more leftist LDLP members have formed an initiative group to create a new party that plans to hold its founding conference in the summer. The group believes that LDLP leaders have been too passive, fearing to anger the party's right wing. -Saulius Girnius [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Louisa Vinton THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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