|Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that happen to a man. - Leon Trotsky|
No. 41, 02 March 1993
RUSSIA KHASBULATOV VS YELTSIN. Russian parliamentary speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov has delayed the debate in the parliament on President Boris Yeltsin's proposal for constitutional agreement, Radio Rossii reported on 26-February. The proposal had been presented to the parliament earlier that week. Radio Rossii quoted the newspaper Kuranty as saying that Khasbulatov wanted to use the parliament to strengthen the position of the prime minister in the Russian political hierarchy and weaken that of the president. The hardline faction "Russian Unity" intends to seek the convention of an extraordinary Congress of People's Deputies on 17-March at which it will demand the resignation of both the speaker and the president. Alexander Rahr YELTSIN'S PROPOSALS TO BE EXAMINED IN COMMITTEES. Meanwhile, the parliament's Presidium has sent Yeltsin's proposal to the parliamentary committees and commissions with an instruction to examine it by 5 March, and send their comments to the Committee for Legislation which will prepare the draft proposal for presentation to the whole parliament, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 March. The Presidium had severely criticized the president's proposal for constitutional agreement, saying that it needed substantial alterations as in its present form it contradicted the decisions of the Seventh Congress of People's Deputies and would destroy the current system of state security. The proposal, drafted as a temporary measure until the promulgation of a new constitution, is intended to ensure the clear division of executive and legislative functions between the parliament, the President, and the government. Wendy Slater ENERGY CONFERENCE IN SURGUT. Heads of government, ministers, specialists, and observers from 13 of the 15 former Soviet republics began a two-day energy cooperation conference near Surgut (western Siberia) on 1 March, Russian and Western agencies reported. Russian Fuel and Energy Minister Yurii Shafranik warned that Russia would have no export surplus of oil by 1995 unless the other states made massive investments in its production facilities and infrastructure. The Russian oil sector needed one trillion rubles' worth of investment in the near future. The conference was expected to appoint a new intergovernmental council to coordinate production, transportation, investment, and pricing. -Keith Bush WARNING STRIKE BY COAL MINERS. Coal miners at many mines throughout Russia held a one-day warning strike on 1 March. Reports differ on how many mines were affected, but ITAR-TASS said that work was disrupted or stopped at half of the mines in the Kuzbass and at almost all mines in the Vorkuta region. Spokesmen from Vorkuta and Kemerevo told an RFE/RL correspondent that an indefinite strike would be declared if the authorities did not meet the miners' demands by 10 March. These demands include the "reestablishment of order in the nation's economy," a program leading to a market economy in the mining sector, the indexing of wages, payment of back wages, and payments for coal already delivered to industrial customers. -Keith Bush DETAILS ON MEETING OF CIS SECURITY CHIEFS. CIS Joint Armed Forces Commander in Chief Evgenii Shaposhnikov told reporters on 1 March that participants in the 27-February meeting of CIS defense chiefs had prepared a number of documents on military issues for consideration at the next CIS summit. According to Russian and Western reports, the most important of these was a draft agreement on implementation of the Treaty on Collective Security which envisaged creating a Council for Collective Security. The Council would include the presidents and prime ministers of the six states which had signed the Treaty, and would be supported by the CIS Councils of Defense and Foreign Ministers, each of which would be represented on the Council for Collective Security. The draft calls for the creation of a secretariat to become the council's working body. Shaposhnikov said that there was nevertheless some disagreement among the six states on the structure of the system, with only Russia and Uzbekistan favoring a proposal that would make a Russian Deputy Defense Minister the CIS commander in chief. -Stephen Foye START-2 TREATY SENT TO COMMITTEES. ITAR-TASS reported on 1 March that the Presidium of the Russian parliament had referred the START-2 treaty to the Defense and Security and Foreign and Economic Relations Committees for discussion. Although a spirited debate had been expected in the Presidium, the report said that the action had been strictly procedural. Following discussion in the committees, the Treaty will be sent on to the full parliament where a simple majority will be required for ratification. -Stephen Foye MANPOWER PROBLEMS IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY. The Russian Defense Ministry official responsible for manpower issues said in Krasnaya zvezda on 18-February that only 20% of the total available draft contingent was actually inducted in the autumn of 1992. The low figure suggests he is taking account of those young men who were granted draft deferments. On 11 February a Russian Deputy Defense Minister Valerii Mironov had told parliament that only 55.8% of the eligible draft contingent was inducted, a figure that presumably excluded those granted deferments. Lt.-Gen. Gennadii Bochayev said that, despite plans to cut the armed forces, the High Command foresees a massive shortfall in draft resources for the army, Interior Ministry Forces, and Border Forces. He added that in 1993 the army would focus on training much-needed technical specialists. The interview was summarized by ITAR-TASS. -Stephen Foye KRYUCHKOV ASKED TO PROVE YAKOVLEV'S INVOLVEMENT WITH CIA. Interviewed on the 28-February TV program "Itogi," Russian Prosecutor-General Valentin Stepankov revealed that former KGB chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov had failed to present any evidence to substantiate his accusation that Aleksandr Yakovlev, known as the ideologist of the Gorbachev reform, has been a spy for the USA for over 30 years. Kryuchkov made the allegation in a two-page excerpt from his memoirs, published in the opposition newspaper, Sovetskaya Rossiya, on 13 February. A few days later 21-conservative opposition politicians requested President Yeltsin to investigate this accusation. In interviews with the liberal media, Yakovlev branded Kryuchkov's memoirs a conservative's "revenge for reforms." Stepankov hinted that he will prosecute Kryuchkov for libel if he fails to prove his accusations. -Julia Wishnevsky TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA OVERWHELMING VOTE FOR AUSHEV. Maj.-Gen. Ruslan Aushev, a 38-year-old medal winning veteran of the war in Afghanistan, was elected the first president of Ingushetia on 28-February by an overwhelming majority, ITAR-TASS reported on 1 March. Of the 142,223 voters who participated in the election 99.99-percent are said to have voted for Aushev, who was the sole candidate. The turnout was 92.66 percent. Outside observers are reported to have found no irregularities. Aushev headed Moscow's temporary administration in Ingushetia but resigned in December in protest at Moscow's handling of the conflict between Ingushetia and North Ossetia. He is still critical of Moscow's policies but has said that Ingushetia will remain part of Russia and sign the Federation Treaty. Ann Sheehy CONGRESS OF DEMOCRATIC FORCES IN KYRGYZSTAN. The First Congress of Democratic Forces was held on 27-28 February in Bishkek, Ostankino TV reported on 27-February. The congress brought together representatives of more than ten democratically-oriented parties and groups who had hoped to form an umbrella organization, but the plan had to be discarded after serious differences over a call by one of the parties for the resignation of the Prime Minister because of the catastrophic state of the country's economy. The congress was opened by President Askar Akaev, who also came in for a share of criticism on the economic issue, with Democratic Kyrgyzstan Movement Chairman Melis Aidarkulov saying that Akaev's governing team has wrecked the country. Another participant complained that the present Supreme Soviet is unfit to adopt a constitution for Kyrgyzstan, because it was elected under the old regime. -Bess Brown KAZAKHSTAN'S CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TO EXAMINE NAZARBAEV'S DECREE. Kazakhstan's Constitutional Court has agreed to examine the legality of President Nursultan Nazarbaev's decree transforming the Alma-Ata Institute for Political Science and Government into an Institute for Management, Economics and Forecasting, ITAR-TASS reported on 1-March. The management institute was handed over to Nazarbaev's economic adviser, US economics professor Chan Young Bang; some of the employees of the institute who came from its original incarnation as the Higher Party School have brought the suit against Nazarbaev's decree and have appealed to the Constitutional Court to rule on the legality of their contracts. The Court has already overturned at least one of Nazarbaev's decrees on the grounds that it was unconstitutional. -Bess Brown OPPOSITION LEADER DETAINED IN UZBEKISTAN. The chairman of Uzbekistan's Erk (Will) Democratic Party, writer and political figure Muhammad Salih, was briefly detained by the police on 27 February and upon his release was told not to leave Tashkent, his brother reported to RFE/RL. Salih was accused of involvement in organizing a popular assembly (Milli Mejlis) that was supposed to function parallel to the communist-dominated Supreme Soviet. The authorities have equated involvement in the Milli Mejlis organizing effort with attempting to overthrow the constitutional order in Uzbekistan, a charge that could result in several years in prison. Erk, Uzbekistan's only legal opposition party, has been harassed by the authorities for several months. -Bess Brown CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE MORE PROBLEMS AT BAIKONUR. A group of soldiers attached to a rocket forces unit at the Baikonur cosmodrome has deserted their unit, the Kazakh newspaper Ekspress K reported on 26 February. According to an ITAR-TASS summary, the soldiers objected to what they considered was an excessive workload, caused primarily by manpower shortages in units working on the launching areas for the "Proton" rocket-booster. Last year there were similar problems with soldiers working in construction battalions at Baikonur. -Stephen Foye CONFUSION OVER SUCCESS OF US AIRDROP TO BOSNIA. International media on 1 and 2 March suggested that little, if any, of the relief aid dropped by US aircraft over eastern Bosnia the previous night reached its intended Muslim recipients in the besieged Cerska enclave. The high altitude of the flights and the military confusion on the ground seem to have led to a least some of the pallets falling into the hands of the Serbs. The BBC quoted American officials as saying that "many" of the parcels had reached the Muslims, while Bosnian sources said that "few" of them had hit their intended targets. Some reports indicated that Cerska was on the verge of falling and that up to 20,000 refugees might take to the roads. Meanwhile, the Washington Post on 2 March quoted Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovic as saying that his government can not accept "even temporarily" that "scenes of the worst ethnic cleansing [remain] under [Serb] control" in a final political settlement. -Patrick Moore MILOSEVIC LASHES OUT. The Turkish daily Hurriyet published an interview on 1 March with Slobodan Milosevic. Serbia's President called Turkey's policy regarding the former Yugoslavia unacceptable because "it interferes in another country's affairs," and he described Ankara's support of Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic as doing "only harm to the Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina." The same issue of the paper carried a rebuttal by Prime Minister Suleiman Demirel, who said that Milosevic has no right to complain about Turkey, the more so since he has been branded a war criminal. Milosevic claims that Izetbegovic told him "perhaps we were mistaken in deciding for Bosnia's secession; had we decided differently there would surely have been no war." He also accused Izetbegovic of "continuing the war and breaching every cease-fire in a naive attempt to provoke foreign military intervention." Milosevic said, however, that he will not back the interests of the Bosnian Serbs at the expense of Muslims. Peace, he said, can only be achieved with the full consent of all sides concerned. Milan Andrejevich ELIE WIESEL SAYS SERBS BETRAYED HIM. The 1-March issue of The Guardian quotes the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize winner as saying that the Serbs gave him "lies, misleading pledges, and broken promises" in connection with his mission to investigate detention camps in Bosnia last year. As part of the "action of deceit," many of the prisoners who spoke to Wiesel were subsequently punished and sent to worse camps, despite Serb leaders' promises to him to the contrary. Wiesel suggests that president Clinton call an international summit in Sarajevo, and that world leaders should then tell their counterparts in the various Yugoslav factions "what Jimmy Carter told Anwar el-Sadat and Menachem Begin at Camp David: that they were not leaving the grounds until an agreement had been reached." Meanwhile, the London Times reported on ethnic cleansing by Croatian forces against Muslims, mainly civilians, in the mountains around Novi Travnik in central Bosnia. -Patrick Moore CLINTON WARNS SERBS ON KOSOVO. President Clinton has written Serbian leaders reaffirming President Bush's 1992 caution against extending ethnic cleansing to Serbia's more than 90% Albanian province, according to the 2 March Washington Post quoting State Department officials. Meanwhile on 27 and 28 February, Die Welt reported that Albanian president Sali Berisha again called for Kosovo to be placed under NATO control as the only safe way to prevent ethnic cleansing coming to the province. He was particularly skeptical about the ability of Europe or the UN to deal with the problem. -Patrick Moore SOARING PRICES IN SERBIA. Belgrade's Studio B TV and Politika report on 27 February that prices on as many as 2,000 items will be increased by 60-100% on 1 March. The preceding week electricity prices rose 145% and the cost of certain items rose 10-fold within 24 hours. The reports state that prices have been temporarily frozen on some staple items. Marijana Rankovic, deputy director of the Federal Statistics Bureau told reporters that inflation "might reach 1,000,000% a year from now if something is not done quickly." Inflation in 1992 reached 25,000%. In February average monthly wages fell to about $50-compared to $500 a year ago, and unemployment is approaching 40%. The grim economic situation is in part the result of UN -imposed sanctions and the costs of financing of Serb forces in Croatia and Bosnia. -Milan Andrejevich FREE TRADE ZONE IN FORCE. In accordance with the document signed on 21 December 1992 in Cracow, the Central European Free Trade Zone Agreement entered into force on 1-March, Eastern and Western agencies report. The agreement calls for mutual tariff reductions in three phases over an eight-year period among the signatories of the "Visegrad Group:" Poland, Hungary, and the Czech and Slovak Republics. In the first phase tariffs will be eliminated on noncontroversial industrial goods. Various countries report different percentages-from 30-60%-of their exports within the zone are now exempt from tariffs. Border checks of goods within the free trade zone are to be phased out by 1997 and all tariffs are to be eliminated by 2001. Die Presse on 1 March calls the agreement an East European parallel to the European Free Trade Association and points out that Hungary's close relationship to Austria (an EFTA member) is especially auspicious, since it will smooth the way for Hungary's association with EFTA as well. The Vienna daily also quotes Polish Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, addressing an academic institute, as supporting the idea of such Eastern European regional groupings as useful bridges between East and West. -Charles Trumbull KNAZKO TO BE DISMISSED. Slovak Foreign Minister Milan Knazko said in an interview with Slovak TV on 1-March that Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar will propose his sacking to President Michal Kovac on 3 March, one day after the president's inauguration. Knazko's announcement was preceded by a session of the Slovak government at which Meciar decided to send Foreign Ministry State Secretary Jan Lisuch instead of the foreign minister on an official visit to Brussels and Geneva. According to Knazko, Meciar said that there is no reason for the foreign minister to travel abroad when he will be fired anyway. Tensions between Meciar and Knazko have increased over the past two months and led to speculation about a split in the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia. At the same time, President-elect Kovac indicated recently that he supports Knazko, and it is possible that he will refuse to dismiss him. Most observers predict, however, that the Slovak president will try to avoid a showdown with Meciar so early in his tenure. -Jan Obrman WALESA NAMES NATIONAL BROADCASTING COUNCIL CHAIRMAN. As Poland's new broadcasting law took effect on 1 March, the Radio and Television Committee, the "hierarchical and multistory" relict of communist propaganda, ceased to exist. President Lech Walesa appointed Marek Markiewicz, a Solidarity caucus member who has played a major role in the reform of Polish broadcasting, to head the new National Broadcasting Council. Markiewicz told PAP that public television should remain independent of politics. The council is to supervise programming, allocate broadcasting frequencies and licenses, and apportion subscription revenues. Walesa's decision to make the appointment seemed overhasty to some observers. A spokesman said it was to be seen as a signal to the Sejm and Senate to lose no time in making their own nominations to the council. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka GOVERNMENT PLENIPOTENTIARY FOR LODZ REGION. On 1 March the Polish government appointed the Lodz voivod Waldemar Bogdanowicz to act as its plenipotentiary for restructuring in the crisis-ridden region. Lodz has one of the highest unemployment rates and greatest poverty factors in the country. A two-day general strike organized by the Solidarity union paralyzed the region at the end of last week. The plenipotentiary, who takes over some prerogatives from the ministers of industry and privatization, warned that improvement will take time. It is unclear whether the appointment will defuse social unrest. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka POLISH-ISRAELI TRADE. Nathan Sharon, secretary of state in Israel's Trade and Industry Ministry, told newsmen in Warsaw on 1 March that his country wishes to extend cooperation with Poland, particularly in the fields of satellite communications, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Polish Trade and Industry Minister Waclaw Niewiarowski told PAP that the Poles are also interested in using Israeli technology in their own defense industry. Both countries have set up chambers of commerce to promote bilateral trade. -Anna Sabbat-Swidlicka HUNGARIAN-ALBANIAN CONSULTATIONS. Albanian Foreign Minister Alfred Serreqi paid an official visit to Hungary at the invitation of his Hungarian counterpart, Geza Jeszenszky, MTI reported on 26 February. The two officials discussed the conflict in the former Yugoslavia and found many similarities between the situation of the Albanian minority in Kosovo and the Magyar minority in Vojvodina. Serreqi called for the dispatch of international forces to Kosovo, and Hungary will seek to acquaint international public opinion with Albania's viewpoint. The two countries agreed to work out a friendship and cooperation treaty as soon as possible and to increase their trade, which dropped from $31-million in 1991 to $15.5-million last year. Following talks on 1 March with Acting State Secretary for International Economic Relations Lajos Berenyi, Serreqi said Albania can use Hungary's experience in transforming its economy and would welcome joint enterprises and investments. -Alfred Reisch ROMANIAN PREMIER PRAISES CABINET'S PROGRAM. In an interview with Radio Bucharest on 1-March, Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu described his government's program as "very ambitious." The program will be presented to Parliament this week. Its top priorities are to halt a steep decline in production and provide conditions for economic recovery. Vacaroiu suggested that revitalization in the economy as well as in social life, culture, education, and the health system "is possible starting with the second half of the year." He singled out two dates in the cabinet's future activity this year. They are 1 May, when a detailed analysis of government subsidies is due, and 1 July, when the value added tax system will be introduced. Vacaroiu's cabinet has often been criticized for failing to present its long-term strategy since it was sworn in on 20-November 1992. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIA, BELARUS INITIAL COOPERATION TREATY. Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu and his Belarus counterpart Petr Krauchenka initialed a treaty of cooperation on 1 March in Minsk. Radio Bucharest said that the decision to conclude a treaty had been taken during President Ion Iliescu's visit to Minsk in July 1992. Among other things, the treaty provides for dropping visa requirements for businessmen and transit visas for tourists. The accord will be formally signed during a visit to Romania by Belarusian President Stanislav Shushkevich. Sources in the Romanian Foreign Ministry depicted the treaty as part of larger plans to boost ties with the former Soviet republics. -Dan Ionescu ROMANIA EXPELS ASYLUM-SEEKERS. On 1 March Romanian authorities expelled 133-asylum-seekers in an apparent attempt to enforce visa laws that had been previously gone largely ignored. The 39 Indians and 94-Sri Lankans were flown to Bombay and Colombo, respectively, aboard a chartered plane. The state paid 56 million lei (some $106,000) for the transport. Romanian TV said that most of those evicted had illegally crossed Romania's eastern frontier from the former Soviet Union. A spokesman for the Interior Ministry depicted the deportation as the "beginning of a larger process," and added that there were some 9,000 illegal aliens in Romania, mainly Sri Lankans, Somalis, Albanians, and Chinese. Romania says it spent 90 million lei in 1992 providing accomodation for asylum-seekers. -Dan Ionescu KOZLODUY SUPPLIES 50% OF BULGARIA'S POWER. As of 1 March the Kozloduy nuclear power station is supplying Bulgarian users with 2,880 megawatts-half of what the country consumes, BTA reports. It is the highest share of total power output that the plant has ever achieved. One of the two 1,000-megawatt reactors-the no. 6 unit-was restarted on 26-February and now operates at 75% of full capacity. Only the no. 1 unit is temporarily closed for reconstruction, while the other five are back on line. Last week Bulgaria's top nuclear safety official told RFE/RL that Kozloduy is in much better condition than two years ago, when a report by the International Atomic Energy Commission called the nuclear station one of the most run-down in Eastern Europe. Referring to comprehensive repair and training programs supported by the West in 1991 and 1992, the official said the days of inadequate safety equipment, unsafe work practices, and sloppy procedures are now "absolutely history." -Kjell Engelbrekt UKRAINE REJECTS RUSSIA'S BID FOR "SPECIAL STATUS." The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has issued a statement rejecting Russia's claim to "special status" on the territory of the former Soviet Union, Radio Ukraine reported on 1 March. In his 28 February address to the Civic Union, President Boris Yeltsin said that the United Nations, among others, should recognize Russia's special status to monitor ethnic conflicts and serve as a peace-keeper throughout the former Soviet Union. The Ukrainian response notes that no one in Ukraine empowered Russia to approach the UN with such a request. It also says that Russia's move to assume the role of a policeman threatens the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Ukrainian state. -Roman Solchanyk MOLDOVAN-RUSSIAN TROOP TALKS BOGGED DOWN. Another round of talks at Foreign Ministry level on the future of Russia's 14th Army in Moldova ended without result on 26-February in Moscow, Moldova's Foreign Ministry announced on 1 March as cited by Basapress. No agreement could be reached on a time-table and mechanism for the withdrawal of the Russian troops from Moldova and no date for the resumption of the talks was set. The Russian side conditions its withdrawal on a Moldovan grant of autonomy to the "Dniester" area, the ministry said. The outcome of this round is in line with that of the Yeltsin-Snegur meeting on 9 February in Moscow, where Yeltsin refused to discuss any time-table and mechanism for the troops' withdrawal until "Dniester" is granted autonomy. -Vladimir Socor ESTONIA RESPONDS TO KOZYREV. In a press release on 1 March the Estonian Foreign Ministry denied Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev's charges of 27 February that the Estonian government supports the aims of a small fringe organization known as the Estonian Decolonization Fund, BNS reports. The Foreign Ministry statement says that while there is no connection between the government and the fund, Estonia is trying to help those who wish to leave, adding that "many people do not wish to be separated from their relatives, and their wish to move is fully understandable." The statement noted that the fund, like all citizens' associations, is bound to follow the constitution, which guarantees human rights to all those living in Estonia, whether or not they are citizens. -Riina Kionka PALDISKI OIL SPILL CONTAINED. A minor oil spill in Paldiski harbor off of Tallinn has been contained, Estonian authorities report. Last weekend an Estonian coast guard ship detected the spill-about 30 by 80-meters wide and 1-2 cm thick-near the Russian Naval base at Paldiski. In an RFE/RL Estonian Service interview on 1 March, Estonian Minister of the Interior Lagle Parek said the spill came from one of several cutters intentionally sunk last year by the Russian Navy in Paldiski. -Riina Kionka WORLD BANK DELEGATION IN VILNIUS. On 1-March a 14-member mission from the World Bank, headed by Baltic Department head Ulrich Zachau, began a two-week visit to Lithuania by meeting President Algirdas Brazauskas, BNS reports. The mission will examine first-hand how the economic reforms are proceeding-in particular how the republic has used the $60 million credit given last year. It will explore the possibilities of granting two additional loans of $60-80 million for Lithuania's industry and energy system. The issue will be discussed more fully by World Bank officials in another visit in late March or early April. -Saulius Girnius LATVIA INTRODUCES ITS OWN CURRENCY. Prime Minister Ivars Godmanis announced on 1 March that the lats will be introduced on 5 March, according to Radio Riga. The changeover will be gradual, starting with the 5-lats notes, valued at 1000 Latvian rubles. During the transition period, the length of which was not indicated, both the Latvian ruble and lats will be considered legal tender, with one lats exchanged for 200 Latvian rubles. -Dzintra Bungs CITIZEN REGISTRATION EXTENDED IN LATVIA. Central Election Commission chairman Atis Kramins says the deadline for registration of Latvia's citizens with the Citizenship and Immigration Department has been extended to 5 June for residents of Latvia and to 1 June for those residing outside Latvia. So far about 12,500 Latvians living abroad have registered. Registration is required for Latvia's citizens wishing to vote in the parliamentary elections scheduled for 5-6 June, Baltic media report. -Dzintra Bungs [As of 1200 CET] Compiled by Wendy Slater and Charles Trumbull THE RFE/RL DAILY REPORT IS PRODUCED BY THE RFE/RL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (A DIVISION OF RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, INC.) with the assistance of the RFE/RL News and Current Affairs Division (NCA). The report is available by electronic mail via LISTSERV (RFERL-L@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU), on the Sovset' computer bulletin board, by fax, and by postal mail. For inquiries about specific news items, subscriptions, or additional copies, please contact: in North America: Mr. Brian Reed, RFE/RL, Inc., 1201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC-20036 Telephone: (202) 457-6912 or -6907; Fax: (202) 457-6992 or 828-8783; Internet: RIDC@RFERL.ORG or Elsewhere: Ms. Helga Hofer, Publications Department, RFE/RL Research Institute, Oettingenstrasse 67, 8000 Munich 22, Germany;.Telephone: (+49 89) 2102-2631 or -2624; Fax: (+49 89) 2102-2648, Internet: PD@RFERL.ORG 1993, RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved.
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